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375. General Bemarks. — Great changes, not only in the 
geographical limits but in the institutions, manners, ideas, 
and religious views, had taken place in almost every State of 
Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, while the 
energies of its most prominent nations were directed to those 
conquests and settlements in the East which we have recorded 
in the preceding chapter. Several states, however, took no 
direct part in that movement. Ireland^ Scotland^ Norway^ 
Sweden^ Poland^ Hungary^ and Russia were almost entirely 
occupied with those internal organizations, domestic feuds, and 
wars with their neighbors, to which allusion has already been 
made; whilst the revolutions among the states of the Spanish 
Peninsula remained without political influence on the nations 
beyond the Pyrenees. Our synopsis of the struggle be- 
tween Islamism and Christianity there, and the triumph of 
the latter, may properly be reserved for the closing chapter. 
In consequence, we shall. In the present, draw the atten- 
tion of this student only to those revolutions which promoted 
the extension of religion, civilization and commerce among 
the leading nations of Europe, as the direct consequences of 
their religious ward and the threatened invasion of the 

The principal events which will occupy us in Europe, while 
the crusades were still continuing with unabated fury in the 
Levant, were the following:—!. The introduction of the 
19* . 


feudal system into the North, and the crusades of the SaOBOit 
dukes and Danish kings on the coast of the Baltic. II. The 
conyersion and conquest of Prussia by the Teutonic order. 
III. The formation and extension of the Grand Duchy of 
lAthuania, IV. The subjugation of Kussia by the Mon- 
gols. Y. The feudal relations and contests between France 
and England^ and the crusades against the Reforming Sec- 
tarians of Southern France. VI. The struggle between the 
German Emperors and the Ijamhard Republics ; and VII. 
The conquest of Naples by the House of Anjou. 

.1. The Kingdom op Denbiabx, 1157-1375. 

376. Limits and Political Condition. — The spirit of 
feudalism, chivalry, and crusading wars moved slowly towards 
the North, where it produced a total change in the political 
£lnd social relations of Denmark toward the middle of the 
twelfth century. The influence of the clergy rose with that 
of the king and nobility, and the old public assemblies — 
Thinge — ^where all the freemen, high and low, used to meet for 
consultation^ became now transformed into diets — Herredage — 
in which only the clergy and the feudal nobility appeared to 
decide the legislative and political questions of the day. From 
an elective kingdom, Denmark in course of time became an 
hereditary monarchy. The king being still too powerless to 
keep standing armies, formed an efficient cavalry, in imitation 
of the Germans, by granting estates to barons and knights for 
feudal service On horseback — Rosstjeneste, The larger pro- 
prietors, desirous of partaking the rank and honors of belted 
knights, began to take their allodial possessions as fiefs of the 
crown, while the smaller landholders sank back into a condition 
of poverty and subjection little differing from the serfdom 
of Germany. But this change was gradually introduced, and 
during the brilliant reign of the first kings of the Walde- 


nuurian dynasty (1157-1227), the naval expeditions and om 
sades of the Danes on the southern coasts of the Baltic still 
sustained the warlike and independent genius of the nation. 
At that time of victory and conquest, the Danish monarchy 
rapidly extended from the frontiers of Sweden to the Lower 
Elbe and the Vistula, embracing the whole of Holsteifi, 
Vendlandj Pomeranian the Prussian coast-lands, Esthland^ 
and the important islands of Rugen and Oesel, The dismem- 
berment of the duchy of Saxony, by f'rederio Barbarossa, 
and the subsequent struggle between the Welfs and the Ho- 
henstaufens in Germany, facilitated these invasions; yet a 
small nation, like the Danes, could not permanently support 
these vast and distant expeditions, from which they received 
no material benefit, since they were not able to engraft their 
nationality on the Sclavonian tribes in the same manner as the 
Germans did — ^by civilization and numerous colonies. The 
treacherous capture of King Waldemar II., at Lyoe, in 1223, 
and the defeats of the Danes at Molln and Bornhoved, soon 
turned the political scale, and the downfall of Denmark was 
then more rapid than her rise. 

377. Danish Conquests on the Elbe and the Baltic. 

I. The County of Nordalbingia or Holstein, reached 
from the Eider, on the border of the duchy of South Jutland 
(Schleswig), to the Elbe, and included the free imperial cities 
of Lubeck and Hamburg. The county was then divided into 
I. Vagb.l^, on the Baltic, inhabited by the Sclavonian tribes 
of the Obotrites and Vagrians, who had been subdued by Knud 
Lavard, the first duke of Schleswig (294). II. StorM^ria, 
south of Vagria, on the Elbe; and III. Thetmarsia — 
Ditmarsken — tiie low marshy coast-lands on the west, whose 
inhabitants, the hardy and brave Ditmarskers, founded a small 
republic under the protection of the archiepiscopal see of 
Bremen. Holstein had belonged to the old duchy of Saxony, 
and was erected into a county by the emperor LotlAire II. wb 
gave it to the Counts of Schauenburg on the Weser, a fami 


alike distingaished by the great statedmen and warrioi^fl who 
descended from it. Yet the Danish anns prevailed and 
Holstein remained during thirty years united with the king^ 
dom. — Hamburg^ on the Elbe (174), and Lubeck (226) on the 
Trave, were already commercial cities of great activity. The 
latter was occupied by Henry the Lion as a stronghold against 
the Sclavonians; but it had a greater destiny to fulfil than that 
of becoming a Danish fortress. Its much-lauded constitution, 
or Law of Ldbeck — Lubsche Reckt — ^was adopted by a number 
of Low German cities ; and it was after having expelled the 
Danish bailiff and garrison by a stratagem, in 1225, that 
Labeck founded the celebrated Confederacy of the Hanse 
towns in 1241.*" — Reinholdsburg (Bendsborg) castle on an 
island in the Eider, where Waldemar the Victorious built a 
bridge to facilitate and secure the march of his armies into 
Germany. — Chiliana, Kyi (now Kiel), situated on a beau- 
tiful bay of the eastern coast, was the most ancient city in 
Holstein, and became, later, a member of the Hanseatic 
League. Segeberg, with a castle on a high chalk-rock, 
was one of the strongest positions of the Danes in Holstein, 
and the fortress served them as a state prison for their 
unruly feudatories. Bornhovedj a small borough on the out- 
skirts of the Kamp or dreary heath-covered plain eight miles 
north of Segeberg, was the battle-field on which the fate of 
Denmark was decided on July 22, 1227. Hamburg and 
Lubeck, the Counts of Holstein and Schwerin, prelates and 
feudatories, were here marshalled under the German banner 
against King Waldemar the Victorious. After a stoutly con- 
tested field, when victory again seemed to favor the Danish 

"• An old chronicler says about Liibecli:, thai Denmark earesied 
the hen which laid it a golden egg mthout foreboding th^t a hatilink 
would be hatched from t/."— The name of Jfetnee — am /Sfe*— eignifying 
commercial alliance among maritime toirns, is older than the league. 
It appears in ^vileges granted by John Lackland of England to the 
Hamburgers in the twelfth century. 


«rm8y their rear-guard, coBsiating of Ditmarakers, turned 
treacheroufllj upon them, and they were defeated with fearful 
alau^ter. Four thousand Danes covered the plain ; the old 
King Waldemar, thrown down with his steed, and badly 
wounded, was saved by an unknown German knight, who 
earned him safely to Kiel. From that day the downfall 
of Denmark followed with fearful rapidity. 

II. The Duchy of Pomerania comprehended all the fer- 
tile lands on the Jiower Elbe, eastward to the Vistula, with the 
counties of Ratzeburgy LaKendurg, on the Elbe, Schtoerin^ 
Miklinlnirg (Mecklenburg), the principalities of RUgen, 
Werk, and the lordships of Rostock and Parchim. The strong 
Castle (f Sckioerin, on the lake, was the residence of the Counts. 
There Count Henry, after the surprise and capture of King Wal« 
demar II. at Lyoe,^kept his liege-lord in the most dismal trien-* 
nial prison, 1293^1226, in spite of all the exhortations of em^ 
peror and pope to procure his release. At Md/k, west of the 
former, Count Albert of Orlamdnde, at the head of the Danish 
feudal army, was totally defeated by the Count of Holstein, 
and carried a prisoner to his unhappy king in the dtmgeon of 
Schwerin. Jomsdorg, on the coast of Wollin, at the mouth of 
tlie Oder, the oelebrated stronghold of the Joms-vikinger 
(295), was reduced and dismantled by King Waldemar I. in 
the year 1170. The principality of the beautiful island of 
Bugen, with its numerous creeks and bays, de^ narrow gulfs, 
high picturesque mountains, boldly projecting promontories, 
and forest-clad valleys, became an important and permanent 
oonquest of the Danish arms. Waldemar I. stormed Arconay 
and destroyed the monstrous idol of Swantevii Chinches and 
schools were built, and the Bishop of Bdgen was made suffra- 
gan of Boeskilde, in Sealand. AU the Vendio coast-hmds 
soon made a remarkable progress toward eiviliaation by the 
introduction of Christianity, and the lliousands of G«rma& 
colonists, who, by Heniy the Lion, were settled on the fertile 
plains of Pomerania. The German nationality gradually got 


itte apper liand ; the Slavio tribes became Gkmumized, a&cU 
after a century and a half, disappear^ed altogeth^. Yet, though 
the Danes made frequent descents on the Prussian coast, to the 
east of the Vistula, and took a firm footing in Courland and 
Liyonia, they did not penetrate into the interior, but left the 
c<HiYersion of ihe fierce Prusfdaq^ to the sword and the cross 
of the celebrated military order of the Teutonic knights (339), 
who, after their departure from the coast of Syria, in 1229, 
made their appearance on the Vistula, where they continued the 
great work of conversion during the greater part of the thir- 
teenth century. 

III. The province of Esthonia (Esthland) extended along 
the Finnic gulf — Kyriaia-Bottn — eastward to the Lake of 
Peipus, and was divided into the districts of Harrien^ Rotala^ 
'Virland, Jerven, Nurmegundy and Ungannia, with the 
islands of Oesd and Dagoe, The Esthonians belonged to the 
Finnic or Chudish race. They were strong and active, 
cheerful and patient ; and they fou^t for their heathen god, 
Tharapilla, and their independence, witii undaunted bravery. 
Eling Waldemar II. first occupied the, islands in 1210, and 
carried the banner of the cross to the coast of Keval, in 1219. 
Merchants and priests from Bremen, had already begun to 
settle at UxkuUj on the river Duna, where they attempted to 
convert the savage Livonians, and built the strongly-fortified 
city of Riga in 1 168.. But they found ^eat opposition. Mein- 
bard, the first bishop of Livonia, therefore gathered a body of 
German knights — die Schwertritter — ^who extended the Chris* 
tian religion by their conquests, when King Waldemar II., 
with a fleet of 1400 vessels, in 1219, landed on the coast of 
Harrien, in Esthonia, and built the castles of Revcil and 
Narva. In the neighborhood of Keval, at Lt/ndinissa, ihe 
Banish camp was surprised, on a dark night, July 15, 1219, by 
myriads of furious heathens, who penetrated, with fearful 
slaughter, to the royal tent. Overwhelmed by numbers, the 
Banes began to retreat; but the courage of King Waldemar 
soon restored the battle, which terminated with the defeat and' 


snbjeetion of the Esthonians.^'^ Revaly the capital, became a 
flourishing city, and a member of the Hanseatic League. 
Habsal derived its name from the great Absalon, the Arch- 
bishop of Lund, who erected there the first cathedral, in the 
diocese of Oesel, the ruins of which are still seen. At War- 
bola, in Harrien, massive granite walls of one of the ancient 
castles, in which the Esthonians defended themselves against 
the Danes and the Teutonic knights, still remain. Esthland 
was an important acquisition. Its ecclesiastical province 
ranged under the see of Lund; but during the civil wars in 
Denmark, which followed on this glorious period, the country, 
in 1346, was mortgaged to the Teutonic Order, and lost for 

378. Of all the acquisitions south of the Eider, only the island 
of RiigeUj the cities of Stralsundy TVibsees, Bartk, Gnoyett, 
SuUzy and MarloWy in Vendland, remained in the possession 
of the Danish crown. Waldemar II., though now old and van- 
quished, was an active prince; he turned his attention to 
Ihe internal organization of his realm, and caused a general 
survey of the kingdom to be taken, not unlike the Doomsday 
Book of William the Conqueror, and containing a complete 
account of the royal domains and feudal revenues of the 
crown. This curious statistical document — lAhrvmi census 
Dania — throws much light on the internal economy of Den- 
mark during the thirteenth century. The whole kingdom was 
divided into small maritime districts, called Styreskavne^ 
which furnished each one or more vessels, and a certain pro- 
portion of men for the defence of the coasts, and the equipment 

"■It was at the battle of Lyndiniasa fWolmar), the legend tells 
us, that a red banner with a white crosSy the Danehroge, dropped dowD 
from the sky to eneoarage the retreaiting Danes. The fact seems to be» 
that the Pope, Innocent III., had sent King Waldemar a consecrated 
banner to be used in the holy wai\ The Order of the Knights of the 
Danebrog was instituted after the conquest of Esthonia; but the 
sacred standard was lost three centuries later, at the defeat of the 
Danes in Ditmarsken, in a. d. 1600. 

t • • • 


of expeditions against the Yen^ish pirates or other publio 
enemies. North Jutland thus furnished 450 ships. Schlesung 
supplied an equal number ; I^en and the smaller adjacent 
islands, Laaland and Langelandy were rated at 100 sail ; 
SealuTidy Mden, Falster, and Rugen, under the see of Boes- 
kilde, contributed 120 manned vessels; and Skaane, Hal- 
landy and Blekinge^ subject to the Archbishop of Lund, sent 
150 ships. This excellent institution went to decay during 
the civil wars between kings, clergy, and nobility, which en- 
sued, and the coasts were again at the mercy of the pirates, 
or the still more dangerous encroachments of the powerful 
league of the Hanse towns. " For at the death of Walde- 
mar Seier (Victory)," says the Chronicle of King Eric, " per- 
ished Denmark's crown of glory. From that time, wasted by 
intestine wars and mutual dissensions, she became the scorn 
of surrounding nations. Her sons not only lost the lands 
their forefathers had nobly won with sword and lance, but iu- 
flicted deadly wounds upon their poor, distracted country, 
miserably embroiled in the quarrels of six contending 
princes." The duchy of Schleswig became now the subject 
of contest between the royal brothers Eric and Abel, the 
sons of King Waldemar II. Abel, Duke of Schleswig, cap- 
tured his brother in Schleswig, during a visit, and ordered 
him to be beheaded on a boat in the River Schley, and the 
body sunk. The treacherous Abel fell in battle against the 
free fishermen of the western coast, the Strand-Frisons, in 
1252, and thus one scene of violence followed another, until the 
reign of the weak King Christopher II., when Denmark became 
divided among foreign feudatories ; Count Geert (Gerhard), of 
Holstein, obtained Schleswig as a Danish fief, and all Jutland 
as a mortgage, while Count John of Itzehoe, occupied the isl- 
ands, and Sweden claimed the provinces on her frontiers* 
Gerhard, the Great Holsteiner, marched a German army into 
Jutland, in 1340, with the intention of forming a German mo- 
narchy on the ruins of Denmark, but he fell beneath the 
sword of a Jutish nobleman, Sir Niels Ebbeson of Norreriis. 


This event^ 80 celebrated in the Panish annals, took place at 
Banders, where Sir Niels, with siztj-fiTe trusty followers, 
daring night, entering the castle, slew the hated tyrant, and, 
escaping in full gallop through the midst of the Germans, 
called the Jutes to arms. They flocked to the banner of their 
deliverer, and, though he fell in the battle of Skanderborg, 
against Iron-Henry, the son of Count Geert, the Danes suc- 
ceeded in driving the invaders out of the country. The ex- 
iled Prince Waldemar, then returning to his native country, 
ascended the throne of his forefathers, which, after a glorious 
reign of forty years, — 1334-1375, — ^he left strengthened, and 
consolidated to his great daughter. Queen Margaret, the Semi- 
ramis of the North. 


AND Livonia. 

379. LiMFTS and Tribes. — ^Ancient Prussia extended 
from the frontiers of Pomerania, west of the Vistula, east- 
ward to the Niemen; and bordered south on the kingdom 
of Poland and the Upper Vistula. The soil of Western 
Prussia is sandy ; heaths are succeeded by marshes, and the 
coast on the Baltic is terminated by downs which, on the 
outskirts of immense pine forests,, unite with those in Pome* * 
rania. But the country between the Vistula and Memel„ 
on the east, is more fertile — ^it is wood-dad, or studded witl\ 
lakes ; the highest hill is only 5Q6 feet above the level of 
the Baltic. Very remarkable are the large estuaries, the 
^isic Haf, and the Curie Haf, which by narrow strips of 
land are separated from the Baltic, with which they, however, 
stand in communication by shallow straits. That low and 
dreary region is inhabited by fishermen, who still call them- 
selves Cures, The climate is tempestuoua, and the frail cot- 
tages of this suffering race are often buried under heaps of 
sand. The ancient Barussi, Prttczi, or Prussians (91, 227), 
were of the Lsttic tribe, fierce, warlike, but hospitable and 


honest ; they were clad in furs and coarse linen garments ; horse 
fiesh and mare^s milk were their food ; they loved strong 
liquors, and fought with javelins and lances. In their sacred 
groves they worshipped the sun, the moon, and the stars, with 
horrible rites ; their priests were all-powerful, and their wo- 
men, serfs, arms, and horses, were generally burned on the saine 
pile with the deceased chief. None of the Chudish or Lettic 
tribes made so obstinate a resistance against the Christian in- 
vaders as the Prussians. Supported by the Livonians, they 
defeated the Knights Sword Bearers in 1224, and destroyed mo- 
nasteries and monks ; they invaded Poland, and Duke Conrad 
of Mazovia then invited the Order of the Teutonic knights to 
occupy the frontier province of Culm, on the Vistula, against 
the heathens. The active Grand Master Herman von Salza sent 
Herman von Balk, with a division of one hundred knights and 
squires, to Poland, where these military monks commenced the 
subjugation of Prussia with a degree of courage that was only 
equalled by their cruelty. They fortified Culm ; built Thorn 
in 1230, and after the most ruthless war and wonderful vicissi- 
tudes of victory and defeat, the military genius of their leaders, 
during fifty-three years, — 1228-128 1, — completed this astonish- 
ing conquest of a few thousand knights over the entire Prus- 
sian nation, that for four centuries had resisted the arms of 
'Poland. In 1238, the Teutonic Order united with the 
Sword Knights of Livonia, and in 1309, the Grand Master 
Siegfried von Feuchtwangen transferred the seat of the order 
from Venice to JMarienburgh, on the Nogat. Strong castles 
were built in'*fevery subdued district, and the poor vanquished 
barbarians were compelled to furnish the workmen. Churches, 
monasteries, and schools were likewise erected, and the Ger- 
man language was introduced; thousands of heathens were 
converted ; while others fled £br protection into Lithuania. The 
Prussian chiefs were admitted to the order of nobility, while 
the people exchanged their state of licentious freedom for 
the most rigid serfdom. Numerous German colonies were set- 
tled by the order ; they built flourishing towns, to which al- 


most republican prml^es were granted. Tlras were grada<- 
ally formed the three orders of the provincial states, of 
which ihe diets, were composed, the soyereigntj remaining in 
the hqjids of the Teutonic Knights. 

380. Division of the Terrixoeies, Constitution, and 
Government. — A. Prussia consisted of I. Pomerdlen^ or 
Western Prussia, between the left bank of the Vistula, the 
sea and the frontiers of Fomerania ; II. Culm on the south ; 
III. Fomesania, on the right bank of the river ; IV, Foge^ 
sania; V. Galindia ; VI. Ermdand; VII. Natangen; VIII. 
Samland ; IX. Nadraiien ; X. Schalauen ; XI. Bartia^ and 
XII. Sudauen — ^all the latter in Eastern Prussia. B. Sza* 
maitia, on the east, was conquered from the Lithuanians, after a 
bloody war, in 1382. C. Courland, a fertile and beautiful 
country, nortlieast on the Baltic. . D. Livqnia, in the interior, 
with I. SemgaHia^ II. the archiepiscopal see of Riga, ex- 
tending far into the interior with the sufiragan bishoprics of 
Dorpatj Oesel, Revcdy and Courland ; IIL the territory of 
the Knights Sword Bearers — Schtvert-ritter — ^in Central Livo- 
nia. After the union of this order with that of the Teutonic 
^nights, A. D. 1236, the province of Livonia was governed by 
their own general — ^erweis^cr— who ranged under the Grand 
Master of the United Order in Marienburg. 

E. EsTHONiA (Esthland), the old Danish conquest, (376) 
sold by King Waldemar IV. to the order in 1346. Dagoe 
was likewise ceded to the knights, but the larger island of 
Oesel remained with Denmark. 

F. The island of GoTHiiAND, on the eastern coast of 
Sweden, with the commercial city of Wisby, which the order 
obtained in 1398 from the light-headed Albrecht of Mecklen- 
burg after his defeat and imprisonment by Queen Margaret 

G. The Neubiark, a part of Brandenburg, east of the 
Oder, mortgaged to the order by the penniless emperor Si- 
gismond in 1402. 

381. All these territories were dividei^ into thirty Com- 

452 SliVSNTH PSaiOD. — peussia. 

manderies — ConUhure^-^Beveril of whieli were so large tliai 
they again became subdivided into Conyents of KnJghta. 

The permanent settlemmit of the whole order kl Prussia 
by the Grand Master Siegfiried von FeuehtwaKgen — tl312 — 
imparted vigor and consistency to this singular religious and 
military society. The general chapter of the order possessed 
the highest legislative power. The Grand Commanders, — 
CrTosscomthure^ — ^the Priors and other officials ranged imme- 
diately under the Grand Master. The commanders held the 
sway in .the principal castles of the commanderies. The 
Knights of the Order formed the first state, the native landed 
nobility the second, and the citizens — BUrger-^of the^ towns 
the third. The German colonists, who during the fourteenth 
century flocked to Prussia, Poland and Hungary in the same 
manner as in the present nineteenth to America and Australia, 
introduced their agriculture and industry; the Prussians 
themselves were a cattle-breeding people; peace and pros- 
perity prevailed for long periods throughout the land; and, 
under the severe and vigorous administration of able grand 
masters, it soon presented the appearance of a beautiful garden 
interspersed with hamlets, castles and the delightful coun- 
try-seats of the knights. Prussia alone numbered, about 
A. D. 1400 (ten years before the &tal defeat of the order at 
Tannenberg), four bishops, four great commanders, twenty- 
eight commanders, forty-six priors — Hauscomtkur^—ihiTtj' 
eight convents of knights ; a vast host of subordinate officials, 
canons and priests, thr^e thousand one hundred and sixty-two 
knights — DetUschritter — and six thousand two hundred squires, 
sergeants— armt^eri — flight horsemen and valets. The number 
of fortified cities was fiffcy-five, of castles fotty-eight, of 
boroughs and hamlets eighteen thottsand three hundred and 
sixty-eight. The regular and permanent revenues from the 
province were eight hundred thousand Rhenish guilders, with 
out counting the more irregular receipts from the fisheries, tb 
regalia of the amber, the custom-duties and the perquisites 8 


fees of tiie tribunals. The fiourishing commeroial cities were 
moeitly situated on the Baltic anid the hanks of the Vistula. 

882. diTifis AND Castles. — Gdansk — Danzig, an old Dan- 
ish colony at the mouth of the river, surrounded hy immense 
fortifications that hare supported many a siege, was enlarged 
and strengthened by the knights, who granted its industrious 
inhabitants important privileges and immunities. But be- 
coming wealthy and posses^ng the exclusive navigation of 
the Vistula and the maritime commerce of Poland, the 
Danzigers would not submit tamely to the exactions of the 
haughty order; they revolted in 1454 and put themselves 
under the protection of the King of Poland. Marienburg, 
on the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, was the capital and 
seat of the order from 1309 to 1466. The magnificent 
ruins of the Palace — das Deutsche JSaus — with its porticoes, 
halls, chapels, armories and refectory, in the noblest style of 
the Qothic architecture of the age, remains in its ruins as 
a monument of the wealth and luxury of the order. Other 
fortified cities were Elbing^ Thwn^ Culm^ Marimwerder^ 
Konigsherg^ built in 1255, and Memel, which being in pos- 
session of the herring fisheries on the Finnic Gulf, became 
rich and populous, and, like Danzig, important members of the 
Hanseatic League. Cities in Livonia and Esthonia were 
LiebaUy Pitteny Reval, Da)'paZ\ Narva^ and Riga on the Diina, 
the archiepiscopal see of the Frovincia Rigensis. 

dd3. Such was the organization of the mighty State of 
the Warrior-Monks of Saint Mary at the time (1309) when 
their unhappy brethren, the Knights Templars were groaning 
in the dungeons or expiring on the piles as heretics and 
sons of Belial — and the Hospitallers, still residing in the 
East, fought the battles of Christ against Mamlukes and 
Turks. Yet the quiet prosperity of the Teutonic Order be- 
came soon the chief cause of the pride, depravity and liceu" 
tiousness of its members ] indeed, the same vices characte*-'-- 

454 SEVENTH PE&IOD«— F&17S8U. 

all societies of the same sort, composed only of the nobles 
of every nation, for the most part united by religious fanati- 
cism or love of war and dominion. The order became insolent 
and corrupt — in the beginning the disorders were, of course, 
covered with the broad cloak of hypocrisy. The knights 
revelled and caroused within their castles, and made a show 
of their demure priestly mien and piety without,- — and there 
remained of the pilgrim and the monk nothing but the cross 
and cowl. They forgot their vows — and| retired on their 
beautiful estates, they began to dream of domestic happiness^ 
they contracted secret alliances of the heart, which gave rise 
to scandal against the order and undermined its influence. 
This Ibrgetfulness of duty created accusations and feuds with- 
in the order itself; then quarrels with the secular pirelates 
in the cities, and complaints of the young turbulent republics, 
who chafed and fretted beneath the iron rod of the military 
priesthood. The tyranny of the grand masters became so 
insupportable that both the native Prussians and German 
colonists chose rather to submit to the government of the 
frank and generous Poles. This warlike nation had in 138^ 
formed a political union with the Lithuanians by the mar- 
riage of their princess Hedevig with the Lithuanian Grand 
Duke, Jagellon. And when the order, foreseeing the storm, 
broke the peace in 1414, it was totally defeated in the terrible 
battle near Tannenberg (Grflnwald) in southern Prussia, 
where the Grand Master Ulrioh of Jungingen perished with 
the greater part of the knights and thirty thousand of their 
vassals and mercenaries."^ From that day began the rapid 

^^ The luxury and extrayagance of tiie knights prepared their 
ruia The Grand Master Wallenrode had assembled a large army ^n 
the banks of the Niemen in 1394 for the conquest of Lithuania. There he 
invited the knights to a magnificent enteitainment Waiting-brothers 
held canopies of cloth of gold above every knight at the table ; thirty 
courses of the choicest dainties -were served in dishes of gold and 
silver; all the goblets were likewise of gold, and each guest was per- 
mitted to earry away his cup and plate after the feast This glittering 
army waa totally routed by the Lithuaoians, and forced in a few 


decline of the DetUschritters. Jagellon with hifl yictorions 
Poles advanced toward the sea-shore; one province after 
the other surrendered ; Marienburg, the impregnable capital, 
fell ; Danzig, £lbing, and Thorn, broke their chains in 1440 ; 
western Prussia revolted in 1454, and placed itself under the 
protection of king Casimir lY., and when peace was concluded 
in 1466 all western Prussia became incorporated into Poland, 
and the Teutonic Order, deprived of their finest provinces 
and their wealth, became themselves vassals of the Polish 

III. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 

384. Origin, Development and Conquests op the Lithu- 
anians. — On the downfall of the Kussian power by the inva- 
sion of the Mongols in the first half of the thirteenth century 
the Lithuanian tribes between the Niemen and the Duna 
at once entered upon the world's battle-field as a conquering 
nation. Their history is very remarkable, and presents a most 
extraordinary instance of a nation which, after having remained 
for centuries in a state of utter insignificance {226, 305), at- 
tained by its conquests and wise policy, in a comparatively 
short time (1235-1386), a station which rendered it for about 
a century the most formidable power in the north, while Bus- 
sia herself was at the mercy of her Tartar oppressors. The 
home of this Slavic nation was the flat and marshy territory 
between the WUja and the Suneta, tributaries of the Niemen, 
where they had recognized the supremacy of the Kussian grand 
dukes, and paid a tribute answering to the rudeness and 
poverty of the people. But their chiefs soon took advantage 

montlia afterwards to cross the Niemen, like that of Napoleon in 1812, 
in the most deplorable condition ; while an epidemic disease soon cut 
off all those who had escaped the lance of the enemy. See, for the 
complete history of the Teutonic Order in Prussia, the excellent works 
of John Voigt. Getchiehte Pteuisem, Konigsberg, 1828, Vol L-IV 
Qeschichte derStadt Marienburg, Konigsberg, 1824. 

456 sfiVBNTU PEitioD.-— 'Dt^clrr of lithitania. 

of the internal dissensions among the Russian princes (302) , 
they extended their conquests — 1082-1221 — to Novogrodek 
Polotzkj and Severia (305), and assisted their neighbors, the 
Livonians and Prussians, in repelling the Knightis Sword 
Bearers, the warrior-monks, who were conyerting them to 
Christianity with the broadsword. Yet Lithuania was still Cut 
up into many small principalities, until the brave Kyngold, 
having united under his dominion all the conquered terri- 
tories, assumed the title of Grand Duke cf Lithuania in a. d. 
1235. His son Mindag, under the pretence of becoming a 
Christian, received from Pope Innocent IV. the royal diadem, 
and was crowned at Novogrodek, the capital of Lithuania (now 
a small village south of the Niemen), by the Archbishop of 
Riga."* A new dynasty of Lithuanian grand dukes ascended the 
throne a. d. 1283, with Witenes, whose descendants, all talented 
princes, ruled with eminent success until the union of Lithuania 
with Poland, under Jagellon, in 1386."* Ghedymin, the son of 
Witenes, was a great prince. He made extensive conquests in 
southwestern Russia, and consolidated his power by insuring 
perfect protection to the religion, language and property of the 
Christian inhabitants of the conquered lands, though himself 

'^*Th6 Lithnaniaiui were obstinate Pagans; they abhorred the 
priest-knights and their bloody baptism, and woe to the sword^monks 
who fell into their hands 1 They remained idolaters till the end of the 
fourteenth century. Their chief deity was PerhmaSf the god of thun- 
der, besides some other divinities presiding over seasons, elements, and 
particular occupations. They possessed sacred groves and fountains, 
and worshipped the fire and sacred serpents. The Lithuanian language 
WAS divided into two principal dialects, the Lithuanian Proper and the 
Lettian or Livonian. The former was the old Prussian language, which 
the Knights of the Teutonic Order tried all means to extirpate, though 
it was still spoken in the time of the Reformation. It is said to bear a 
stronger resemblance to the Sanscrit of India than any other known 

"• TFt<e»e«, Grand Duke or King of Lithuania, 1288-1816; Ghedymin, 
1815-1341; Olgerd, 1 341-1 S^t ; Jagellon, 18^7-1484. He marrics\fftf. 
devig, of Poland, 1886, unites the two crowns, and defeats the Order 
of the Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg, 1410. 


a worshipper of Perkunas, and his sacred snakes I His mild 
sway was preferred to that of the Mongols, whom he defeated ; 
and the Greek Russians and Latin Kussinians alike blessed his 
reign. Ghedymin built WUna, which then became the capi- 
tal, and fell in battle against the Teutonic knights in 1328. 
His son Olgerd extended his conquests to the Black Sea, sub- 
dued the Tartars of the Crimea, and presented himself thrice 
in triumph before the gates of Moscow in 1368, 1370 and 73. 
With the reign of his son, Jagellon, begins a new period in the 
history of Lithuania. At the time of the union with Poland, 
the grand duchy consisted of the following principalities : I. 
WiLNo (Wilna), on the Wilja, with the new capital of that 
name ; II. Polotcz, and III. Pskow, formerly independent 
States; IV. Witepsk; V. Drueoz; VL Mscislaw; VIL 
Severja, with the large city Novogorod-Seversky^ on the 
Pesma ; VIII. Kiew (Kijof), with the celebrated city of that 
name on the Dnieper, then much sunk from its former splen- 
dor (302) by the devastations in the wars of the Mongols ; 
IX. Braclait, southeast of Kiew ; X. Podolia, or Camje- 
NiEc, on the frontier of the independent duchy of Halitch 
(303); XI. Wlodomirez, on the Bug; XII. Wolhynia, or 
Luck; XIIL Czernigow (303.); XIV. Turow ; XV. 
Pinsk; XVL Sluok; XVIL Minsk; XVIII. Novooro- 
DEK ; XIX. Grodno (Troki); XX. Berzesk, and XXI. Sam- 
OGrriA, in the north, the contested territory on the borders of 
Prussia and Livonia, exposed to the continual forays of the 
Teutonic knights and the swarms of crusading adventurers from 
Germany who fought under their banners. These provinces 
appear later under the more familiar names of Blacky White, 
and Red Russia (303), Samogitta, Volhynia, Podolia, Pod- 
lesia, and Ukraine. Lithuania is generally a flat and low coun- 
try, the northwestern part (Samogitia) is very fertile, and so are 
the banks of the Niemen, which, moreover, present a beaut* 
scenery. But the greater part of the interior is covered ^ 
sand, marshes and fens, of terrible memory, from the campa 
of Charles XII. in 1709, and of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1! 


The principal rivers are the Niemen, Dnieper, Berezina, Wilja^ 
Bug, and many smaller tributaries. 

lY. Empire of the Mongols. 

385. Extent op their CoNQUEsrs. — ^At Karakorum, 
on the southern slope of Mount Altai, in Mongolistan, arose, 
in A. D. 1216, the wild and gigantic conqueror Dshingis-Chan 
(Chimkhis-Chan), who, within eleven years, carried tiie arms 
of the Mongols from the frontiers of China, over the 
ruins of numberless cities and nations, westward through 
Tangut, Tshagatai (Tibet), and Iran (Persia), to the foot of 
Mount Caucasus, and the shores of the Mediterranean. Not 
a spark of noble fire was perceptible in the deeds of the 
savage and brutal Mongols, the descendants of the ancient 
Huns (89); desolation, bloodshed, and sensuality were their 
>nly delight; whole nations they swept from the face of 
the earth by their mere passage ; Samarkand^ Bokhara^ 
Otrarj Btdkhj Nichapur^ the Mohammedan seats of com- 
merce, literature and art, were destroyed. Djelah-ed-Din, the 
brave Ehowaresmian Prince attempted resistance, but being 
overwhelmed, was forced to flee westward (276). Thus the 
torrent came on. Batu-Chan, the nephew of Dshingis-Chan, 
after the defeat of the Russian princes on the river Kalka in 
1224 (304), overrun that unh&ppy country as far as the 
sources of the Volga and the Dnieper. Kiew^ Resan^ MoscoUj 
Smolensky and many other flourishing cities, were laid in 
ashes, the Eussians enslaved, and the Mongol Chanate of the 
Golden Horde, of Kaptchakj founded by Batu-Chan in 1230. 
This empire extended westward to Lublin and Crakau on the 
upper Vistula, in Poland, along the Carpathian range to the 
Black Sea and the Crimea, and eastward across Mount Oural, 
along the Caspian and Aral Seas, toward the Siberian lakes and 
Mount Muztag, on the borders of Tshagatai'. The citizens of 
Novgorod beheld, trembling, the approach of the ruthless 
hordes towards the b^nks of the Twertzi^ ; but on a sudden the 


Tartars wheeled westward, crossed the Vistula and the Oder, 
and vanquished the Poles and the Knights of the Teutonio 
Order, at Liegnitz, in Silesia, in 1241.. Batu-Chan, aftei> 
desolating Hungary with fire and sword, and defeating the 
Hungarians on the plain of Mohi, returned victorious, and 
gorged with spoils, to organize his conquests in Eussia. 

Novgorod was saved; she became the asylum of prince 
and serf ; she joined the great Hanseatic Confederacy of the 
Baltic cities, and was soon placed in so excellent a state of de- 
fence that she alone remained flourishing, while the rest of 
Russia smarted under the iron rod of the Tartar for more than 
two centuries — ^from 1224-1487. While these barbarians occu- 
pied all the forest-lands toward Mount Oural, and fortified them 
selves permanently in Kasan, the Poles and Lithuanians in- 
vaded and conquered Smolensk and the southwestern provin- 
ces. Batu-Chan was alike great as a statesman and as an enter- 
prising conqueror. But neither the Mongols nor their faithful 
companions, the steeds of the steppe, could enjoy or live in the 
cold and dreary regions of Moscou, on the Upper Volga. The 
Chan therefore retired, with all his army, to the smiling banks 
of the Caspian Sea and the Yaik ; there he built his immense 
camp-town of Sarai ; and his Grolden Tent gave the name to 
the ruling Horde of the Eaptchak. The trade on the Caspian 
was restored, and the Mongols even. became a' commercial 
people. Baiu-Chan. left the Eussian serfs their shadows of 
tributary princes, and the cunning Tartar fomented their petty 
jealousies and internal feuds : he ordered them down to the 
golden tent of SaraX, where he sat to decide their suits as a 
sovereign judge, and to punish every attempt at insurrection 
with the string or the scimitar. 

i60 sEVsirm period. — ^kingdom of prance. 

V. The EmoDOM or France under Philip Avgubt 
AND Philip-le-Bel. 1180-1310. 

386. Its Feudal Relations to England. — The conquest 
of England by Duke William of Normandy in 1066 became 
the origin of the protracted struggle between France and 
England, which for nearly three centuries formed the turning 
point of the most important political and geographical changes 
in those states during the middle ages ; yet the rivalry between 
the French liege-lord and the Norman yassal did not reach 
the height of its violence until the middle of the twelfth cen- 
tury during the reigns of Louis YII. and Henry II. of Plan- 
tagenet, and of Richard Coeur-de-Lion and Philip August, 
when the English heroes in iq>ite of all their valor were 
defeated by the cunning politics of the French statesmen. The 
catastrophe in this earlier part of the contest for supremacy, 
took place in 1200, the epoch of the humiliation of John 
Sansterre (Lackland) and the confiscation of Normandy by 
the King of France. The relations between William the Con- 
queror and King Philip I. were already sufficiently hostile ; 
Robert Court-hose of Normandy was supported by France in 
his feud against his brother Henry I. of England ; but after 
the chivalrous battle of T^nchdfray in 1106, Normandy was 
again united to England. Under Louis YII. the danger for 
France became still greater. Immediately after the return 
of the pious king from the disastrous second crusade, his queen 
Eleanor, the heiress of Poitou and Ouyenne, escaped from the 
arms of her silly husband, and married the young Count 
Henry Plantagen^t of Anjou and Maine. Called to the throne 
of England in 1 153, Henry II. thus by inheritance and marriage 
obtained the better half of France. The orange-colored line 
in our map, dividing the Kingdom of France from north to 
south, indicates these important feudal relations of the twelfth 


387. Enqlish Possessions in F&ance. — The whole western 
portion of the kingdom from the British Channel to the Pyre- 
nees, including Normandy ^ Brittanyy Angou^ Iburaine and 
Mainey Foitou, AquUaine with Auvergne and Croscogne be- 
longed to the English kings of the house of Plantagen6t either as 
immediate tenures or as mesne-feofj3--<im^re;/£6/^5. Anjou, Tou- 
raine and Maine they held as their paternal inheritance ; NoT' 
mandy and the feudal supremacy over Brittany they obtained 
as heirs of the Norman English kings, and Poitcu^ Aquitaine 
and Gascogne by the marriage of Henry II. with Eleanor, — 
territories, the most fertile and flourishing in France, which 
in extent, population and wealth, far surpassed their posses- 
sions in the British Island beyond the Channel. 

388. The immediate possessioiis <^ the French Crown 
were thus again reduced to the duchy of Jsle-de-Pranee, with 
its component counties of Clermont, DreuXy Meulatity Valois^ 
Paris, CorbeU, Orleans and Veodn, and the viscounties of 
GatinaiSy Sees, Estampes and Melun. The Bishops of Laanf 
Beauvais and Noyon held likewise their districts directly of 
the king, but the cities themselves formed already free com- 
munes (307), supporting, however, the royal cause. To the 
crown lands belonged, besides, Baurges, which King Philip I. 
had bought in 1095, and the districts of Vassy and Attigny 
in Champagne. In the north of France the Counts of Flan- 
ders, as great feudatories of the crown, but almost independent| 
extended their dominion over all the territories between the 
Scheldt and the German Sea ; they possessed likewise tempera* 
rily the counties of Amiens and Vermandois, and held the impor- 
tant commercial republic of Ghent and the cities on the Scheldt 
under the suzerainty of the Bomano-German Empire. On 
the east of the French crown lands we find the powerful 
families of the Counts of Vermandais (Champagne) and JVoyes 
subdivided among the Seven Peers of Champagne and the 
Archbishop of Bheims. Southwest, on the Loire, lay the 
counties of Chartres, Blais and Sancerre, and the viseounty 


of ChdteaU'Dun. The duchy of Burounbt belonged to the 
younger branch of the Capetians ; this first dynasty of the 
Borgondian dukes became extinct in 1361, when John the Bold, 
the youngest son of King John the Good of France, after the 
battle at Poitiers, began the second and more celebrated 
line of the Dues de Bourgogne. The frontier lands at the 
northern base of the Pyrenees, Septimania (158), Toulouse, 
Carcassonne and Bas^2 had by marriage passed to the 
Counts of Barcelona and the crown of Aragon on the union 
of those states in 1137 (318), and we have therefore given 
those districts the crimson color of the kingd<Hn of Aragon. 

389. The kingdom of Arelate, east of the Bhone, be- 
longed during the twelfth century still to Germany (244), 
though French manners, language and interests were already 
predominant. It consisted of the following provinces : I. The 
Palatinate of Burgundy between the S4one and Jura, which 
had passed to the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa by his mar- 
riage with Beatrix of Burgundy (395). II. The duchy of 
Lesser Burgundy (comprehending Western and Southern 
Switzerland), from Mount Jura on the west to Mount Saint 
Gotthard on the east, stood under the vicariate of tiie 
Souabian Counts of ZShringen. III. The counties of Albon 
(afterwards the Dauphiny) and of Lyons. IV. The counties 
of Tararantaise and Maurienne in the Pennine Alps, which 
belonged to the powerful and warlike counts of the house 
of Savoy. V. Several smaller districts on the Rhone, such as the 
counties of Cr&neve^ the Seigneuries of ViMars^ La Tour and 

390. The Ecclesiastical Division op France after 
THE Crusades against the Beformers in Aquitaine. — ^Until 
the year 1322 the French Church was divided into the fol- 
lowing ten archbishoprics : I. Provincia Bemensis, with the 
archiepiscopal see at Bheims, and eleven suffragan bishoprics ; 
1 Laudunum (Lelon); 2, Stiessio (SoisBons); 3, Belvacum 


(Beauyais); 4, Ambianum (Amiens); 5, Tarnacum (Tour- 
nay ; 6, Cameracum (Cambray) ; 7, Noviomagtis (Noyon) ; 
8, Arrebate (Arras); 9, Turuenna {TMrouBjajie)] 10, Silva- 
nect{s (Senha) ] Kad 11, Catalaunum (ChMons sur Marne). 
Ancient monasteries, celebrated for the learning and piety of 
the monks, were Corbefa (Corvey), between Arras and Pe 
ronne, from which went forth Ansgarius, the apostle of Den- 
mark, the Abbey of Sancti Rtcheriiy near Abbeville (232), 
ValHs Claraj near Ld.on, and many others. 

II. Provincia Eotomagensis, embracing all Normandy, 
with the metropolitan see at Bouen, and th« six suffragan 
churches: 1 , JBAroica (Evreux) ; 2^ Lexovumm (Lisieux); 3, 
Bajoca (Bayeux) ; 4, Constantia (Coutances); 5, Abrinca 
(Avranches) ; and 6, Sagium (Seez), on the borders of Maine. 
Among the numerous monasteries were renowned for the 
austerity of their descipline and the beauty of their architec- 
ture : BeHosana and VcUlis Beatce MaruB, near Bouen ; La 
TVappCy in a wild and secluded valley, among the dreary 
mountains of Evreux, where the austerity of the Trappist 
Monks almost surpassed the bounds of nature, but gathered 
penitents from the remotest regions ; Bella Stella, of a softer 
name and, no doubt, a more reasonable discipline ; I^tanetum 
and Blancalanda, on the charming hills of the Cotintin, in 
western Normandy. 

III. Provincia Turonensis, embracing Touraine, Maine, 
Anjou, and Brittany, with the ancient and venerable see of 
Tours, on the Loire, already so well known from Old Gregory 
of Tours, the earliest French historian in the sixth century, 
and eleven -bishoprics ; Ccwomawms (Le-Mans) ; 2, Andegavi 
(Angers) ; 3, Namneta (Nantes) ; 4, Venetia (Vannes) ; 5, 
CariosopitcB (Quimper) ; 6, Sancti Fault Leoncnsis (Saint 
Paul de Leon), on the northern sea-coast; 7, Trecora (Tre- 
guier); 8, Maclavium (Saint-Malo) ; 9, Dolm (Dol) ; 10, 
Redones(Rennes); and 11, Sancti Brioci (Saint Brieue). 
Among the large number of pious institutions, we shall only 
record Saftct. Gildasim in nemore^ and Saint Jacques do 


Montfort, in the lulls near Bennee ; Gcutdium Sancta Mourum 
(La Joje), on the coast of Yannes, and BeaXa Maria de MeiU 
ierioj north of Nantes, were celebrated nunneries in Brittany. 

391. lY. Provincia Burdeoalensis, embracing Poiton, 
Saintonge, Angoumois, P6rigord, and Bordelais. The archie- 
piscopal see was in Bordeaux, and five suffragan bishops were 
ranged under it: 1, Pictavium (Poitiers); 2, Sanctonum 
(Samtes) ; 3, Incdisma (Angoul^me) ; 4, Petrocorium (Peri- 
gueuz), and 5, Agiivn/um (Agen) ; Aurea ValliSj Gratia Dci^ 
Stella^ and Misericordia Dei, were monasteries near Poitiers. 

Y. Provincia Auxiiana, in Oasoogne with the see of 
AucH, on the Adour, and ten suffragan churches : 1. Vasata 
(Bazas) ; 2, Aturum ( Atre) ; 3, Lactara (Lectoure) ; 4, Tar» 
ba (Tarbes) ; 5, Convena Sancti Bertrandi (Saint Bertrand) ; 
6, Consaranum Sancti Licerii (Saint Lizier), both, in the 
valley of the Pyrenees ; 7, Lascara (Lescar) ; 8, Olero 
(Ol^ron); 9, Bayona (Bayonne); and 10, Aquae (Dax). 

YI. Provincia Bituricensis, embracing Berry, Bourbon, 
Limosin, and Auvergne, with the archiepiscopal see in Brru- 
RicA (Bourges), and seven su&agans : 1, Limovica (Limoges) ; 
2, Cadurcu7n (Cahors) ; 3, AJbiga (Alby) ; 4, R%aena 
(Rhod6z) ; 5, Memate (Mende) ; 6, VeUavay Anicium (Puy) ; 
and 7, Clarus Mons (Clermont). Monasteries in the Limosin 
were PcUatium BeaZa Maria, and Vallis LeUa in Auvergne ; 
Mons PetrasuSy Vailis Jjudda, and Manasterium Sancti Petri 
de Casis. 

YII. Provincia Senonensis, with the ancient see of 
Senones (Sens) and the central bishoprics of, 1, Parisii 
(Paris); %Meld<B (Meaux); 3, l^eca (Troyes); 4, Carntaum 
(Chartres); SyAurelianum (Orleans); and 6, Autissiodunum 

392. YIIL Provincia Lugditnensis, embracing the 
duchy of Burgundy, and the Lyonnais, with the archiepisco- 
pal chair of Lyons, on the Bhone and Sa6ne, and the subor- 


dinate five bishoprics : 1) Lingones (Langres) ; 2, Augusta- 
dunum (Aut^n) ; 3, CaJbiUonum (Gh&lons sor Sa6ne) ; Ma^ 
tisco (MaQoo) ; and 5, Belica (Bellej), on the Upper Bhone, in 
the gorges of Mount Jura. Among the celebrated convents 
were, ClaravaUis (Clairyauz), in Burgundy, of the order of 
the Cistercians, where Saint Bernard was the first abbot, in 
1115, and whence he sallied forth to rouse the world for the 
second great crusade. There, too, he gaye the rule to* the 
Knights Templars, whom he considered as combining the 
most exalted virtues of the knight and the monk. The dis- 
graced Abailard built his abbey of the Paraclete near Troyes, 
in 1121. He gave it later to Heloise, and was buried in the 
chapel at her side."^ The convent was destroyed, like so 
many others, during the French Eevolution ; but the beautiful 
Gothic sepulchre of the faithful lovers stands now as one of 
the most touching monuments in the burial grounds of Pere 
la Chaise, near Paris. 

IX. Provincia Viennensis, with the archiepiscopal see of 
YiENNE, on the Rhone, and the suffragans of, 1, Geneva^ on the 
lake Leman ; 2^ Sancti Johanni in Mauriana (Saint Jean 
de Maurienne); 3, Chratianopolis (Grenoble); 4, Va.le7Uia 
(Valence); 5, Fivariww ( Viviers) ; and 6, i>ia (Die). 

1" In this beautiful, but solitary retreat^ Heloise, with her compa- 
paniona^ fleeing the world in the bloom of youth, sought an asylum in> 
her imhappy love. 

▲h 1 think St least thy flock deserves thy care, 
Plants of thy hand, and children of thy prayer; 
Ftom ths lUss world in early yoath they fled. 
By thee to moantaina, wilda, and deserts led; 
Ton raised these hallowM walls ; the desert saiiled. 
And paradiso waa open*d in the wild. 

Abailard died in 1142, at St Marcel, near Chalons sur Sa6ne; bat 
Heloise demanded his ashes, and obtained them for her chapel in th« 

Amid that scene, If some relenting eye 
Glance on the stone where oar cold ashes lie, 
Devotion's self shall steal a thought firom heaven. 
One hnman tear shall drop— and be fingiven. 



X. Provincia Narbonensis, embracing the ancient Sep- 
timania, along the shores of the Mediterranean, with the me- 
tropolitan see of "Narbonne and nine suffragans: 1, Tolosa 
(Tonlouse), on the Garonne ; 2, Carcasso (Carcassonne) ; 3, 
Biterra (B6ziers) ; 4, Agathia (Agde) ; 5, Ltitera (Lod^ve) ; 
6, Magalona (Magalonne, and, affcer the year 1323, in Mont- 
pellier) ; 7, Ucetia (Uzes) ; 8, Nemausus (Nimes) ; and 9, 
Ekna (Elne), in Boussillon, on the frontier of Spain. 

XI. Provincia Arelatensis, with the metropolitan see 
at Arelate (Aries), so celebrated on account of its splendid 
churches and monasteries, with the episcopacies, 1, Tricas- 
tinum (Trois-Chliteaux) ; 2, Vasio (Vaison); 3, Aratmo 
(Orange) ; 4, Avenio (Avignon) ; 5, CarpenZoracte (Carpen- 
tras) ; 6, Massilia (Marseilles) ; 7, Tolaniufn (Toulon). 

XII. Provincia Aquensis, with the celebrated see of 
AQT7iE (Aix), and the suffragans; 1, Vapincum (Gap); 2, 
Sistaricum (Sist^ron) ; 3, Apte (Apt) ; 4, Regii (Riez) ; and 
5, Forum Julii (Fr6jus). 

XIII. Provincia Ebreditnensis, comprising the valleys 
of the Cottian and Maritime Alps, with the metropolitan see 
of Embrun, and the suffragans; 1, Dinia (Digne); 2, Sani- 
Hum (Senez) ; Glanateva (Glandeve) ; Vintia (Vence) ; and 
5, Grassa ( Grasse), formerly Antipolis or Antibes. In the 
last of these ecclesiastical provinces on the Alps and in 
Switzerland, were situated the two provinces of Besan^on and 
Tarantaise, comprehending all the country from the Jura 
to the high Alps, with Savoy and the valley of Aosta, which, 
however, still ranged under the German empire. 

393. Such was the general territorial division of France 
toward the close of the twelfth century. Philip Augustus 
compelled the sly and dastard John Lackland to relinquish 
all his feudal possessions in France except Guyenne. By the 
consolidation of these large provinces, the crown of France ob- 
tained an influence infinitely greater than that possessed by its 
numerous vassals individually. The crusades against the 


Waldenses and Albigenses, in southern France, contributed, 
likewise, powerfully to the extension of the royal prerogative, 
and though Saint Louis gave back some provinces (Limosin^ 
Quercy^ F^rigardy and Agenois) to Henry III. of England, in 
1258, in order to secure peace at home, while prosecuting his 
crusades in the East, yet he succeeded in alienating the val- 
vasours from their liege-lords, the great feudatories, and 
favored the partitions of the large fiefs by divisions in the 
succession. But no other event was so favorable to the re- 
union of the territories in France as the crusades, in the cam- 
paigns of Acre, in 1189-1191 ; of Egypt, 1248-1249, and of 
Tunis, 1271. Hundreds of barons, knights, and signers per- 
ished by the sword of the infidels or the pestilence of the 
climate, and Philip le Bel appears already in 1310, as the 
powerful monarch of united France."' 

"BTh« crown acquired Alenftm, 1196; Auverpne, 1198; Arloit, 
1199; Ikfreux, 1208; Touraine, Maine, and Anjou, 1203; I^ormandpt, 
1205; Faitaii, 1206; Vermandois and VcUoiSf 1215; the portion of 
Toulouse west of the Rhone, 1229 ; Perehe, 1240 ; Mofon, 1245 ; Bou- 
logne, 1261; the rest of Toulouse, 1272; Chartres, 1284; la Marche 
and Foughres in Brittany, 1808; AngovUme, 1807 ; Champagne, 1828 ; 
Ouyenne, 1472 ; Anjou and Maine, for the last time in 1481 ; the 
Archbishop of Lyons surrendered the secular jurisdiction to the king 
in 1311. DauphinS escheated to the crown in 1848, and the duchy of 
Burgundy, after the fall of Charles the Bold in 1477. flanders, with 
its important maritime cities, was incorporated so early as 1299, and 
the path seemed opened for the possession of all the Low Countries; 
but the tyranny and arrogance of the French inflamed the brave !Flem- 
iflh citizens to the heroical reeistance which saved their old constitu- 
tion at the peace of 1804. 



A. Germany, 1138-1273. 

394. Limits, Princely Families, and Feudal Divi- 
sions. — During the earlier port of the reign of the Hohen- 
staufen, or Souabian dynasty, the most brilliant period in the 
annals of the empire, the frontiers and the inflnence of Ger- 
many extended even farther on the east and the sonth than 
they did in the preceding reigns of the Saxon and Franconian 
emperors. In the north, the Baltic, the river Eider, and the 
German Ocean or the North Sea, formed the ancient bound- 
ary. In the west, we follow again the line of the Scheldt, the 
Mosa, the C6te d'Or, the Sa6ne, and the Ehone, to its dis- 
charge into the Mediterranean. In the south, the imperial 
sceptre of Frederic Barbarossa still extended over northern 
Italy, in spite of all the exertions oi the Lombard Bepublics, 
and the opposition of the Bomish Popes ; and by the marriage 
of his son, Henry VI., with the heiress of the Norman king- 
dom of Naples and Sicily, in 1 185, the imperial influence reach- 
ed again to the extremities of the Italian peninsula and the 
islands. It was then that the Pope and the Lombard league, 
perceiving themselves outflanked and hemmed in by the arms 
of the Souabian emperors, roused themselves anew to that 
violent struggle, which fifty years later terminated with the 
downfall of the imperial power both in Germany and Italy, 
and the destruction of the unhappy Hohenstaufen house itself. 
On the east, the rivers Leitha and March remamed the 
frontier-line against Hungarians and Sclavonians ; the Upper 
Oder and the Lower Vistula still separated Germans from 
Poles, the latter having, durmg their successful wars with 
the Bussians, obtained their entire independence of the Ger- 
man empire. Bohemia, on the contrary, had become more 
closely allied to Germany, having been erected into a king- 
dom by Frederic Barbarossa. It was already considered as 


an integral part of the empire, and the Bohemiim King figored 
among the electors at the imperial diets. Entirely nominal 
and imaginary was the supremacy over Denmark which Fre- 
deric Barbarossa arrogated to himself at the diet of Besan- 
gon in 1162. Nay, the scale of fortune turned so rapidly, that 
the great and victorious kings, Knud YI. and Waldemar II., 
for more than thirty years — 1 190-1227 — ^held possession of 
the lands on the Lower Elbe, Holstein with Hamburg and 
Liibeckj all Y^idland and Pomerania, which were ceded to 
Denmark in the remarkable treaty of Treves, by the young 
emperor, Frederic II., in 1215. Lorraine, divided into its 
two provinces of Lower Lorraine or Brabant, and Upper Lor- 
raine or the duchy of Lotheringia (246), belonged still to Ger- 
many, and formed a secure and well-fortified barrier against 
France. The two Frederics maintained with a strong arm the 
German sovereignty over the palatinate and kingdom of Bur- 
gundy (244) ; but during the disorders of the interregnum — 
1252-1273, and by the neglect of the subsequent emperors, these 
important provinces became alienated and lost. It was the pre- 
tensions and jealousies of the two leading families in Germany, 
the Hohenstaufens and the Welfs, which gave rise to the violent 
struggle in that country and in Italy, causing the dissolution of 
the ancient duchies of Saxony, Franconia, and Souabia, the 
independence of the Italian and German cities, and the gra- 
dual downfall of the imperial authority. The great feudato- 
ries became sovereign princes in their own territories; the 
counts and valvasours sought protection as immediate vassals 
of the crown ; and the cities formed armed confederacies against 
the nobility. Italy was lost for ever, and the old constitution 
of Conrad II. became changed in its principal features. In 
order to explain the great influence which the leading families 
of Germany exerted on account of their vast possessions, we 
shall here give a short description of their territories at the 
beginning of the contest about the succession, 1137-1170, on 
the death of Lothaire of Supplingenburg. 

395. The family of Hohenstaufen took its name from 



tke high conical monntain — der hohe Staufen — ^in the valley 
of the Bems, fbor miles northeast of the town of Gtppingen 
in Soaabia(310). There the ancestor of the family, Frederic 
of Baren"* , had built a strong castle, the cradle of his chival- 
rous race*^ ; a loyal adherent of Henry IV. in the days of 
adversity, he was rewarded by that unhappy monarch with the 


Fr^derie otB&rm, Dnke of Boaabia, in 108Q, 1 1106, 
maiTled Aems, daughter of Henry IV., 1 114& 

Frederic, Duke of Sooabia, 1 1147, 

married, Ist, Judith of BaTaria ; 

2d, Agn^ of Saarbrftok. 

GoxnUD IIL, King of Germany in 1188, 

Fbxd. L, Barharoima, Emp., 1102, 1 1190, 

married, let, AdelhHd of Vobbnrg ; 

2d, BeaiHa of Burgondy, 1 1186. 


Hknbt VL, Emm Trederie, 
1120, 1 1197, married Dnkeof Sooabla, 

CoisvsAXCE of Na- 1 1191, 
plea, 1 1198. 

Bake of Bon 
able, 1 1196. 


— » 


• ofBugon^, 

Pmup, 1208, 

Irene of Con- 




married, lat, to GosBTAxai 
of Aragon, 1206, 1 1222. 

Knnignnde, Beatrix, f 1218, 

WsMCKSLAS of the Emperor 

BohemiaL Otho IV. 

2d. JoLAKTB of JeniBaleni, 

1226, 1 1228. 
Sd. lAAssL of England, 128 

4tk BiAXOX of Laada, 1260. 
6th. Matiuw of Antiooh. 
6th. A German Coanteea. 

f 1 

Primidav lU., 


4 Masfbkp 

of Savoy. 

1. Heniy, 2. Gossao IV,, 8. 
fi4& Emperor, 

tl264, Albert 
EIiatbe& of BaTaria. 

„_., A 

of Sardinia, 

GoinuDnr, Frederic Dlezman. 

^1| tl26S. the Bitten. 1 

Peter IIL of Aragon. 

'^ The ancient castle of Staufen in its rnins commands one of the 
most magnificent views in Germany. Sixty towns, Tillages and castles 


hand of his daughter Agnes and the duchy of Sonabia as 
dower. This sudden elevation of an obscure warrior imme- 
diately caused the outbreak of protracted feuds between the 
Hohenstaufens, then so closely allied to the imperial interest, 
and the ambitious families, the Welfs in Bavaria and the 
Zfthringers on the Rhine, which for many years brought deso- 
lation over Germany, but ultimately carried the Hohenstaufens 
victoriously to the imperial throne. 

Their possessions were, I., the duchy of Souabia ; II., the 
duchy of Franconia ; III. the Palatinate of the Bhine with 
the Sfiragau and Alsace ; lY. the palatinate of Burgundy 
west of Mount Jura ; V. Provincia Egra, on the frontiers 
of Bohemia ; Y I. the Thurgau in Switzerland and the Welfio 
territories in Tyrol ; YII. the numerous imperial fiefs in Lom- 
BARDT ; kter, VIII. the kingdom of Naples with Sicily, Sar- 
dinia and Corsica, and IX. the kingdom of Jerusalem. 

With such concentrated power still more strengthened by 
their energy and eminent talents, Frederic I. and Frederic II. 
attempted tore-establish the sovereign dominion of Charlemagne, 
but failed. The times had changed ; Italy full of youthful en- 
thusiasm for freedom, commerce and reform withstood the 
shock; the German feudatories long tired of the whip of 
a master, took advantage of the Italian campaigns and the 
defeats of the German emperor to throw off the yoke ; they 

are seen scattered through, the fertile and heantiful valley of the H&tnt ; 
&rther ofi^ in the south, appears the towering ridge of the Mauhe Alp; 
and the blue lines of the Scktoarz-WcUd — ^the Black Forest — form the 
distant frame to the lovely picture. This paternal castle was the 
usual residence of Frederic Barbarossa, and saw in its good old times 
all the pomp and splendor of the last great and mighty emperor. It 
sank with the family that reared it ; its noble ruins were in 1785 
bought by the burghers of Geppingen, who demolished the castle in 
order to rebuild their town that had suffered from a fire. When we 
visited that interesting spot^ during our rambles through Souabia in 
1884) only the outer walls and a solitary tower remained of the im- 
perial residence of the proudest dynasty of medieval Germany. 8ie 
trarUit gloria mimdi / 


became independent prinoes, and the cities confederate repub- 
lics; and the impartial historian, who philosophically looks 
back upon the development of the nations daring l^e middle 
ageS) must confess that all the anarchy which followed was a 
smaller evil to humanity than the state of rigid vassalage which 
the Souabians attempted to enforce upon them. The two 
Frederics were the last emperors who wielded a real power 
during the middle ages \ their successors became only shadow 
kings, and were often the tools and toys of the hun- 
dreds of princes and free-towns who were fighting about the 
supremacy. With regard to bis own personal merit, Frederic 
II., the last great Hohenstaufen, was the most distinguished 
man of his age. He stood high above the superstitions and 
prejudices of the time; but the lance of the knight was 
blunted by the cross of the priest. Frederic, the Arab, as he 
was called, was the noblest protector of science and art. He 
founded the University of Naples in 1224, and considerably 
enlarged the medical school of Salerno. At both places also^ 
through his zeal, were formed the first collections of art, 
which, unfortunately, in the tumults of the following ages, 
were eventually destroyed. A splendid monument of his 
genius is preserved in the code of laws for his hereditary 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily, and which he caused to be com^ 
posed by his minister Peter de Yincis. According to the 
plan of a truly great legislator, he was not influenced by the 
idea of erecting something entirely new, but he built upon the 
basis of the Norman institutions, adopting, however, whatever 
to him appeared good and necessary for his main object, the 
security and welfare of his Neapolitan people. Never has 
the contest between the ecclesiastic aad secular power let loose 
so fierce passions as those of the Popes and the Hohenstaufens 
in the thirteenth century, nor has a generous family ever had 
so terrible a downfall as that of the innocent Conradino, the last 
of his race, who perished on the scaffold of Naples in 1268. 

396. II. The Welfs (Guelfi) counted their ancestors 
back to the era of Charlemagne. Their paternal estates lay 


on the lake of Bregentz or Constance^ Bodensee, eastward to 
the Lechy and were bounded on the south by the highest 
chains of the Ehsetian Alps. The ancient line of this cele- 
brated family became extinct with Welf III. in 1055; but 
Welf IV., ^e son of Hie Princess Kunitza, sister of ► 
Welf III., and the Italian Margrave Azzo of Este, be- 
came the founder of the younger line. This Welf IV. 
obtained from Henry IV. the investiture with the duchy of 
Bavaria. ^^^ The Welfic possessions were, I. the duchy of Ba- 
varia; II. the duchy of Saxony with Nordalbingia or 
Holstein, Slavia^ Fomerania, and other conquests from the 
Vends ; III. the msurgraviate of Este, in Italy. Such im- 
mense territories rendered Henry the Lion the most danger- 
ous enemy of the Hohenstaufens. But when placed under the 
ban of the empire, in 1180, all the princes, great and small, 
bishops, and barons, fell upon the hunted' lion, greedy after 
the spoils, which were distributed among them. 

III. The AscANiANS. Albert the Bear of Ascania, re- 
ceived at the dismemberment of Saxony, in 1 180, the margra* 
yate of Brandenburg, with the prerogative of the ducal dignity 
in war, and the rights of an elector of the empire in his quality 
as arch-chamberlain. 

WxLF, or GneUb lY., created Duke of Bavaria, 
ion, b7 Hemy lY., t In Cfypma, llDl. 

HxNBT TBB Blaok, Duke of Bayarla, 1 1120, Welf of Este 

marries Wilfildb, dau^ter of Binting, marries the Countess Mathildo, 
Dnke of Saxony and Lltneborg. of Tnaeany, 1 1129. 

HssTBT THX Pboud, Doko of BaTaria, 1 1189, 
marries Qertbui>s daughter of Emperor Lothaire IL 

Hknky thb Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, 
deposed in 1180, 1 1195. 

Duke of Tuscany. 

Olho IV., Emperor, 1308, 
+ 1318, 

WnUam of LOneburg, 
flrtt Duke of Brunswldk, 1218^ 

Queen Yietoria of England. 


lY. The Saluns in Hesse and Thnringia. 

y. The Etichones, in the duchy of Lotheringia. 

YI. The Dukes of Brabant. 

YII. The Counts of Luxembttrg ; and, 

YIII. The Zaeheingers, one of the most celebrated fami- 
lies on the Rhine, who possessed I. the Lesser Burgundy or 
Switzerland, and II. Baden and Breisgau, on the right bank 
of the Rhine, as fiefs of the empire ; their hostility against the 
Hohenstaofens changed later to the most sincere friendship 
and intermarriage. 

IX. The warlike Babenberoers defended the eastern fron- 
tiers towards Hungary, as Archdukes of Austria. 

X. The Ortenburgers in the duchy of Carinthia, and, 

XI. The Counts of Andechs, in Tyrol, were more distin- 
guished than the small Counts of Lenzburgy Kyburg^ and 
HahsbuTgy in Switzerland^ the latter of whom, however, by 
inheritance of estates from the Z&hringers, by bravery and 
talent, afterwards obtained the imperial dignity in the person 
of the noble-minded Count Rudolph of Habsburg, in 127d. 

397. Such were the smaller satellites who moved around 
the brighter planets, the Hohenstaufens and the Welfs. On 
the death of the Emperor Lothaire II. in 1137, the Welf, 
Henry the Proud of Bavaria and Saxony, heir of the patri- 
mony of his father-in-law, the Emperor Lothaire, and pos- 
sessor of the crown jewels, stood boldly forward as a candi- 
date for -the imperial dignity. But the German princes, 
dreading so haughty and powerful a master, elected the Ho- 
henstaufen Conrad, Di&e of Franconia, in Frankfort, on Feb- 
ruary 22d, 1 138. Henry of Bavaria dying, and his son Henry 
(the Lion) being still a child, the contest seemed at an end. 
But when Conrad III. declared the Welfic fiefs escheated to 
the crown, and gave the duchy of Bavaria to his half-brother, 
Leopold of Austria, and the duchy of Saxony to Count Albert 
the Bear, of Ascania, the whole Saxon people rose in defence 
of their young prince, and Count Welf of Altorf, the brother 


of Henry the Proud, throwing down the gauntlet in defence 
of his injured nephew, begau. the desolating war. The deci- 
sive battle between the hostile races was fought near Weins- 
berg, in Souabia, in 1140. It was here that the names of 
Welfs (Guelfs), and Waiblingers (Grhibelines), were heard 
for the first time. The battle-cry of the knights spur- 
ring on to the attack—" Strike ftyr the Welfs .'" « Strike for 
the WaMingers ! " "* became afterwards for centuries the 
rallying words which cost so much blood beyond the Alps, 
though the early signification of them had been entirely 
changed. Count Welf was defeated and forced to surrender 
after an obstinate resistance in the city of Weinsberg. Yet 
he was generously treated by the chivalric Conrad.**^ The 
second crusade to the east, in 1147-48, put a stop to the in- 
testine dissensions, and his successor, Frederic Barbarossa, 
attempted to conciliate the Welfic house, by giving back the 
duchy of Bavaria to Henry the Lion, who, enthusiastically 
supported by the Saxons, had withstood victoriously the at- 

183 i*he Hohenstaufens obtained this by-name from a strong fortress^ 
Wdiblingen (YibUnga\ now the small town of that name, on the Lower 
Bems, a few miles west of their castle of Staufen. 

s Conrad, exasperated at the heroic defence of Count WeU his 
knights, and citizens, had resolved to destroy Weinsberg with fire and 
aword. He suspended, however, the last assault^ and permitted the 
Weinsberg women previously to retire, and carry with them tiieir 
deareni jewels. But how great was the astonishment of the emperor and 
his army when, at dawn of day, they beheld in long rows the coimtess 
and her fair companions, instead of carrying off their jewels and trin- 
kets, staggering along beneath the weight of their husbands or dearest 
relatives. This affecting scene moved Conrad to tears, and when Fre- 
deric of Souabia, galloping up, upbraided him for his weakness^ and 
denounced the treachery, Conrad spoke those noble words, which have 
been preserved for ages, A royal word must not be twisted, nor ungener- 
ously interpreted He dismounted, and, embracing the count and 
countess, the tragical scene terminated in the romantic spirit of the 
age, and the loyal old city of Weinsberg is still proud of the name of 
Weibertreu — woman's fetith — which honors its towenng fortress. This 
interesting event is recorded in the Chronicle of S. Pantaleon, contem- 
porary with the period. 


tacks of the Bear and the Bishops. By thus re-uniting the 
two most powerful duchies of Germany, and by extending his 
dominion over the Sclavonians, far away beyond the Elbe, this 
unruly and ambitious prince was miabled, in 1180, to renew 
the war with the rival house of Hohenstaufen, in which he 
was destroyed, and the German Welfs, in spite of the election 
of his son, Otho IV., in 1208, lost for ever all prospect of 
obtaining the imperial throne in Germany. 

398. A. The Secular States, a. b. 1268. — ^I. The duchy 
of LuENEBURO and Brunswick (the ancient Ostphalia). This 
small province on the Elbe was the only part of the large 
duchy of Saxony which remained in the possession of the 
Welfish family after the disgrace of Henry the Lion, and 
the dismemberment of Saxony, in 1180. The Archbishop 
of Cologne, the Bishops of Halberstadt and Miinster, and 
many secular barons, divided Westphalia among themselves. 
The Archbishop of Bremen took possession of the mouth of 
the Elbe, Stade and Ditmarsk^ whose inhabitants, the Ditmars- 
kers (375), however, remained independent. The Counts of 
Oldenburg and Holstein ranged themselves directly under 
the empire. Luebeck, now an important city, after throwing 
off allegiance to Denmark (375), was raised to the dignity 
of an imperial free city by Frederic II. Qlorious old Saxony 
was no more 1 

II. The margravate of Brandenburg. — All the Sclavonic 
conquests of Henry the Lion east of the Elbe were, in 1180, 
transferred to Albert the Bear. They were colonized by Ger- 
man settlers, and divided into the AUmark^ Mittelmark, Uker- 
marky and Neumark, forming later, in union with Prussia, 
one of the most important statues of Ge^nany. Berlin, on 
the Spree, was then built, and became the capital. 

III. The electorate of Saxony — Kur-Sachsen — on the 
Elbe, received the name of the old duchy, and was formed of 
parts of Thuringia. 

IV. The landgravate of Thuringu was, 1247, conferred 


upon Otho, thelllnstrious, of Meissen, whobeeame the founder 
of the present Saxon houses. 

y. The Ismdgravate of Hassia (Hessen) on the west of 
the Thuringian Mountains. 

YI. The duchy of Bavaria was in 1180 given to the 
brave warrior Otho of Wittelshach, who in 1154 had saved 
the imperial army of Frederic Barbarossa in the celebrated 
defile of Verona, le Chiuse di Verona, The old duchy em- 
braced Carinthia, Austria^ and Styria, These important 
provinces had, however, already, in 1 156, been separated from 
Bavaria. The latter was divided into Upper and Lower Ba- 
varia. Munick was still a small borough. Landshut was 
the capital. 


399. VII. The kingdom of Bohemia, with Moravia, recog- 
nized the sovereignty of the Grerman emperor, and the Bohe- 
mian king still followed the banner of Frederic Barbarossa ; 
but after the death of Frederic II. King Ottocar II. became 
almost entirely independent. Prague, on the Moldau, was the 

VIIL The archduchy of Austria (Eastern Mark) had 
been separated from Bavaria by Barbarossa in 1154. It was 
strengthened and endowed with privileges in order to enable 
the dukes to make efficient defence against the Hungarians on 
the frontier. ^^^ Somewhat later it embraced the duchies of 
Styria, Carniola, and Carinthia, with the county of Tyrol. 
All these fertile provinces remained for ever hereditary do- 
mains of the Habsburg family after the battle on the March- 
field, near Vienna, in 1278, in which Kudolph of Habs- 
burg defeated King Ottocar of Bohemia, who perished in the 

"** Frederic L, in the act of donation, wrote in the original statute, 
that the new Duke of Austria should rank equal with the ancient Arehi' 
ducilnu — and, from this ezpreasion originated th« subsequent title of 
Arehduke of Austria. 


IX. The dachies of Souabia and Franconia existed no 
more. The first was dismembered on the fall of the Hohen- 
staufens, and divided between the nobility and the church. 
Their rich possessions were wasted during the absence of the 
owners in Italy ; and the unhappy Conradin gave all away to 
muster the 10,000 knights and men-at-arms for his fatal cam- 
paign to Italy in 1267. Bavaria obtained the Palatinate of 
the Ehine. Only the Counts of Wuertemburg succeeded in 
placing themselves at the head of the Souabian nobility. 
They had already chosen Stuttgard as their place of resi-. 
dence. After them, the Counts of Baden, scions of the Ho- 
henstaufen race, acquired from the house of Z&hringen the 
territory of the BreUgau^ on the Upper Rhine— the begin- 
ning of the house of Baden. In Franconia the duchy had 
already become extinct, when the succession of the Salic 
house terminated in 1138. It had been divided between the 
ecclesiastical and temporal nobles ; the Hohenstaufens, how- 
ever, took the better part, and were called Dukes of Franco- 
nia, enjoying the palatinate (Ober-Pfalz) and the military ser- 
vice of the feudatories. Large portions were awarded to the 
Bishops of WuERTZBURo, Bamberg, and the Abbot of Ful^a 
(249). The families of Hohenlohe and Hohenzollern (the 
latter as Burgraves of Nuremburg) became celebrated in the 
succeeding period. 

400. X. The duchy of Lesser Burgundy — Burgundid 
Minor — embraced at that time Central Switzerland Schwitz, 
Uri, and Unterwalden, together with the Thurgau, still belong- 
ed to Souabia. After the extinction of the Z&hringen family, 
the imperial vicariate, or guardianship of the valleys of the 
Alps, was intrusted to the Counts of Habsburg, Kyburg or 
Savoy ; the latter house, in the high Alps, having risen to 
great reputation and power. The Swiss were still a quiet and 
frugal race of herdsmen and hunters, enjoying their indepen- 
dence unmolested under their landamans or presidents, and 
settling all their disputes in their popular assemblies. Several 


oiiies in Bnrgondj, such as Zurichj Bern^ Soleure, Lausanne, 
OenivCy had become already important by the numbers, wealth, 
and industry of their citizens. 

XI. The kingdom of Burgundy or Arelate (385). 

XII. The duchy of Lorraine already, since the times of 
Otho of Saxony (246), divided into Upper and Lower Lor- 
raine. The former was mostly in the hands of the Bishops of 
Maz, Trives^ Spire^ and Worms ; the rest belonged to the 
Counts of Alsace. The Lower Lorraine had become divided 
among the Dukes of Brabant^ the Counts of HJoUand, lAwr 
hurgy and Lutzellmrg (Luxemburg), in the forest of Arden- 
nes. The latter family mounted the throne of Germany in 
the fourteenth century. Large possessions belonged to the 
Bishops of iMttich and Utrecht. On the sea-coast lived the 
free-bom Frisians, who still with the sword and mace defended 
the independence which they had inherited from their fore- 
fathers. When the German king, William of Holland, in the 
winter of the year 1256, marched against them with his army 
of chevaliers, and crosgfed the frozen lake near MedenbliCy the 
ice broke under him, and remaining in his mail armor, and 
with his heavy war-horse sticking in the morass, the light- 
footed Frisians . rushed upon him, and refusing money and 
promises, killed him with all his helpless men-at-arms. 

401. B. The Ecclesiastical States. — Germany, with 
Burgundy and Savot, included at this period eight archi* 
episcopal provinces : I. Mentz (Mainz), having under its 
jurisdiction fourteen bishoprics, viz. : — WbrmSj Spires, Stras- 
burg, Cofistance, Coire, Augsburg, Eichstadt, Wurtzburg, 
Olmutz, Prague, HaJherstadt, Hildeskeim, Faderborn, and 
Verden ; II. Cologne, with five bishoprics : Liege (Lut- 
tich), Utrecht, Munster, Osnabruck, and Minden ; IIL 
Treves (Trier), with three bishoprics : Metz, Tout, and 
Verdun ; IV. Magdeburg, with five bishoprics : Branden-' 
burg, ITavelberg, Naumburg, Merseburg, and Meissen ; V. 
Bremen, with three bishoprics ; Oldenburg (afterwards LCi- 


beck), Mecklenburg (afterwards Schwerin), and Ratsseburg; 
VI. SALZBtTRO, with five bishoprics ! Ratisbon^ Fassduj 
Freisingen, Brionen, and Gorz (Qurca), and finally the two 
provinces; VII. Bisuntina, with the archiepiscopal see in 
Besangon, embracing the whole of Burgundy, both the pala- 
linate and the county of Lesser Burgundy (Switzerland) on 
ooth sides of Mount Jura and as far east as the Bernese Alps, 
with the two bishoprics of Bale (Basle), and Lausanne, on the 
Lake of Geneva ; and VIII. Tarantasia, in Savoy, with the 
metropolitan church of MoHtier en Tarantaise, on the Upper 
Is^rOy in the valley of the Little Saint Bernard, and the 
two Bofiragans of Sedunum (Sion), in Wallis, and Augusta 
(Aosta), in the splendid valley of Dora Baltea, south of the 
pass of Great Saint Bernard. 

Besides these are to be added, Bamberg, which was 
under the immediate control of the Pope, and Cambray, 
under that of the see of Bheims. Altogether they amounted 
to ten archbishoprics, and forty-one bishoprics. There existed, 
moreover, seventy sovereign prelates, abbots, abbesses, and three 
military orders ; thus forming, in the whole, more than one 
hundred ecclesiastical States. 

402. 0. The Free Iboperial Cities. — ^The German cities 
had had a rapid development since the tenth century (235). The 
Italian Republics, and the Free Communes in France (307), 
extended their influence to Germany. The emancipation be- 
gan naturally enough with the cities in Burgundy, where the 
internal organization could more easily be formed on account 
of the many relics of ancient Roman municipal institutions 
still existing ; on the foundation of these the independence of 
the cities arose, protected by the kings and clergy, in opposi* 
tion to the nobility. 

Though the political system of the Hohenstaufen emperors 
was adverse to the emancipation of the cities, yet they were 
often obliged, in their contests with the princes and prelates, 
to demand the aid of the faithful and wealthy burgesses, and 


to grant them priyileges and immunities. The German cities, 
therefore, during that bustling period, daily increased in po- 
pulation and riches ; and the crusades to the East and on the 
Baltic opened new resources for a more extensive commerce.^^ 
The spirit for great undertakings and speculations was aroused ; 
the costly wares of the southern countries were then brought 
more frequently, and in greater abundance, across the Alps. 
The Italian maritime towns — particularly Venice, Genoa, and 
Pisa — ^brought the merchandise of the Levant to their 
ports, from which it was conveyed along the conunercial roads 
and rivers through the passes of the Alps, to Germany, and 
thence carried further on towards the territories bordering 
upon the North Sea and the Baltic. Thus the German cities 
formed the great emporium of commerce before the extension 
given to the navigation of the Atlantic in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Augsburgy Stfddmrgj Ratisbon, Nurembergj Banh 
herg^ Warms, Spires, and Mainz, in the south and centre of 
Germany ; in the north, Cologne, Erfurt, Brunswick, Jjwnje- 
burg, Hamburg, Bremen, JMeck, and many others, built 
and extended their walls and towers, and a continually in- 
creasing, active, and industrious population animated their 
streets. Their riches soon gave them the means to purchase 
their freedom from the princes, decular or ecclesiastic, who 
held them in dominion, and who, by their continual feuds, had 
become impoverished, and sought every means to restore their 
exhausted resources. The great point with the citizens was 

^ By GOinniaud of the Pope, every serf who took the cross to proceed 
to the Holy Land would obtain his liberty from his lord ; and thou- 
Bands of poor tenants^ therefore, swelled the ranks of the crusading 
armies. Others took refuge within the suburbs of the rising cities, 
where they found protection, and were called Pfdklhurger, or citizens of 
the stoccade, because they dwelt between the walls and the outworkai 
In case their lords sought to force them to return to their service, the 
powerful cities themselves would take up the quaiTel ; and being backed 
by the league, they were able to frustrate all the attempts of the nobles 
to maintain the rigid system of serfdom and vassalage of the earlier cen- 
turies. 21 


to get rid of the imperial or Beigneiirial bailiff, and to form 
their own mnnicipal goyemment, with oivio magistrates or 
consul — BUrgermeister — and - connoiUors — Rathsherren — at 
the head of the ezecatiye power ; then to establish their city 
law, — Stadtrecht, — ^their courts of justice, and arm the citizens 
under the banner of the town. Yet the nobility, when too 
late, began to perceive the danger arising from such numerous 
corporations of organized and armed citizens ; while the towns, 
on the other hand, foreseeing the opposition of the nobles, 
began to strengthen their cause by confederacies for the pro- 
tection of their freedom, their independence, and their com- 
merce generally. 


die Stddte cm der See, — ^Already, early in the middle ages, the 
trading cities of Germany had formed alliances in other coun- 
tries, and there established warehouses and factories. These 
unions were called Hans6. In the eleventh century there 
were German Halises from Hamburg, Lobeck, Bremen, Co* 
logne, established in London (289). The two former con- 
cluded a treaty together in 1241, against Denmark, from 
whose dominion they had been liberated in 1227 (375). The 
Burgomaster in Ltkbeck,, Alexander von Soltwedel, attacked 
and burnt Copenhagen in 1247. Seven maritime cities, 
Ltibeck, Wismar, Bostock, Stralsund, Greifswalde, and Biga, 
together with the Germans at Wisbye, in Gothland, united 
their naval power to force King Eric, Priest-Hater, of Norway, 
to open his ports to these grasping Bepublicans. Bergen be- 
came afterwards the great emporium for their Norwegian com- 
merce. This confederacy was so wisely organized, that it had 
a rapid development. About the year 1300, it numbered al- 
ready sixty cities from the Lower Bhine, as far as Prussia and 
Livonia ; later it included more than one hundred, and in the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the name of the Hansd be- 
came the dread and dismay of the proud kings of Scandinavia. 
In Germany there belonged to the Union, besides Luebeck and 


Hamburo, Bremeny Stade^ Kiety Wismary Rastocky Straisundy 
Greifswaldey Stettin^ CoUbergy Stargardy Salzipedely Mag" 
deburgy Brunstoicky Hildeskeimy Hanover y Luneburg, OsTtOr 
hrucky MunsteTy Coe^ddy Dortmundy Soisty Wesely JDuisburgy 
Gologney and others of less note : and confederates out of Ger* 
many — Tkortty Danzig, Konigsbergy Rigay Revaly Narva, 
Wisbyey Stockholrriy Novgorody and others. Afterwards those 
enterprising merchants extended their alliance to the cities on 
the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. France furnished to the 
confederacy, CaiaiSy Roueny Si. MalOy BordeauXy Bayanne^ 
and Marseilles ; Spain, BarceUmay SevtUCy and Cadiz ; Eng- 
land, London; Portugal, Lisbon; the Low Go\mtntByArUwerpy 
Bruges, Rotterdanty Ostendy and Dunkirk ; Italy, Messina^ 
Leghorn and Naples, Ltkbeck renuuned at the head of the 
whole confederacy. The depnties from the.cities met on their 
regular Hansi daySy when assemblies were held. Large bo- 
dies of mercenary troops were taken into pay, and the whole 
military and naval departments were admirably organized un- 
der the supervision of the active and warlike Burgomasters 
of Labeck. The Hanseatic Union was divided into fouf sec- 
tions or qitarters. I. The Wen dish quarter, comprising 
Ltibeck, Hamburg, and maritime cities of Pomeranhi and 
Mecklenburg ; II. The Coloonian quarter, with the cities in 
Friesland, WestphaHa, and the Low Countries; III. The 
Brunswick quarier, comprising all the cities between the 
Weser and the Elbe ; lY. The I^ussian quarter, with Danzig 
for its capital, and comprehending aH the commercial cities 
east of the Vistula. They wholly monopolized the trade in 
the Baltic, and chiefly that in the North Sea, and had four 
grand fortified d6p6ts at Novgorod in Eussia, Bergen in 
Norway, Bruges in Flanders, and the Steel-yard in London. 
But the greatest extent of the League, its subsequent arrogant 
and grasping conduct, and its decline, belong to the next and 
last period of the middle ages. 

404. II. The Confsdb&act of the Bhemish GrnES-^ 


der Rheinische Stddtdnind — for offence and defence, formed 
itself in 1247-55, in imitation of the Hans6, and defended it- 
self successfully against the petty princes on the Rhine, who 
from their castles attempted to stop the navigation of that 
superb river. All the cities from Badcj in Switzerland, down 
to Wesel, joined the confederacy, and ^even the haughty eccle- 
siastic sovereigns, Gerhard of Maintz, Conrad of Cologne, Ar- 
nold of Treves, Jacob of Metz, the Abbot of Fulda — the 
counts, and barons, were forced by the arms of the merchants 
to enter the association. Yet, in spite of the wealth and power 
of its members, the Rhenish Union never acquired the impor* 
tance and renown of the Hans6. The cities lay too much dis- 
persed along the river, separated by the domains of warlike 
nobles ; their interests were too much divided, nor had they 
the means of raising armies under skilful native leaders; 
foreign troops fought their battles, and though the confed- 
eracy succeeded at the time, it did not obtain any permanent 
influence, and was dissolved before the close of the fourteenth 
century. The Souainan Union arose at the time of the dis- 
solutil>n of the Rhenish League, and was better organized. 

B. ITALY, A D. 1100-1300. 

405. I. The Italian Cities in the beginning op the 
Twelfth Century. — Two great and populous cities in the 
plain of Lombardy surpassed every other in power and 
wealth : Milan (Milano), which habitually directed the party 
of the church ; and Papia (Pavia), which, in opposition to her 
rival, sided with the great feudatories and the empire. Both 
towns, however, had, during the reigns of Lothaire of Sup- 
plingenburg, and Conrad III. of Hohenstaufen, changed par- 
ties. The rivalry of those two families, the Welfs (Guelfs) 
and the Hohenstaufens (Ghibelines), from 1125 to 1152, ex- 
tended its influence across the Alps to Italy, where the discord 
found a luxurious soil. Milan, victorious over her neighbors, 
had prostrated the towns of Lodi and Como {dl2) ; the for- 


met she razed, dispersing the inhabituits in open Tillages, and 
obliged the latter to puU down its fortifksations. Cremona 
and Nbvara, fearing the same fate, united with Payia, whUe 
TartoTUiy Crema, Bergamo^ Brescioy Flacentia, and Parma^ 
anxious to preserve their republican governments, allied them- 
selves closely with Milan. Among the cities of Piedmont, 
Turin took the lead, and disputed the authority of the pow- 
erful counts of Savoy, who styled themselves imperial vicars 
beyond the Alps. And there the towns were less successful, 
because they were surrounded by the great feudatories, the 
Marquises of Montferrat, and the Counts of Saluzzo and of 
LomeUino, who, in those more remote and mountainous re- 
gions, had survived the civil wars. Yet the want of union 
among the nobles rendered them less dangerous to the cities, 
and the strongly situated Asn was more powerful than they. 
The family of the Veronese marquises, who, from the times 
of the Lombard kings, had to defend the defiles of the Alps 
against the Germans, was extinct, and ^e great cities of 
Verona, Fadtui, Vicenza, TrevisOy and Mantiia, nearly equal 
in power, maintained their independence. Boloona held the 
first rank among the towns south of the Po, and had become 
equally formidable on the side towards Modena and ReggiOf 
and, on the other, towards Fbrrara, Ravennaj Imola, Faenaa^ 
Fbrlij and lUmmL 

TuscANT had likewise seen her powerful marquises become 
extinct with Countess Mathildis, in 1115; and whilst the em- 
perors and popes were quarrelling about the possession of her 
rich inheritance, the small and hitherto insignificant Florence 
began rapidly to rise into power by the destruction of her ancient 
rival, Fiesolej on Mount Apennine, and the command of the 
fertile valley of the Amo. Toung and buoyant Florence did 
not yet exercise any dominion over the neighboring towns of 
Fistofa, San Miniato, and VoUerra, or over the more remote 
towns of Jju/cca^ Arezzo, Cartana, Ferugia and Sierta ; but 
she was already conridered as the head of the Tuscan Lbaoub, 

486 ABVSNTH PEEIOD.— HAIJAM rbpdbuos. 

and ihe more so because rieli and eatetprlsiiig Pisa at 
that period turned all her energies to her commerce and mari- 
time expeditions. The ancient family of the Dokes of Spoleto 
had also become extinct, and the towns of Umbria, without 
yielding to the feeble remonstrance^ of the Pope, had re- 
gained their freedom ; but their secluded positions in the val- 
leys of Mount Apennine prevented them from rising into im- 

BoME herself, the old grandmother, indulged in the same 
spirit of independence which animated her young and nume- 
rous progeny around her. The first great and venerable re- 
former of the middle ages, Arnold of Brescia, the disciple 
of the celebrated and uiJiappy Abailard, in France, preached 
already, with the Bible in his hand, the reform of Church and 
State. He was called to Rome in 1144, where he, with a 
noble enthusiasm, founded a new Constitution, at the head of 
which he placed a Roman Senate, supported by republican 
assemblies of the people. Pope Eugene IIL in vain sent forth 
his thunders, and was obliged to seek a refuge behind the 
walls of Saint Angelo. 

406. The civil feuds between the ruling houses of Germany, 
and the disastrous events of the second crusade of Conrad 
III., had drawn the attention of the emperors away from 
Italy (1137-1154); and during the long struggle of the 
German Guelfs and Ghibelines, the Italian cities had already 
established their independence. The citizens no longer ac- 
knowledged the bishops, counts, or marquises as imperial 
vicars ; nor were the latter able, without support from Ger- 
many, to sustain their authority. The cities had long ago 
elected their magistrates, whom they called Consuls. The 
nimiber of these officers differed, in the different cities, from 
five to twenty. They administered justice, and commanded 
the militia of the towns. They were chosen from the three 
orders, namely ; the CapUan% or high feudatories, who 


sided with the citizens ; the Valvasours or knights, and the 
borgheFS. The rural nobility, inspired with the enthusiasm of 
the age, enrolled themselves among the citizens, built towers - 
and palaces in ihe towns, and formed the cavalry of the civic 
armies. A Council of Truatr-cansigliodicredenza — consisting 
of a certain number of citizens of each class, formed the town 
council, which deliberated in secret. On important occasions 
the parliament — condones, or general comitia of the people — 
were convoked, by the sound of the* great bell, to give their 
opinion by acclamation on the propositions which already by 
the consuls had been carried through the Council of Trust. The 
decisions were then promulgated in the name of the popoio or 
commune. There was at that early period no distinction be- 
tween the judicial and executive powers, nor any real legisla- 
tion ; and the right of making laws was still considered as a 
prerogative of the emperor as King of Lombardy, assisted by 
the great feudatories, the bishops and the counts, and by the 
imperial judges, at the general diets convoked for the purpose 
in the plain of EoncagUa, on the banks of the Fo. Thus the 
cities still continued to acknowledge, at least nominally, the 
emperor's sovereignty over Italy, his right of exacting mili- 
tary service, of giving investitures of feudal tenures, of appoint- 
ing imperial judges, distinct from the magistrates of the people, 
of demanding the foderum or provisions for his suite or army, 
whenever he crossed the Alps ; and lastly, of sending from 
time to time his misH or vicars, who represented the person 
of the sovereign. Yet the continual dissensions both between 
the feudatories, their vassals and the cities, and between the 
cities against one another, had early called forth a warlike 
spirit, and highly developed military organization. The 
noble citizens made their i^ppearance on horseback in com- 
plete armor ; Milan alone mustered eight thousand men-at- 
arms. The rest of the citizens, according to their rank and 
wealth, formed the infantry, commanded by the consuls. The 
large banner of the city floated from a high pole fixed on a 
huge chariot — carroccto^-drawn by teams of oxen. On a plat- 

488 SEVEwm period. — ^Italian republics. 

form in front of the flagstaff stood the leaders of the army, and 
from thence they gave their directions during the combat. The 
carroccio formed the centre of the battle array, and its safety 
was intrusted to squadrons of the most gallant youths.^" 

Yet, most unhappily, every one of the rising republics im- 
mediately turned its activity against its neighbor ; all was 
jealousy and hatred, and the exuberance of animal courage 
among the citizens spurred them to chivalrous battles, or to 
fight without benefit or purpose. This restless spirit and 
political blindness alloyed their reed love of freedom^ and made 
them more cruel tyrants to their weaker neighbors than the 
German emperors hitherto ever had been. They played over 
again the tragedy of ancient Hellas, with all the circumstances 
of inveterate hatred, unjust ambition, and atrocious retaliation, 
and thus called down upon themselves the terrible sword of 
Frederic BarbaroBsa, in 1154.. The emperor was victorious ; 
Milan was humiliated and destroyed ; yet. the heartless cruelty 
of the conqueror deprived him of the fruits of his triumph. 
The former oppressors became now the oppressed, and the 
iron rod of German despotism weighed heavily on Italy. 
Frederic was entirely ignorant of the great political develop- 
ment which had taken place beyond the Alps. The proud 
Carman prince was insensible to the beauty of Italian life 
and progress in civilization. In those lively, wealthy, and 
intelligent republicans, Barbarossa, cold, like the cuirass that 
covered his breast, saw nothing but insolent rebels, pilfering 
usurpers, who, during the disasters of the empire, had robbed 
their master, the Boman emperor, of his rights. His haughty 

"•• This flingidar custom of the carroeeiOf whioh plays so prominent a 
part in the wars of the Italian Republics^ was first introduced into 
Milan in 1089 by the unruly Bishop Heribei't» daring his contest with 
the nobles. By degrees every city adopted the carroccio, in imitation 
of the ark of the Israelites; it became a kind of palladium, the emblem 
of popular independence ; and its loss in, battle was considered as the 
greatest dishonor and national calamity. 


beariDg at the diet of Boncaglis ; the inhuman treatment of 
Milan^ Grema, and other captnred cities ; the extravagant in- 
terpretation of the concessions made ; the unsparing rigor of 
the podestas or military goyernors, "whom he imposed on the 
cities even most faithful to his cause, caused a general indig* 
nation throughout Italy. At last the fire broke out into an 
open flame^ which blazed forth through all the cities of Lom- 
bardy, and extended to those of the marshes of Yerona and 
Treviso, beyond the Adige. In April, 1 167, the Lombard 
League of twenty-three cities laid the foundation of the inde- 
pendence of Italy. 

407. 11. Cities OP the Lombard League, 1167-1210. — 
L The Archbishopric of Mediolanum (Milan) was bounded on 
the north by the territory of Como, on the east by that of Ber- 
gamo, from which it was divided by the Adda ; south, it 
touched the territories of Lodi and Pavia ; and west, the Ticino 
separated it from Novara. The province of Milan was thu|i 
situated in the centre of the great plain of Lombardy, and 
watered by the Lambro, the Oiona^ and other tributaries of «. 
the Po. The great canal, il Naviglio Grande^ united the 
Ticino with the Lambro, and flowed around the city. This 
great work, the most admirable hydrai:dic achievement of the 
middle ages, was undertaken by the Milanese at this period 
of commercial activity. The territory of Milan was divided 
into seven districts : 1, Mediolanuniy with the capital of that 
name ; 2, Martesana ; 3, Seprio; 4, Burgaria; 6, Bazana; 
6, Triviglio ; and 7, Stazuma^ on the Lago Maggiore. 

408. MiLANo, the populous and fortified metropolis, was 
rendered almost impregnable by the broad canals which pro- 
tected the front of its immense walls. These were sixty feet 
in height, defended by many towers, battlements, and barbi- 
cans, rendering the approach extremely difficult. The only 
enemy whom Ihe Milanese feared among so large a popula- 
tion was a famine. All the assaults of Frederic Barbarossa, 



in 1 154 ftnd 1 162, were repelled. The proud emperor was tkiifl 
obliged to transform the siege into a blockade, and catting off 
the supplies from abroad, the starving mnltitudes within the 
walls were soon reduced to the last extremity. The haughty 
chivalry of Germany entered by the breach, and the hard- 
hearted monarch condemned the city to total destruction. 
This cruel and impolitic order was exeonted to the letter by 
the revengeful Italians of Lodi, Oremona, and Pavia, who re- 
joiced at the &11 of their rival. Only the churches and con- 
vents were preserved ; all other public and private dwellings, 
together with the numerous relics of Roman grandeur — such as 
temple-ruins, amphitheatres, and towers — disappeared entirely, 
and the plough was driven through the rubbish.^" 

Five years after this wanton demolition, the Lombards 
could bear their humiUation *no longer; they rose in their 
might. The cities of Cremona, lately the bitter enemy of 
Milan, Beegamo, Brescia, Mantua, Ferrara, Bologna, 
Parma, Piacenza, Mobena, and many others, signed the Lom- 
bard League against the German tyrant, sent ofif their mili- 
tia to Milan, recalled its dispersed inhabitants, and began 
with true Italian enthusiasm its restoration. Soon the walls 
and towers of the new city rose more formidable than ever; 
and from that time it withi^od all the attacks of its enemies. 

TriHitm (Trezzo), and Vaprio^ on the Adda, were cele- 
brated castles. Rosiatey Binascuniy and Mdegnanum, were 
boroughs in the south. Lignanum (Leghano), northwest of 
Milan, in the plain on which was fought. May 29, 1176, the 
decisive battle of Italian liberty. Frederic Barbarossa was 
there defeated by the citizens of Milan and their confederates. 
The brilliant squadrons of the Milanese youths— ^^c^iere deila 
morte — spurred against the German chivalry with such resist- 

'"' Milan has at present the aspect of a modem city ; only eighteen 
weather-beaten marble columns in front of the church Sanct Ambrogio, 
seem to have been spared, and remind us of the ancient capital of the 
Boman emperors in the fifth centuxy. 


less fary that the whole hostile army was routed with tremen- 
dous slaughter. Old Barharossa falling beneath his wounded 
steed, lay hidden among the slain, like Marshal BlQcher at 
Ligny, 1815, and was with difficulty brought away by his 
faithful squires during the darkness of the night. While the 
joyful Italians were reyelling after their victory, the yan- 
quished emperor, in the disguise of a shepherd, passed their 
lines, and through by-paths succeeded in gaining Payia, where 
his empress, Beatrix of Burgundy, and the court, were mourn- 
ing his death. The whole German camp was taken ; and the 
Italian prisoners and immense booty were recoyered by the 
united Lombards, who by this blow terminated the long and 
bloody struggle in the peace of Constance, in 1183. 

409. II, Beroonium (Bergamo), in a magnificent position, on 
a steep hill, in front of the Alps, and between the rivers Brem- 
ba and Serio, was one of ^e most active members of the Lom- 
bard confederacy. Funtido, west of Bergamo, was the con- 
vent where the treaty was signed by the Rectors or envoys of 
the cities, on the 7th of April, 1167. 

III. Brsxia (Brescia), east of Bergamo, still more cele- 
brated by its heroic resistance during the siege by Frederic IL 
in 1252. The citizens defeated the Ghibelines in every sor- 
tie, and forced the emperor, with dishonor and loss, to raise 
the siege. 

lY. Cremona, situated in a beautiful plain, and encom- 
passed with ditches, walls, and towers, was earlier a Ghibe- 
line city, which had faithfully adh^ed to the imperial party ; 
but the haughty bearing and cruelty of its German Podestd 
so exasperated the hot-blooded Cremonese that they joined 
their arms to their brethren in the Lombard League in 1 167. 
Soon, however, the old jealousies prevailed again, and the 
fickle Cremona ranged under the GhibeUne banner of Henry 
VI. against the Guelfic Eepublics, in 1195. Curti^ ffbva 


(Cortenuova), northeast of Cremona, where Frederic II., by 
skilful manoeiivres, totally defeated the army of the Lombard 
League in 1237. The banner-carriage of the cities was lost, 
together with thousands of prisoners ; and the Hohenstaufen 
star might again have arisen if the arrogance of Frederic, and 
his subsequent defeat before Brescia, had not clouded all the 
prospects of that incorrigible family. 

410. V. BoNONiA (Bologna), the queen of the Romandiola 
(Bomagna), south of the Po, was, after Milan, the strongest 
and most turbulent of the Italian Republics. Its fertile ter- 
ritory, watered by the Po and its tributaries, the Rhevw, Sar- 
vana and Silaro, embraced the counties, Casalecchio, FdnicOj 
LoglanOj Medidna^ and Argdata^ on the lower Po ; and the 
warlike republic extended its dominion over all the smaller 
cities of Eomagna (398). 

Bologna was, during the middle ages, a splendid city. 
Situated at the northern base of Mount Apennine, it com- 
manded a most delightful prospect towards the plain and the 
mountains. It was strongly fortified, and divided into four 
wards, the militia of which were led on by their respective 
banner-chiefs — Ganfalonieri, Frowning towers rose proudly 
above the palaces and churches in the interior. Many of 
these strongholds have since been broken ; but the Asindli 
Tower, 380 feet high, and the somewhat lower Garisenday 
both inclining several feet from their base, like the celebrated 
hanging tower of Pisa, to this day remind us of the republican 
times of old. Nor was Bologna less celebrated for its flour- 
ishing university, the first of modem Europe, where many 
thousands of students from north and west gathered to listen 
to the lectures of the great professors Imerius, Bulgarus, 
Martinus de Gosi, Jacobus de Porta Ravennate, and Hugh 
Alberici, the able expounders of the Roman Law, which, after 
the discovery of the Justinian Pandects in 1137, began to be 
studied with renewed enthusiasm throughout all Italy. Bo- 
logna had already obtamed its municipal independence by a 


charter from the emperor Henry Y. in 1112, which granted it 
the privilege of coining money, and other important regalian 
rights. The citizens assembled in general comitia ; they ap- 
pointed their consuls and other magistrates. The nobles, who 
held feudal castles in the environs, were obliged to apply for 
citizenship in the town, and take up their residence among the 
burghers. These fierce republicans strenuously supported the 
Lombard League. They defeated King Enzio, the son of 
Frederic II., in the battle at Fossalta, in 1246, and kept the 
unhappy prince in captivity until his death, in 1272. 

The factions of the Guelfs and Ghibelines preyed the ruin 
of the prosperity and independence of Bologna. Ambitious 
and rival families sided under either banner. A private crime 
of the proud Lambertazzi, the head of the Ghibeline party, 
brought on the most frightful disasters.'** The offended (Je- 
remei, the chief family of the Guelfs, drove the former, at the 
sword's point, out of the city, in 1274, with fifteen thousand of 
their partisans and defendants, who, finding support among 
the nobles in the mountains, led on by Guide da Montefeltro, 

^Imilda de' Lambertazzi loved the young Boniface Oeremei, 
whose family had long been separated by the most inveterate enmity 
from her own. Daring a secret interview, the lovers were sniprised 
by the Lambertazzi, the brothers of the yonng lady. Imilda escaped, 
but the lover was stabbed to the heart by the poisoned daggers of the 
Lambertazzi. In her despair, Imilda returned ; she found his body still 
warm, and a faint hope suggested the remedy of sucking the venom 
from his wound& But it only communicated itself to her veins ; and 
the two unhappy lovers were found by her attendants stretched lifeless 
by each other's side. So cruel an outrage wrought the Geremei to 
madness : they formed an alliance with the democratic party in the 
city, and with some neighboring republics : the Lambertazzi took the 
same measures among the nobility, and after the most frightful battle 
in the streets of Bologna of forty days* duration, wherein palaces and 
towers were stormed, and part of the city destroyed, all the Ghibe- 
lines were driven out, their houses razed, and their estates confiscated 
[See the entertaining account of the revolution of Bologna, in Simonde 
de Sismondi's History of the Italian Hepublict. Tome IIL, pp. 442 et 


Lord of Urbiao, renewed the war, until Pope NioholaB III. 
procured the recall of the exiles. 

411. VI.-XIL Venice, Vicenza, Padua, Trsvizo, 
MoDENA, Parma, and Piacenza, took all a more or less act- 
ive part in the Lombard Leagae. At Venice, on the square 
of Saint Marc, the humbled Barbarossa bowed down before 
the Pope Alexander III., and concluded the armistice with 
the Republics in 1177, which was followed by their indepen- 
dence at the peace of Constance in 1 183. On the plain of Ron- 
caglia, east of Piacenza, the diets of the Germim kings and 
emperors were held in the presence of the feudatories and the 
deputies from the Italian cities. There laws were promul- 
gated, and the feudal armies of Germany and Italy passed in 
review before the imperial tent. The splendid camps of so 
many thousands of princes and barons, adorned with shields, 
banners, and all the pomp of chivalry, extended for miles along 
the banks of the Nura and the Po. Religious processions al- 
ternated with tournaments and banquets. From the Roncag- 
lian plain the emperors generally went to Monza^ near Milan, 
to take the iron crown of Lombardy, and disbanding the feu- 
dal armies they iiien returned to Germany. Such had been 
the custom for centuries, during the reign of the Saxon, Sa- 
ltan, Franconian, and Souabian dynasties, until the time of 
Frederic I., when the victory of the Lombard Republics occa- 
sioned a total change in the relations between Italy and the 
Germanic empire. Guelfic cities in the west were Cairium 
(Ohieri), Asta (Asti), and Taurinttm (Turin), which defended 
themselves against the imperial feudatories, the Marquises of. 
Montferrat and Malaspina, and the Counts of Savoy and Sa- 
luzzo. They were therefore attacked by Frederic Barbarossa 
in 1154, and either demolished or given to the Marquis of 

412. XIII. Terdona (Tortona), on the Scrivia, south of 
the Po, the faithful ally of Milan, was considered as the bul- 


wark of ihe Guelfio cities. Sttnated <m a steep heiglit and 
strongly fortiiled, the heroie Tortoflcese withstood all the at- 
tacks of 100,000 Qermans^ acid set a glorious example to the 
Lombard cities in their struggle for ind^)endeiice. Without 
relief from her allies, howeyer, Xortona fell at last, in AprU, 
1 155, and was ruiMessly destroyed by Barbarossa ; the proud 
ruins of the upper town still commemorate the fortitude and 
perseverance ; of the Italian Republicans of the twelfth cen- 
tury. XI Y. Alessandria della paglia (the straw-thatched 
Alexandria) waa built by the united efforts of the League, 
during the war, as a protection for Milan against the Ghibe- 
line princes of Piedmont. That strong fortress is situated in 
an excellent military position at the junction of the Tanaro 
and Bormida ; it receiyed its name in honor of the Pope Al- 
exander III. the head of the League, and in spite of the dis- 
dainful nickname of ddia pagliay it was speedily garrisoned by 
fifteen thousand combataiits, who gallantly frustrated all the 
efforts of Frederic I. to destroy the rising city. XV. Gomo, 
and XY I. Lodi, though . old enemies of Milan, were forced 
by their position to join the League: so were XYII. the fickle 
Yercelli, and XYIII. Novara, though they afterwards 
changed sides according to the interest of the moment. The 
League was soon sixengthened by new members, yiz. Mantua, 
important by its central position on the Adige, Bavenna, 
KiMiNi, Begged, and Bobbio, All re-established their consu- 
lar goyemments, and a kind of federal diet was assemUed at 
Moitena, composed of enyoys from the yarious cities, who 
were styled Rectors of the JJeague. But this appearance of 
a real federal union lasted only as long as the contest with 
Frederic Barbarossa, and dissolyed itself quickly after the 
general peace of Ooustance in 1183. 

413. III. G-HiBELiNE Cities and Principalities in North- 
ern Italy.— Pavia, the ancient capital of the Lombard kings 
(152), was the only one among the imperial or Ghibeline cities 
which remained the faithful ally of the Hoh^istaufens, and eyen 


she was afterwards forced, by the preponderating influenee of 
Milan, to side with the rest Como^ Lod% Cremoruiy VerceU% 
and NwHvra had the same fate; and only Parma, by its 
strength and position, was enabled more effectually to support 
the imperial cause, until she too, in 1248, by her rebellion, 
gave the sinking power of Frederic 11. the last blow, from 
which it never rose again. 

The following principalities were Ghibeline : I. The mar- 
quisate of Montferrat, in an important position between 
Asti aad Pavia, rose from a small beginning, in the course 
of the tenth century, by donations of the emperors, to become 
one of the most distinguished families in the twelfth.'^' II. The 
margravate of Malaspina, south of the former, along Mount 
Apennine, embraced the important Bobium (Bobbio), on 
the upper valley of the Trebia, the defile of Fontremoli, and 
the iMfiisiana, on the frontiers of Tuscany. By thus pos- 
sessing the keys to the Vol d^AtnOy the Margraves of Ma- 
laspina held in their hasids the balance of power between 
the Ghibeline chiefs in the north, and the rich Florentine 
Guelfs in the south ; and they knew cleverly how to play the 

III. The county of Savoy, in the Alps. The history of 
the house of Savoy is one of the most interesting among 
the royal dynasties of Europe. By the eminent talents of 
the chiefs, and the unclouded success which attended their 
arms, they formed in the course of centuries that magnificent 
kingdom on both sides of the Alps and the shores of the 
Mediterranean, firom which we in fature hope and expect the 
deliverance and regeneration of Italy. The ancient Counts of 
Mauriana received from Henry V. of Germany the investiture 
of all Savoy as an imperial county. The counts successively 

'^ Conrad of Montferrat was the fellow-cmsader of King lion- 
Heart of England ; a Buccessor of that daring chie^ Boniface of Mont- 
ferrat, conquered the kingdom of ThesBalonika in 1205 (354); and the 
unfortunate William of Montferrat, who died in 1292, was father-in-kw 
to the Qreek emperor, Andronicus PaliUiologtis. 


extended their sway over parts of Burgundy and Piedmont, 
and possessed in the time of the Souabian dynasty the follow- 
ing provinces; A. North of the Alps; 1, the county of Sa- 
vq/a, with the city of Chiambery ; 2, the county of Taran- 
tasia (Tarantaise), commanding the defile over the Montem 
Maledictum (Lesser Saint Bernard), into the valley of Aosta ; 
3, the county of Mauriana (Maurienne), on- the south, lead- 
ing to the defile of Mount Cenis (155); 4-6, the baronies of 
Bugey^ Jays^ and AUe ; 7, the county of Waadt ( Vaud) with 
parts of Lesser Burgundy, such as Moudon^ Ma^U, Lau' 
sanne, Vivis (Vevay), and the castle of Chilian, on the beau- 
tiful lake Leman; and 8, the duchy of Chiablesa (Chablais), 
on the southern banks of that lake.'*^ B. South of the Alps ; 
9, the duchy of Avosta (Aosta), in the fertile valley of the 
Dora Baltea, with the city of CastiUione and the castle of 
Bardone defending the descent to the plain of Piedmont; 10, 
the principality of Intramonti (Piedmont); and 11, the 
marquisate of Susa, at the foot of the Graian Alps. Such a 
union of provinces, commanding the defiles of the western 
Alps, placed the Counts of Savoy in hostile relations to their 
neighbors ; but they defended their position with remarkable 
bravery and success. Count Amadeus III., the crusader, 
founded the splendid abbey of ITautecombe, on the Lake of 
Annecy, in Savoy. His son, Humbert III., the saint, com- 
pelled the Marquis of Saluzzo to acknowledge himself his 
vassal He followed the banner of Frederic Barbarossa as 

^'^ The shores of the lake were inherited hy Count Peter of Savoy 
(1208-1268), a wise and chivalrous prince. He had loDg resided at the 
court of Henry IIL of England, who, admiring his excellent qualities, 
made him Earl of Richmond, and gave him for his residence the palace 
called Savoy S&Me, on the banks of the Thames. It was to the friendship 
of Richard of Cornwall, who was elected King of Germany, that Count 
Peter owed those extensive grants in Burgundy i(3witzerland). Peter 
died at his favorite residence, the romantic, castle of Chillon, in 1268, 
and lies buried in the abbey of Hautecombe. See interesting details 
in Johannes yon MOller^s JSUtory of the 8wis9 Oantom, Book L, 
chap. 16. 

498 SBvrarrH pbriod.— ghibslii«£ pjiinoipalitxbs. 

feudatoiy of Buzgandy, bat when the scale of battle turned 
against the emperor, he kept aloof, and was punished with 
the loss of part of his dominions, and the destruction of Susa 
by the Germans in 1174, where the archives of the house of 
Savoy are said to have perished in the flames. His succes- 
sors acted with admirable tact during the long struggle of the 
Guelf and Ghibeline parties; and though the dynasty of 
Savoy became split into two lines in 1285, the one in Savoy 
and the other in Piedmont, both were fortunately united again 
in 1363.^* 

414. IV. The Second Lombard League and the Ghibe- 
LiNE Principality op the Marc a Trevtsana, a. d. 1224- 
1268. — After the glorious peace of Constance, in 1183, Lom- 
bardy soon fell back into anarchy and civil feuds. The league 
was dissolved; the old animosities of the fiery republicans 
of so many contending cities broke forth with renewed fury. 
Milan again took the lead in the movement. Yet this time 
she suffered in her own bosom from intestine factions. Who 
could quell the hydra of civil discord, if not a distinguished 
foreign warrior, honest, impartial, unambitious ? Such a chief, 
who, indifferent to the parties, would stand between them, 
and keep all alike down with the sword, the short-sighted Mil- 
anese believed they had found in Uberto Yisconti, of Piacenza, 
whom they not only, in 1186, called to take the command of 
the republic, but even gave the . formerly so odious name 
of Podestd — a name and office that had caused such gene- 
ral detestation throughout Italy during the reign of Frederic 

"■ A detailed history of Savoy would be highly interesting. Under 
continual wars with the nobles of Dauphin^, the Swiss, and the house 
of Visoonti, the Counts of Savoy neveriheless made the most important 
acquisitions: Faueignyj in 1233; JSSauge and JBreue, 1285; Ivrea, in 
1860. Mgza, and many other Italian cities, surrendered voluntarily to 
the distinguished Amadeus VII Geneva placed herself under the protec- 
tion of the powerful counts in 1401, and the Emperor Sigismond raised 
them to the ranks of Dukeg of Savoy in 1416. A good history of Savoy 
is yet to be written. 

nnrBNTH period.— qoibeumb FamciPALinBS. 4d9 

Barbarossa. The republic had seornfiilly rejected the good- 
natured and bluff Oennan captains — ^now thej chose the most 
reckless and unsparing of Italian tyrants. What a singular 
debility in human nature, and how often repeated in history i 
The Italians themselyes call in their future oppressors, and 
give them the ominous name of Fodestd ! Milan, however, 
was at the height of her power; the number of her citizens 
was 200,000; she counted 13,000 priyate houses; her war- 
like nobility alone dwelt in sixty streets, all bristling witii 
towers and battlemented palaces. The province of Milan 
itself furnished 240,000 combatants, and was defended by 
150 castles, with adjoining boroughs. It was then that Milan, 
not content with the privileges obtained at the peace of Con- 
stance, and impelled by her hatred toward the family of the 
Hohenstaufens, placed herself at the head of a second league 
against Frederic II. All the cities of Central Lomfoardy, be- 
tween the Sesia and the Adige^ the Alps and the Ligurian 
Mountains**^Pavia and Lodi, the subjects of Milan, Brescia, 
Bergamo, Piacen^a, Mantua, Alessandria, and others, took up 
arms. Only Cremona and Parma remained still defenders of 
the empire. But the old spirit of independence no longer in- 
spired the confederates ; it was only a party struggle, fomented 
by violent Popes. The cities were defeated, and but for the 
rebellion of Parma in 1248, and the death of Frederic in 1250, 
the scale might yet have turned in favor of the Ghibeline 
arms. The cities of the March of Verona — Marca Trevisana 
— ^between the Adige, the Alps and the Adriatic— T^ona, 
Bassano, Vicenza^ Trident, Fadtea, and Trevuo suffered a 
still greater defeat by the terrible Eccelino of Bomano, the 
devoted Ghibeline feudatory of the Souabian dynasty. By ex- 
traordinary bravery, and unparalleled cruelty, he subdued the 
cities and put down the Guelfic party by the edge of the 
sword and the axe; and it was not until the year 1259 that 
a crusade {^reached by the pope put an end to the life and the 
tyranny of the monster, and liberated the shaken republics 
of noi*them Italy. 


Yet the firee constitutions oonld not be restored. Mikn 
had already passed through another revolution, which placed 
the mechanics and lower classes, who formed an armed confra- 
ternity under the name of Credenza di SanV Ambrogio, in 
opposition to the wealthy citizens — La Motta — and the nobles. 
Neither the podesta nor the consuls could restore order among 
the infuriated parties. A foreign prince, with his mercenary 
condottieri, was therefore called in, and the political power — la 
signoria — ^was intrusted to him for several years. These sig- 
nori thus sprung up in every part of Lombardy and Romagna; 
surrounded by their men-at-arms — lande, barbute — and a nu« 
merous infantry, they took possession of the castles, and ob- 
taining the imperial vicariate from the German king for ready 
money, or the enfeoffment of the pope, they crushed the par- 
ties, together with the constitutions, and rendered themselves 
absolute sovereigns of the deluded conmionwealths. Thus 
arose in the course of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 
the principalities of the ViscarUi in Milan, the Langoschi in 
Pavia, the Gonzaga in Mantua, the Este in Ferrara, the Delia 
Scala in Yerona, the Carrara in Padua, the Rusconi in Co- 
mo, the Fichi in Mirandola, the Fii in Carpi, the JPolenta in 
Ravenna, the Malatcsta in Rimini, the Orddaffi in Forli, the > 
Manfredi in Eaenza, the Alidosi in Imola, the Varani in Ca- 
merino, the Mantefeltri in Urbino, and others. The courts of 
these petty tyrants were the seats of learning, art, and ele- 
gance, on the one hand ; and the most awful crimes and cor- 
ruption on the other ; the highest enjoyments of civilization 
alternating with the most violent catastrophes. The condot- 
tieri, with their hired bands of mail-clad men-at-arms, were as 
perfidious as the princes who had taken them into service, and' 
they sometimes succeeded in mounting the throne themselves, 
as Francesco Sforza that of Milan in 1460. Only a few states, 
such as Venice, Florence, Qenoa, and some smaller ones, de- 
fended the republican institutions, at least in the form, though 
they were not more fortunate than the others, and still more 
tyrannize by the fearful despotism of the nobili^ as in YenicCy 


by the anarohj among the civic classes in Florence, or the 
ambition and continual feuds of the aristocratical families in 


The great contest between the Emperors and the Popes about 
the inheritance of the Countess Mathildis (312), had remained 
unsettled. The duchj of Spoleto, and the marches of Ancona, 
reverted to the church, but Tuscany, as an ancient fief of the 
empire, continued for a long time to be ruled by a marquis 
as imperial vicar, though the flourishing cities of that province 
organized themselves, in the spirit of the time, as independent 
republics. In these exertions they were encouraged by Pope 
Innocent III., who succeeded in forming a Guelfic Confeder- 
acy in Tuscany for the support of the Roman see, in imita- 
tion of that of Lombardy. The Tusc^ republics were more 
attached to the Pope than the Lombards, and their league was 
expressly established for the honor and aggrandizement of 
the apostolic see. These cities were, Florence, Fistqfa, Luc- 
ca, Siena, Volterra, and Arezzo, while Fisa remained 
strongly attached to the empire, and was considered as the 
head of tho Ohibeline party in Tuscany. The feudatories 
and nobles who, by their opposition to the cities, appeared as 
zealous Ghibelines, were the count-palatines of Tuscia, on the 
southwestern coast of Massa and Carrara, the Gherardeschi 
and the Ildebrandeschi, on the coast, the Uderti and the Faz- 
zi, in the upper Yal d'Amo, the Udaldini in the Mugello, the 
powerful Guidi in the Casentino, the Tarlati in the Vol di 
Chiana, and many other noble families residing in their cas- 
tles on both slopes of Mount Apennine. 

416. I. The Bepublic of Florentia (Firenze), toward the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, was, by Mount Ajpennine, 
separated on the north from the territory of Bologna, and on 
the east from Romagna ; yet it possessed the counties of Mu- 
ti]gnano and Mangona on its eastern slope. On the south it 


touched the republics of Areszo and Siena, and on the west 
those of Pisa and Lncoa. Its natural divisions were, on the 
east the valleys of the MugeUo and Casentino, on the south 
the valdi Chiana towards Arezzo, on the west the 170/ e^jE^^a, 
on the north the fiercely contested vol di Ntevole towards 
Lucca, and in the centre the fertile and beautifbl valleys of 
the Amo, the Oreba, and the Pesa. From the time of the 
death of the Countess Mathildis, in 1 1 15, Florence and the 
other cities of Tuscany began to govern themselves as inde- 
pendent commonwealths, under the mighty protection of the 
popes. Florence had then a very limited territory — Contado 
— extending only a few miles round its walls ; but the indus- 
try and speculative spirit of its citizens wonderfully enriched 
them. They had already commercial establishments in the 
Levant, in France, and in Flanders ; they were money-lenders, 
jewellers, and goldsmiths. After having put an end to their 
rivalry with Fiesole on Mount Apennine by the destruction of 
that ancient city, the Florentines enlarged the circuit of their 
city in 1078 ; they defeated the imperial vicar and his knights 
at Monte Casciolij in 1 1 13, during the lifetime of the old count* 
ess, and soon appeared at the head of the Ouelfic cities against 
the Ghibeline feudatories of Mount Apennine. This brilliant 
development of a community of merchants and mechanies, 
forced the nobles to seek their alliance, to sae Ibr the citizen- 
ship, and to take up their residence within the walls of the 
town. Yet Ihis otherwise invigorating union led to new inter* 
nal disturbances, r^dsed first in 1177 by the powerful family 
of the Uberti, and in 1215 by the Biumdehnonti and Do- 
nati, which, after much bloodshed, and the destruction of the 
numerous towers and castles of these proud families m the 
city, terminated with the banishment of the whole Ghibeline 

w« A nobleman of the femily of the Buondelmonti had been be- 
trothed to a young lady of the XJberti, whom he abandoned to marry 
another of the family of the Donati. The Uberti, resenting the insult, 
formed a conspiracy, and Mosca Lamberti ezelauning^ ooia fatta capo 


All the attempts of the Ghibelines to return sword in 
hand were foiled, and the Florentines gradually became a stout, 
warlike people, who, not content with ruling over their com- 
munity, marched boldly against Pistoja, Pisa, and Lucca. They 
likewise attacked the Ghibeline feudatories, the Ubaldini, and 
the Guidi, in the Apennines ; in 1254, they took Volterra, 
and extended their commerce and industry with the succei£ 
of their armies. Florence, however, in imitation of the Lom- 
bard republics, not secure under her consuls and anzianiy 
placed a stranger as a condottiere, with his mercenary soldiery, 
at the head of her government. Another stranger, generally a 
nei^boring nobleman, took the command of the civic compa- 
nies of the sestieriy or wards. The victories of the brave King 
Manfred of Naples, in 1260, enlivened the hopes of the Ghi- 
belines ; they gathered their strength under the experienced 
Farinata degli XJberti, and defeated the Florentine army at 
Monte Aperto, with so tremendous a loss, that they victoriously 
took possession of Florence herself. The ascendency of the 
Florentine Ghibelines was, however, of short duration. They 
itood and fell with the Hohenstaufens, in Germany and Na- 
ples; the defeat and death of King Manfred, in 1266, and the 
still more tragical fate of the young and hopeful Conradino, 
in 1268, decided their overthrow and expulsion. The Guelfs, 
supported by King Charles of Anjou and Naples, now ruled 
the republic ; but tranquillity was not restored, for the victors 
themselves divided into two hostile parties — ^the White and 
the Black — i Bianchi ed i Neri: The first, who formed the 
moderates, who desired a compromise wiUi the unhi^py Ghi- 
belines, were in their turn expelled. Among them was the 
great statesman and greater poet Dante Alighieri, who, like 
most of the banished Whites, turned all his hope toward the 
generous German Emperor, Henry VII. of Luxemburg, and 

Ad, they assaulted and stabbed Buondelmonti on the bridge of Arno^ 
and caused all Florence to rise in arms, supporting the one or the other 
party. See Storie Fiormtine, by Nicoold Maehiavelli, Libro IL, and Sis- 
mondi's Italian Bepubliet, chap. XSXL 


became a stout Ghibeline. In spite of all these commo- 
tions, Florence continued a populous and wealthy republic, 
more and more firmly consolidating its admirable democratic 
goyernment. The city itself, situated on the beautiful banks 
of the Amo, became, during this interesting period, adorned 
with magnificent public buildings, the huge cathedral of Santa 
Maria del Fiore^ of white and black marbles, the embattled 
Palazzo VecchiOy with its mighty tower, on the great square 
(1298), and other masterpieces of architecture, by Amolfo di 
Lapo and Filippo BrunelleschL Thus art and science went 
hand in hand with commerce and industry.^"* But the military 
honor of the Florentines sustained terribly by the numerous 
defeats which they sufiered by the indifference or treachery 
of their condottieri or by the bustling indiscipline of their 
citizen-soldiers, who so often were prostrated by the lances of 
the Pisan chivalry. 

417. II. The republic of Pisa extended from the Valdi 
Nievole, along the lower Amo, to the coast of the Tuscan 
Sea. Its territory reached north to the river Macra, embracing, 
at times, the valley of IJunigiana and the wild region of Cror- 
fagnana on Mount Apennine, and south along the Maremme 
to the promontory of Fiombino, Off the coast it possessed the 
smaller islands: MeUoria^ Gorgona^ Capraja^ Flantisay Elba^ 
GigliOf and Cfianuli, together with the southwestern part of 
Sardinia^ and the eastern coast of Corsica, Pisa was situated 
on the banks of the lower Amo, four miles from Forto Fisano 
at the mouth of that river. The town was divided by the 
Amo into two nearly equal parts, connected by three bridges ; 

"* During tbia brilliant period of Florentine history they first 
coined their golden flar%n$ of twenty-four carats, and the- weight of a 
drachm, bearing the impression of John the Baptist, the patron of the 
city, and a lily, the device of Florence. The florin was then considered 
the finest coin in all Europe, and the Florentine merchants were flat- 
tered by princes and nations, enjoying every where es^nsive privileges 
and the highest reputation for integrity. 


the magnificent quays ahmg the banks were Hned with palaces, 
and in the interior the pilgrim of the middle ages i^mired a 
number of wonderfally beautifiil buildings in the early Gothic 
architecture — ^the cathedral, baptistery, belfry and the Oampo 
Santo— of the eleyenth and twelfth centuries. More than 
150,000 daring and active citizens, under their annual consuls 
and their bishops, hoisted their flag on every coast of the 
Mediterranean. About the year 1070 began her wars with 
the Genoese, which continued with various interruptions for 
more than two centuries, and ended' with the downfall of noble 
and faithful Pisa. So strong wete the Pisans at the time, 
that they sent an armament of three hundred ships of 
Tarious sizes, having on board thirty^^five thousand men and 
nine hundred horses, to the Baliearic islands, which they 
conquered from the A»ibs in conjunction with Count Bay* 
mondo lY. of Barcelona in 1117. Pisa took a glorious part 
in all the crusades on the coast of Syria, where she possessed 
&Gtories and fortified bazaairsi She remained the staunch 
a^y of the Frederics during their good skid evil fortune, but 
in 1282 she lost the great naval battle against the Genoese 
off the island of Melloria, in which, after the most desperate 
8<aruggle, three thousand of her bravest warriors perished and 
thirteen thousand were carried prisoners to Genoa. Shortly 
after Gorrado Doria attacked the Porto Pisano, at the mouth 
ef the Arno, destroyed its towers, docks and naval establish- 
ments, captured its galleys, and sunk wrecks filled with stones 
at the entrance. From this blow unhappy Pisa never recov- 
ered. She lost her rank as a maritime power, after a glorious 
career of four centuries ; Venice and Genoa were left alone 
to dispute for the naval supremacy of the Mediterranean, and 
after another century of the most astonishing display of faith 
and valor, brilliant victories and crushing defeats, Pisa bowed 
beneath the impending fate and opened her gates in 1405 to 
her mortal enemies — the Florentines. 

418. III. The republic of Siena was bounded by Florence 


on the north, Pisa and the palatinate of Tuscia on the west 
Arezzo on the east, and the papal states on the south. The 
city of Sena (Siena) on its hills in the centre of Tuscany, was 
one of the most picturesqne towns of medisdval Italy. What 
traveller can without admiration and delight yisit her vener- 
able cathedral and other splendid (lurches, her Piazza del 
CampOj the forum of the ancient republic, with its huge city 
hall, and the Mangia tower, from the battlements oi which he 
still discovers scores of embattled piJaces and towers rising 
proudly above the mass of houses and streets below. The 
Sienese were likewise staunch Ghibelines. Siena extended her 
dominion over the Maremmey occupying the Tuscan palatinate, 
but she never became a naval power like Pisa. Her republi- 
can career was stormy, and after the fall of the house of 
Souabia in 1268, she soon fell under theGuelfic influence of 
Charles of Anjou at Naples. 

419. lY. The republics of Arezzo and Lxjcca took like- 
wise an active part in the wars and revolutions of the thir- 
teenth century. The former as the retreat and asylum of the 
exiles from Florence ; the latter, under its great citizen and 
chief Castruccio Castracani (1313-1328), renewing the droop- 
ing courage of &e imperial party. 

420. Oi^HER Cities, Oastles, and Historical Sites in 
Tuscany. — Valiombrosa, the celebrated convent, was situated 
in a magnificent pine forest on the height of Mount Apennine, 
overlooking the upper valley of the Amo. The order of Val- 
iombrosa was founded about the year 1039 by Giovanni Gual- 
berto a young nobleman from Val di Pisa. The monasteries 
of Camaldoli, San Romttaldo and ParadisinOy were estab- 
lished by Saint Eomuald, the founder of that order in 1012, 
among woody dells on the eastern slope of the mountain. Cam 
paldino in the Casentino, where in the year 1289 the great bat- 
tle was fought between the Guelfs of Florence and the GhibeHne 
exiles — §handUL Ypung Dante Alighieri, then still a Guelf, 

SEVENTH PBaiOI>.-*-^U80AlfT«— &OME. 507 

fought in the van of the cavalry and decided the victory for 
ike Florentines. Monte ApertOy on the Arbia, east of Siena, 
where the Florentine democrats suffered the great defeat 
from the exiled Ghibelines and the German cavaliers of King 
Manfred, in 1265, with the loss of the carroccio, 10,000 slain 
and 30,000 prisoners. Fistoja^ a beautiful city at the foot of 
the Apcnnine, where in 1296-1300 arose the feud between the 
Bianchi und Neri (White and Black), which spread to Florence 
and caused the exile of Bante and thousands of patriots. 
Alto-FasdOy a castle on the laJke Fucecchio, where the Seign- 
ior of Lucca, Castruccio Castracani, by a shrewd stratagem, 
defeated the Florentine army in 1325. Foggtbonziy on the 
road to Siena, where, at the neighboring Buonconvento, the 
chivalrous and honest Emperor Henry VII. of Luxem- 
burg was poisoned in the sacrament by a monk, a. d. 1313. 
Monte- Varchiy in the Yal di Chiana, Mimte-MurlOy near Pis- 
toja, Serravallej Monte Cdtini and Monte Sumano, the latter 
in the beautiful Yal di Nievole, were all strong castles and 
fortified boroughs, of melancholy memory to the Florentines, 
who there suffered the most disgraceful defeats from the 
Ohibelines of Pisa, or from their own exiled nobility. For- 
tus Liburni (Livomo, Leghorn), on the coast opposite to the 
isle of Melloria, was then a small and insignificant harbor. 

VIL Supremacy op the Roman See tinder Pope 
Innocent III. 

421. Extent and Acquisitions. — The Sovereignty of. the 
Church, for which Gregory YII. labored and died, was at last 
attained by Innocent III. at the beginning of the thirteenth 
century. This young and ambitious pope (1198-1216) re* 
newed all the arrogant pretensions of the Roman See to the 
pretended donations of Constantino, Pepin and Charlemagne. 
The circumstances of the time were favorable, during the mi- 
nority of Frederic II. The duchy of SpoUto, the March of J.9»- 
conay and the greater part of Romagna^ as allodial possessiottiii 

508 ■BVlMl'U' PBR10I>.-»-R01I8. 

of Gountefu Matbildis, were occupied by the pope, wbo not 
being strong enough to keep each extensiye territories under 
ike Keys of Saint Peter, granted them as fiefs to the Marquis 
of Este. Thus the temporal soyereignty of the Bishop of 
Rome at last extended oyer the greater part of Central Italy, 
entirely independent of the German em{»re. 

422. Prpvinces and Cities. — I. Patrimonium Sancti 
Pbtri (311) consisting of, A. The city of Rome with its 
enyirons; B. Tuscia Romana^ north of the Tiber; C. Sahina; 
D. Campania (the yalley of Ferentino and Anagnia) ; £. Mori- 
tima, the Pontine Swamps and the coast of Ostia, with the 
counties of Savelli and JF^angipani. Asiuray a city on the sea- 
shore, where the unhappy young Conradino of Souabia, after 
his defeat at Tagliacozzo in 1268, on his flight was betrayed 
and captured by the perfidious Gioyanni Frangipani of Astura. 
II. The duchy of Spoleto with the cities of Spoleto, Perugia 
and Assissiy with the sepulchre of the fanatic Saint Francis, 
the founder of the Franciscan order of Mendicant Monks in 
1210. Near Bibbiena, in the high range of the Apennines, 
stands the famous Conyent of Layema, still inhabited by a 
host of his Capuccin disciples. III. The March of Ancona, 
on the east of the Apennines, with the counties of Montefd- 
irOj Brancakone^ Fahriano^ and Varani, Ancona was then 
a powerful commercial city, with a republican form of goy- 
emment and the most friendly relations to the, Emperors 
of Constantinople. Being a stronghold of the Guelfs and a 
dangerous riyal of Venice, Ancona was in 1 174 blockaded by 
the Venetian fleet, and at the same time closely besieged by 
the imperial army of Frederic Barbarossa, commanded by 
the jolly Archbishop Christian of Maintz. But the citizens 
defended themselyes with heroical fortitude, and though suf- 
fering from the continual assaults of the drunken Germans, 
and from the most fearful famine in the city, yet they alike 
victoriously repelled the foes without and within, and on the ap- 
proach of the army of the Lombard League, the bragging prelate 

SEVBBTS wmaum, — rombh-^moples. 609 

r&ised the Bi^e aiodi ixuMk a speedy i«tz«i^^ lY. Tlie proT- 
ince BoMANDioLA (Eomagna), north of the Mutsh of Anoona, 
with the counties of Traversaria, Argenta^ Bagnacavallo, 
Sarbianoj Britonora, and Malatesta, and the small quiet 
Republic of San Marine, still existing to the present day. 
Cities v^6 Rimini^ Kavennay Sarsina^ JFavenza, and Imo- 
la. The bold unrttly character of the Bomagiioles gave the 
popes more trouble than pleasure at the acquisition of that 
distant province. V. The city and territory of Bcnevento in 
the kingdom of Naples. 


423. Conquest of Naples and Downfall op the Soua- 
BLAN House. — Neither the talents of Frederic II. nor the chiv- 
alrous bravery of King Manfred, his son, nor the youthful enthu- 
siasm of his nephew, Conradino, were able to save the doomed 
house 6f Hohenstaufen. It was crushed by the inveterate 
hatred of four successive popes ; and the invasion of Naples 
by Charles of Anjou, the brother of St. Louis, brought the 
fickle Neapolitan people under a French dynasty, that for 
nearly two centuries; — 1266-1442 — contributed more to its 
corruption and misery, than to its civilization and prosperity. 
The Sicilians, however, soon rid themselves of the French ad- 

^ The Arcbbishop of Maintz is an interestang specimen of a prelate 
of the twelfth centary. His holiness read the mass with great dignity; 
he spoke eloquently the QerTnan^ French, JDuUK Chreek, Lombard, and 
Chaldaic languages. He mounted his war^steed like the boldest knight; 
wore a purple garment over his mail-armor, a golden helmet on his 
head, and brandished a heavy battle mace with iron spikes in his 
hand. He had slain nine enemies in battle, and as a severe judge had 
himself knocked out the teeth of numerous malefactors in the tribunal 
The eecleaiasties and women of his eamp were so well drilled in si^es 
that they had stormed lind taken several almost impregnable castles ; 
nay, it was even said that fair ladies and fleet horses were more expen- 
sive to the jolly archbishop than the whole imperial court to Frederic 
Barbarossa. See for curious details, Baumer's Hohenstaufen, Yd. II 
page 287. 


▼entnrers by the massaore at Palermo, in 1282, where thou* 
sands of Frenchmen perished under the daggers of the insult- 
ed and oppressed islanders. Every, town in Sicily (except 
Sperlenga) followed the bloody example of the capital ; the 
tyranny of Charles the Butcher was overthrown, and the Sicil- 
ians, calling to their assistance Don Pedro III. of Aragon, 
transferred the crown of Sicily to him as the heir of the un- 
happy house of Hohenstaufen.^*' 

The kingdom of Naples never enjoyed so tranquil and 
prosperous a reign as that of Frederic 11. The active and 
enlightened emperor resided mostly in his hereditary kingdom, 
which he governed with all the affection and devotedness of a 
native prince. Art and science, agriculture and commerce, 
administration and army — ^attracted alike his attention and 
solicitude ; but the institutions which his genius erected for 
the welfare of his beloved Naples remained undeveloped in 
consequence of the convulsions during the latter part of his 
reign, and were almost entirely destroyed by the subsequent 
invasion of the French. 

424. CmES AND Historical Sites. — Naples^ then alrea- 
dy the immense and populous capital of the kingdom, was em- 
bellished and strengthened by Frederic, who built the cele- 
brated CasteUo dd Uovo^ now used as a state prison for 
Italian patriots by the despicable King Bomba. In 1224, 
he founded a university on the plan of that of Bologna, and 
improved and enlarged the medical college at Salerno. At 
both places, Frederic, in a time of superstition and ignorance, 
formed museums of art and antiquities, collections of coins 
and manuscripts, which, unfortunately, during the tumults of 
the French dominion, were eventually dispersed and lost. On 
the market-place of Naples — Mercato del Carmine — ^took 
place the 25 th October, 1268, the unjust execution of the 

^••IiiterestiDg details on the history of Sicily are found in Michele 
Amari's eloqumt Chterta del Vnpro SieilianOf lately published in 

SfiVBMra PEEIOB. — ^NAPLES. 511 

young Oonradino of Sonabia, with kis illustrious oompanions 
in arms — German princes, Ghibeline nobles and citizens of 
Pisa, in the presence of Charles of Anjou and his French 
court. On the spot stands now the Church del Carmine, 
built by the sorrowing duchess Elizabeth, in memory of her 
son.*'* Nocere rfe' Pagani, south of Mount Vesuvius, Luce- 
ria and JPbggia, in the Apulian plain, were Saracen colonies, 
inhabited by fifty thousand braye Arab horsem^i and archers, 
who rendered the emperor and his son, Manfred, important 
service during their continual wars with the popes. At the 
neighboring Castello Ferentino Frederic II., weary of misfor- 
tune and of life, died in the arms of his beloved Bianca and 
his son Manfred, on the 13th of December, 1250. He lies 
buried in the cathedral of Palermo, and his body was still in 
perfect preservation when the sarcophagus was opened in 
1783. On the plains of GrandeUa^ near Benevento, Charles 
of Anjou gained the battle and the kingdom, on the 26th of 
February, 1266, against King Manfred, who there fell amongst 
heaps of slain Frenchmen. Between Tagliacozzo and Alda^ 
on the plain of Scurcola^ in the Abruzzi, was fought the last 
battle of the Hohenstaufens, on the 23d of August, 1268, in 
which Conradino and his Souabian chivalry were routed by 
King Charles of Anjou, by a stratagem of the old French 
crusader, Alard de Saint- Valery, and the bravery of William of 
Yillehardoin, the Prince of Morea (358), who had followed the 
banner of the French usurper with all his vassals. A ruinous 
chapel of iS^n^a Maria deUa Vittoria still stands on the banks 
of the rivulet Salto, the scene of the defeat. Conradino, sepa- 
rated from his friends, fled in disguise across the mountains 
to Aitura, on the sea-shore, where he was betrayed by the 
Boman noble Frangipani, and delivered into the hands of 
Charles. Thus terminated the German dominion in Italy, 

■^ In the subterranean vault of the church, the traveller still be- 
holds a marble slab on the wall, with a black-letter inscription, indi- 
cating the sepulchre of Conradino and hia fiaithful friend and fellow- 
aofferer. Count Frederic of Anspach. 

512 SEVENTH FB&IO]X**-irAF];»B8. 

and when the Lombard and Tusean repnblioB began to feel 
the weight of the French yoke, the Sicilian massacre, the 
oaptnre of the French fleet off Messina by the Catalan Ad- 
miral Roger de Loria, and the subsequent death of Charles 
of Anjou, in 1284, restored the equilibrium, and left the 
Italians for two centuries in the enjoyment of their national 

soHXH PBioeD. — vamov^ 613 





FEBTEEHTH. A. D. 1800-1458. 

425. &BNERAL RxHARKS. — The religions fanalicism of 
the crusades had eost Europe more than five millions of men, 
and a yast number of its noblest families Yet the consequen- 
ces of those bloody wars in the East and on the Baltic were 
nevertheless of high importance for the future development 
and progress of the European society. In the north the Dan* 
ish and Teutonic priests and kni^ts extended the Christian 
religion among the heathen Sdavowicms^ IaUs^ and Fmfu^ 
and flourishing cities arose on the banks of l^e Vistula and on 
the shores of the Baltia In the Bast, -Hiough the crusaders, 
vanquished by the soinutar of l&e MamlukeSj were driven 
from all their conquests, they brought home with them multi- 
farious knowledge, enlightoied views and liberal opinions, 
gained by their intercourse with the Saraeens, which were 
cherished in the commercial cities of Italy, and the newly 
established universities of France and Germany, whence they 
spread through all classes of society and began to prepare those 
reforms in Church and State which later marked the new era of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. At the commencement 
of the crusades toward the dose of the eleventh century, the 

514 EKHITM PE]lIOP.<^-Et7B.O]PB. 

mass of the people of Europe were either yassals or serfs : 
the incessant barbarous warfare between the feudal lords was 
particularly oppressive to the poor cultivators of the soil. 
Their huts were pillaged and their cattle driven away ; their 
fields ravaged and themselves massacred from one end of 
Christian Europe to the other. A contemporaneous historian 
therefore says with justice, ^^ that the treu^a Dei — ^a truce of 
God then often proclaimed — did not produce so beneficial a 
calm as followed the departure of the thousands of crusaders 
— for then the whole earth seemed to be tranquillized at once." 
It was during that period of migrations that the free cities 
began to rise. Italy led on the van with her brilliant repub- 
lics; France soon followed idth her Communes^ and Ger- 
many closed the rear with her freie Reichstddte or free impe- 
rial cities, and her Hanseatic League. So many feudal lords 
being withdrawn to the Levant, some cities disengaged them- 
selves from their vassalage to the nobles ; others following the 
example, arose against their bishops (307) ; they obtained char- 
ters from royal authority, conferring the guaranty of personal 
liberty on the citizens — ^the right of acquiring and disposing 
of property — ^the freedom from arbitrary taxation — ^the right 
of municipal administration, and the power of raising their 
own military force for the defence of their city and its pre- 
cincts. Thus rose the third estate — le tiers itat, or popular 
representation, by which the kings obtained a balance agamst 
the power of the feudal lords, and which mainly contributed to 
the dissolution of the feudal system toward the close of the 
fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth (^nturies. The 
nobles in some countries, such as France, became subjects. 
The cities in the Low Countries and Germany advanced in in- 
dustry and couBueroe ; their wealth and power inspired them 
with sentiments of independence and liberty, and fostered 
that enthusiasm for science, art, mechanics and manufactures, 
which completed the emancipation of Europe. 

426. During the era of the Crusades all nations had trav 


elled and mixed ; they had united together on the same battle- 
field under the banner of the Cross. In the following period, 
on the contrary, they became again occupied with their inter- 
nal organizations at home, or in quarrelling with their neigh- 
bors ; and no universal movement characterized the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century. The history of the world appears now 
under quite another aspect. The dark ages are at length 
passed— they lie behind us — ^we recognize the dawn of our 
own modern day in the ideas, language, manners, and wants 
of the nations ; it is the era of renaissance^ revival ! The 
sources of history now send forth abundant streams ; and we 
are able to trace out the events, and delineate the leading 
characters of the times. Germany separates herself from 
Italy ; and during the rivalry between the Austrian and Lux- 
emburg dynasties, her princes and prelates assert their terri- 
torial independence on the decline of the imperial power, 
whilst the cities, by their armed confederacies, control the in- 
fluence of both princes and emperors. In France, on the 
contrary, the kings of the Valois family aspire boldly to a 
monarchical sovereignty, by the support of their parliaments, 
their Etats geniraux, and by the redemption of the large 
fiefs, which now revert to the crown, and consolidate the 
household power of the kings. 

427. In England, the Magna Charta libertatum, and the 
Houses of Lords and Commons subsequently established, cir- 
cumscribe the despotie tendencies of the Plantagenet kings, 
while the glorious exertions of the Norman knighthood, and 
the Saaoon yeomanry on the battle-fields of Crecy^ Poitiers^ 
and Agincourt, cement the fraternity and union of those 
noble races, and the bloody wars of the Roses restore the 
equilibrium between kings, aristocracy, and commoners. In 
the North, the Scandinavian nations stop their dissensions 
and attempt to join hands in the Calmarian Union. The 
Lechian and Lithuanian races do the same, and Poland 
becomes a mighty, conquering kingdom. Russia awakens from 


her long lethargy, and throws off the degrading yoke of hex 
Mongol tyrants. Portugal, driving the Moors hack to 
Africa, extends her dominion on that continent, and discovers 
unknown islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Spain, uniting her 
Christian kingdoms, conquers the Mohammedan Ch'anada^ 
and a New World heyond the seas, and prepares for Hhe great 
part she is to perform under Charles Y. The Popes of Rome^ 
urged hy the enlightened spirit of the times, secure that influ- 
ence, by the alliance of the Italian States at home, which 
they have lost by the ecclesiastical councils of Constance and 
Basle, beyond the Alps. Hungary generously fights the 
battles of life and death on the Danube against the Ottoman 
Turks, whilst the Byzantine empire sinks beneath her des- 
tiny; yet the fugitive Greeks carry her language and litera- 
ture to Italy, France, and Germany, where the era of learning 
and research begins. 

Thus all the nations of the West have, more or less, 
directly profited by the crusades. Only those of the East, 
after their temporary victory, sank back into the sloth, mental 
ignorance, and moral degradation of Islamism, and crouched 
beneath the despotic dominion of Circassian Mamlukes, of 
Tartar-Mongol conquerors, and of Turkish Sultans. 

428. Toward the middle of the fifteenth century, we find 
the following twenty-six independent states, or groups of 
states, in Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, with 
whose description we shall close our essay on the Historical 
Geography of the Middle Ages. Five states are situated in 
Ifie north of Europe : I. The kingdom of England and Ire- 
land ; II. The kingdom of Scotland ; III. The three north- 
em powers of the Calmarian Union; IV. The kingdom of 
Poland and LUhtmnia ; Y , The grand duchj of Moshm. 
Four states in Central Europe ; VL The kingdom of France ; 
VIL The Romano- Germanic empire; VIII. The confede- 
racy of the Swiss cantons ; IX. The kingdom of Hungary. 
Eleven states in Southern Europe ; X. The kingdom of Par- 


ttigaJ; XL Th9ki oi CasfUe ; XII. Th9.i oi Aragon ; XIII. 
That of Navarra; XIY. The Mohammedan kingdom of 
Granada; XV. The Italian principalities and republics; 
XVI. The Papal State; XVIL The kingdom of Naples; 
XVIII. The FranJdsh principalities in Greece ; XIX. The 
expiring Byzantine empire ; XX. The Porte of the Ottoman 
Turks^ extending through Asia Minor. In Westam Asia, 
three states ; XXL The Grand Comnenian empire of Trebv* 
zond ; XXIL The empire of the Mongols ; and XXIII. The 
Sultanate of the Circassian Mamlukes in Syria and Egypt ; 
and finally, three states in Northern Africa; XXIV. The 
kingdom of Tunis; XXV. That of Tkmesen; and XXVI. 
That of Fez and Motoodq,^^^ 


I. The KiNGDOtf of England and Ireland. 

429. Acquisitions op the Plantagenet Dynasty : I. 
Ireland. — The conquest of the southeastern coast of Ireland 
by Henry 11. , in 1172, did not promote the civilization and 
happiness of the Irish nation (283). The seeds of discord, 
violence, and misery had been sown only more profusely in 
that beautiful but unhappy island. They seem to have par- 
taken of the natural productiveness of the soil, and to have 
borne abundant harvests. From the departure of Henry 11. 
from Ireland, in 1173, to the wats of the Roses in 1460, a 
period of nearly three hundred years, the history of that 
country presents only a long train of afflictions, of tyranny, 

'^ Compare the acoompanying map, No. 6. We have been obliged, 
on account of the narrow space allotted to u^ to con£ne the VII. and 
VIII periods^ announced in our introductory chapter (2), to a more lim- 
ited geographical description of Europe during the fifteenth century 
than we had intended. For more complete historical details on the 
progress of the constitutions and organizations of the times, we must refer 
the student to the works of Gibbon, HaUam, Lmg^rd, Leo, Schlosser, 
Rehm, Rfiha^ Michelet^ Sismondi, and others. 


saffering, and awful oriines. No history of any other of the 
medisBval nations of Europe affords a parallel to it! The 
island was entirely neglected by the English kings. The 
English delegates with royal powers whom they sent over 
were either too arrogant and violent in their administration, 
and too much disposed to enforce obedience, or too incompetent 
to effect the tranquillity of the country, from want of means. 
The proud English barons despised the native chiefs; and 
instead of gaining their respect and good will, they only in- 
spired them with feelings of mortal hatred. In the whole 
northwest and south, the unsubdued Irish clans continued 
their vindictive wars, which were often fomented by the dis- 
contented English barons themselves, who, renouncing the alle- 
giance to their native kings, joined the Irish, and adopted 
their manners, dress, and habits ; thus the Celts, the ancient 
settlers, and the new comers, were enveloped in eternal con- 
tentions, violence and crime. *•• Whilst the Roman Church 
grasped at the lands, and enriched its fat prelates by dona- 
tions and exactions, the necessities of the English kings com- 
pelled them to demand exorbitant supplies, which were spent 
in the wars on the Continent of France. The feudal laws of 
England and the customs of the native Irish were in con- 
tinual conflict, and, consequently, the administration of jus* 
tice was generally nothing else than the power of the 
strongest. The English territory, instead of extending into 
the interior, and embracing the whole island, receded towards 
the eastern coast; and the English province of Po/e, 
which, during the twelfth century, had still included Carrick- 
fergus^ Belfast^ Armagh^ and Carlingford^ left these places 
abandoned and in ruins beyond its boundaries toward the 
middle of the fifteenth. Nay, the position of the English 
had become entirely defensive, and it was only by the erection 
of strong castles in the counties of Louth^ Meathj and Kil- 

^ See the melancholy proo& in lluMnas Moore's History of Irelaiid. 
Philadelphia, 184B, on every page. 

EiaHTR TERIOD.-^niKLAMI>. 519 

dare, that the English border-wardens were enabled to cheek 
the incursions of the native Erins. Dundalk in the county 
of I/nUk was then the farthest fortress toward the north. 
The boundary line to the south of Dublin city, beyond which 
the king's writ was a dead letter, was fixed as far as Tallaght 
by the stream of the Doddery a rivulet within three miles of 
Dublin, and thence by a trench with redoubts to Newcastle 
on the borders of Kildare ; all the district to the south of 
this line, except a narrow band along the sea-coast to Bray, 
being in the undisputed possession of the Irish, two families 
of whom, the O'Bimes and the O'Tooles, asserted and main- 
tained the rank of independent princes throughout the southern 
part of Dublin county and the mountainous district of 
Winchiligo since designated as the county of Wicklow. So 
powerful were the Irish chiefs during this period that their 
cumrick or protection was anxiously sought for by the Eng- 
lish settlers within the borders of Pale, an(^ secured by the 
payment of an annual tribute called Black-rent, Nor did the 
condition of Ireland become more tolerable after the close of 
the civil wars in England in 1485. Perkin Warbeck, the 
impostor, found a wide field for his extravagancies in Ireland, 
and it was not until after the most sanguinary defeat of the 
Irish at Knoc-tuadhy near Galway, in 1504, where they lost 
nine thousand slain against the Earl of Kildare and Uie Eng- 
lish Barons, that beholding all their exertions of throwing off 
the yoke failing, their spirit of rebellion and self-reliance 
began to declme and the silence of the grave-yard for a length 
of time succeeded to the fierce yells of the battle-field.^** 

iM What a frightiiil picture does Thomas Moore give of tbe state of 
Ireland ia the years of the Reformation ISie-lSH. *'The Lord 
Deputy Gerald, son and successor of the Earl of Kildare, — says the 
historian, — ^lost no time in following the example of his father. He 
attacked the country of Hugh O'Reilly, stormed and razed the castle 
of Ciwant and having slain O'Reilly himself and many of his followers, 
chased the rest into their inaccessible fastnesses, and burned and 
ravaged their country. He tl^^n made an inroad into Jmalyt where he 


430. The mo0t powexfol EngUah lamilies in Irelaod were 
the Lacy$ in the eenntj of Heath, the JFUzgeralds in Kildare, 
the Howards of Oaterhighy the Hastings, Vaiences and 
Grays in Wexford, the fierce Butlers of Tipperary often 
siding with the Irieh chiefis against the rojid goyemment; 
the Talbots of Waterford and the FUz-Stephens of Cork in 
the south. In the north and west of the island, were ihe 
seats of the natire princes, the O^Neals, the Tyr- Conells and 
the Tyr-Oens in Ulster; the still more turbulent O^ Conner s 
with their followers, the Clan JDoneSs, the G^KeUeys, the 
M^Dermots, the O^MayleSy and the O^Flai/rts in Oonnaught, 
w)io being in the English interest followed the royal banner 
against the IPBurghs and the O Brians in Munster and 
the O^ Carrots in Louth. Yet the complioaticms became the 
more inextricable, because the fiercest Cartfinnies were residing 
on the borders of the English province or even within its pre- 
cincts; these were the 0'2bei^in the mountains, south of 
Dublin, and the O^Moores cm the borders of the county of 
Kilkenny. The yirulence of ciyil discord was still further aug- 
mented by religious controverily, and Henry YIII. attempted 
in yain to diminish the Papal power in Ireland as he had done 
successfully in England* 

431. II. The counties of Guubkblard ^and Westhorb- 

■lew Shane OTooH a chieftain of the moimtainans diBtrict, and seat 
hiB head to the mayor in Dublin, (a. d. Ifil6.) Then advancing his stan- 
dard into Mly (yCarroly he took and demolished the castle of Limevanf 
smrprised Clcnmel and returned loaded with trophies and spoil I He 
then {a, d. 1517) marched into Zeeale, took by storm the castle of 
Dundruntf defeated Pkelim MaeGenis, puttii^ to death a number of his 
followers. From thence the Lord Deputy eontintdng ^his course into 
Tyrone, took uid burnt the castle of DfmgannMii and spread the 
horrors of fire and war throvghout the whole of that terHibry, If such 
was the condition of the disttiets on the Eastern coasts within the 
limits of the Pale or English territory of Ireland, what must hare been 
the feuds and h<HTors of the Northern vnd. Western counties &mong 
the savage Irish dans themselTes.-— JSiMcy of Irehnd, page 899. 


LAND. These prorinoes not mentioned in the Doomaday-book 
of William the Conqueror, were long English fiefs held by 
the crown of Scotland (103, 284), until they were given back 
by King William the Lion, in 1175, after his defeat and cap- 
ture at Alnvnck in Northumberland. Cumberland was in 
1237 finally annexed to the crown of England by Henry 
III.; Westmoreland passed to the Cliffords. But the feuds 
between the hostile neighbors, English and Scots, continuing 
for centuries, both counties, as well as Nortiiumberland, were 
constantly the scene of c<mtention, rapine and bloodshed. 
Agriculture became neglected and the catlde were the chief 
property of the people ; castles and towers were erected in 
eyery strong position. The borderers acted mosldy as light 
cavalry, called prickers. They rode small but nimble and 
well-trained horses, and were accompanied by warriors on £dot 
who used the long-bow. This unsettled state along the 
borders prevailed through the whole period of the middle 
ages and down to later times. 

III. The island of Man (224, 300)^ the Heb&idss, and 
other western islands, had, in 1266, been ceded by the Nor- 
wegian King Magnus Lagabeoter to. Scotland. Baliol surren- 
dered them in 1334 to Edward III., together with the city 
and county of Berwick, the bulwark of Scotland, which had 
rendered such capital service for centuries; yet the brave 
Soots soon afiier took it b^k agam. 

432. lY. Wales had in part maintained its independence 
from the times of William the Conqueror to Edward I. — 1276* 
1283. Its mountainoua and rugged territory was divided 
into several principalities, the most important of which were 
Aber/raw (Gwyned) in the north, and Powrs (now Montgom- 
eryshire) in the centre. Only the southeastern more open 
parts of the peninsula had earlier been occupied by Norman 
barons, who secured their possessions by numerous border 
castles towards the mountains. The Welsh, in their rude 


independence were divided into three classes: 1, the king— 
Brenin — and royal family ; 2, the freemen— 5rcyr — and the 
imfree — BikUn or Taeawg. The king was surrounded by his 
officers — Disdain — among whom were the chaplain and the 
favorite bards. Wales was divided into Cantrefs and Cymmwd^ 
answering to the natural limits of the narrow valleys, sepa- 
rated by ridges of the mountains. Edward L, at the head of 
a brilliant feudal army, soon forced the Welsh prince, Llewel- 
lyn, whom he had chased from one stronghold to another, 
to surrender and pay homage to the English crown. Yet the 
arrogant behavior of the British barons who were placed aa 
governors in the pacified jHrovinces, drove the fierce Welsh 
to despair. They rushed to arms, stormed the castle of 
HavHtrden^ near Chester, on the river Dee, and cut down the 
garrison to a man. The revenge of Edward was terrible. 
Llewellyn fell heroically fighting in battle ; his brother David 
was tried before the peers of England, and most unjustly 
condemned to death. All the Welsh nobility then submitted 
to the conqueror ; the laws and administration of England, 
with sheriffs and other officers of justice, were established in 
the principality, which, in spite of the mortal hate of the 
Welsh people, was divided into shires and baronies, and 
granted to the Clares, Pembrokes, Spencers, Bohuns, Grays, 
and other chivalrous nobles. 

V. ScoTLAND^£<fin5t^r^, Stvrling^ Perth^ the Low- 
lands and Border counties were temporarily occupied by the 
English during the dispute between John Baliol of Galloway 
and Robert Bruce of Annandale — 1289-1307 — about the suc- 
cession to the Scottish throne. But the brilliant victory 
of Robert Bruce at Bannockbum, June 24th, 1314, against 
Edward II. and the English chivalry, secured the indepen- 
dence of Scotland, and of all the conquests that had cost so 
much blood and treasure, nothing remained except the border 
fortress Berwick-upon-Tweed. 


VI. Anjott, Tottraine, Maine, Normandt, Poitoit, and 
Aquitaine, with Auvergm and Gascogne^ were, dnring the 
reign of Henry II., nnited with the English crown, partly 
by inheritance of the Plantagenet dynasty, partly by the mar- 
riage of that prince with Eleanor of Poitou. Yet we have al- 
ready seen the fate of these ephemeral acquisitions (386, 387). 
The later conquests in France by Edward III. and Henry V., 
glorious as were the yictories gained on French battle-fields, 
brought England no real advantage ; and of all her territories 
beyond the Channel, there remained, in the year 1453, only 
the county of Calais, on the coast of Artois, with the im- 
portant city of Calais^ the borough of Oye^ and the castles 
of Grumes and Ardres. 

433. Internal Condition during the War of the 
Roses. — The changes which took place in the political and 
constitutional history of England, from the times of William 
the Conqueror to those of Henry YIII., are far more im- 
portant thim those of her historical geography. The counties 
and their subdiyisions remained the same; yet they were 
augmented by the thirteen shires of Wales. The ecclesias- 
tical division of England was in two archbishoprics: — I., 
Provincia Eboracensis, with the archiepiscopal see of JBbar" 
acum (York), and the suffiragans of Durham and Carlisle ; 
and II., Provincia Cantuariensis, with the see Cantuaria 
(Dorovemum) or Canterbury, and the suffragans : Lincoln^ 
Northuncum^ Ely, Londinunij Cicestria (Chichester), Vtn- 
tonia (Winchester), Sarum (Salisbury), Bathonia (Bath) 
and Welles (Wells), Exonia (Exeter), Wigt/rn (Worcester), 
Hereforde^ Ucidfeld (Lichfield); and in Wales Uandaff^ 
Menevia (Saint Davids), j&an^or, and Saint Asaph, The 
cathedrals of York^ Winchester^ Salisbury^ lAchfield^ and 
many others, stand as the noblest monuments of Norman 
architecture, which was carried to its perfection during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Celebrated convents 
and monasteries were Tornesse and Carthmdl in Westmore- 


Uad; Idndisfarne and St. Cuthbert, in Nortlmmberk&d; Cru- 
land, Edmundsbury, and Bardenea, in East Anglia ; St, Ai- 
banSy WestminHeTj and Readinga, near London; Bangor, 
Winloch, and Caermardon, in Wales. 

Agriculture, navigation, commerce, and mechanics, were 
much neglected in Old England; the island suffered often 
from famine. The products for export were lead, tin, butter, 
skins, and principally wool. A company formed itself in 1296 
in the wool trade, the merchant adventurers, who attempted 
to deprive foreigners, and principally the Hans6 towns, on 
the Baltic, of their exclusive privileges. The greatest mer- 
chants in England were foreigners ; those of Lombardy lived 
in a very luxurious Manner, and brought popular vengeance 
upon themselves by their heartless usury ; such as the Cau- 
ridni of Borne, who diarged sixty per cent, interest. The 
commerce with Germany was often interrupted by piracies, 
which the English during the civil wars considered as quite a 
lucrative and regular profession. Edward III. eaUed Flemish 
weavers into the island, prohibited the use of foreign manu- 
factures, and expelled with cruelty the Jews in 12S0. But 
all these arbitrary measures were fatal to the prosperity of 
the country ; the English nation iras too much averted from 
the arts of peace by the wars on the oontineiit ; civil dissen- 
sions, religious persecution against the Lollards, the followers 
of Wicliffe, and the rancor of faction among tiie nobles at 
home, produced the same baneful effect. The period from 
the year 1399 to 1453 is eventful in foreign wars, brilliant 
victories, civil discord, and national calamities. The doubtful 
title of Henry lY. of Lancaster gave rise to that struggle 
which only terminated with the battle of Bosworth. In 
these contests the wealth of England was wasted, and her 
nobles slain. Eighty princes of the royal blood, and thousands 
of her barons and knights, perished either on the battle-fields 
or on the block during the war of the Boses. The most 
astonishing changes took place in the tenritorial possessions 
of the great fiunilies; ma&y became extinct, and their 


estates pttssed i&io othae hands. The Yorks, the Howards, 
ihe Hastings, the Beauohamps, the Beanforts, the Somersets, 
the Surreys were swept away. The powerfcd Percys of 
Northamherland,^ the first and the last on the hattle-fields, 
suooeeded in weathering the storm. The Stanleys, Ohandos, 
Danhurys and Willoughbys rose in the sunshine of the 
Tudor &Tors. The population was much reduced ; the total 
number oi inhabitants in England, in 1485, was not more 
than three n»illions ; it was distributecL in a Tery different way 
from what it is at present ; Lancashire and Oufttberland were 
thinly peopled, while Iionddn and Westmmster did not contain 
more than isixty or seventy thousand souls. Many towns 
had been changed into Tillages, others were lerelled to the 
ground; large tracts of country were laid waste, yet it would 
be incorrect to imagine that nothing was gained from those 
fierce contentions. They were the precursors of the rapid 
improvements of the new era which cbwned on England at 
the acctassioii of Henry of Tudor, in l4tB5.^ 


London, in the county of Middlesex, was, towards the close 
of the fifteenth century, still a city of no great extent and 
papulation. It continued to be inclosed within ite old walls 
and moats, and reached from Tower^hill, on the east, to the 
tower of Montfichetj on the Fleet*ditch, west, where it bor* 
dered on the large suburb of Farringdon. Eight gates ^ 
opened upon the Moorfields and the scattered villages of 
Mary-le-boney St, CrileSy Jjdingttm^ Clerkenwell, Shoreditch^ 
Bethlehem^ JEUnddiff and Blackwplly in the environs. Old 
London Bridge was the only communication between the city 

*"S6e interesting Btatistieal detaUs for tliis peried in Malie Bnin's 
Geography, Vol. IIL, page 1197^ 4ta. edition, and in lingard's History 
of England. 

** These gates were from west to east; 1, Ludgate; % I^otoaatc; 8, 
Aldertgate; 4, Cripplegate; 5j MoorgcUe; ^, Biahoptgate ; 7, Aldgate^ 
and 8 Bitlingsgate, on the Thames. 


and StnUhwark^ likewise a small town on the Linnheth mwsr. 
London had yet few pablic buildings besides its numerous 
churches, conyents, hospitals, and other religious houses. 
The Temple^ formerly belonging to the knights templars, the 
palaces of Savoy (413), Durkam and Scotland, White Hall 
and Westminster, lay all oq the Strand, along the Thames, 
at a distance of nearly four miles from the city gate. The 
streets were narrow, dark, muddy, and full of pits and sloughs. 
The houses consisted of plaster and timber, covered with 
thatched roofs, haying each story overhanging that imme- 
diately beneath. Only the nobility had some large gloomy 
residences, where they displayed their extravagant magnifi- 
cence in a half-barbarous style. The Flantagenet kings re- 
sided usually at Westminster, and Saint Peter's Abbey was 
the place of their coronation. The large hall (Westminster 
Hall) built by William Bufds, was pulled down and rebuilt 
by Richard II., such as we see it at present. The old West- 
minster Abbey of Edward the Oonfessor having been burned 
in 1087, was rebuilt during the reign of Henry III., but not 
finished until long after his death. Henry YII. built the 
extensive and beautiful chapel that bears his name, the last 
important addition made in the abbey before the Eeformation. 
Staines, on the Thames, southeast of Windsor. There, on 
the Runimede, John Laddand (Sansterre) in the Easter- 
week, 1215, met the discontented barons and prelates, and 
signed, June 19, the celebrated great charter, which laid the 
foundation of the constitution of England. Barnet, in Hert- 
ford county, north of London : on Gladsmore Heath, north of 
that town, was fought, on April 14, 1471, the decisive battle 
between Edward IV. of York and Neville Earl ctf Warwick — 
the Kingmaker — at the head of the Lancasterians, in which 
the latter, with* many of the nobility, perished on the field. 
An obelisk, erected on the spot in 1740, commemorates the 
event. St, Albans, northwest of Bamet, and thirty miles 
firom London : here the first battle in the War of the Boses 
was fought May 22, 1454, in which the Duke of Northumber* 


land, aiid the earls of Somerset and Stafford fell; King Henry 
YI. was captured by the Duke of York, and the Lancasterian 
army cut to pieces. In a second battle, on the same field, 
February 7, 1461, Queen Margaret of Anjou defeated the 
Earl of Warwick, and delivered her husband from the hands 
of the Yorkists. Clarendon^ near Salisbury, in Wiltshire, 
on the outskirts of the New Forest, where Henry II., in 
11 64, in a general council of the nobility and prelates, gaye 
the constitution of Clarendon, which defined the limits be- 
tween the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, with a view 
to stop the arrogance and increasing usurpations of the Pope 
and clergy. Seven Oaks, in Kent, southeast of London, 
where John Cade, the rebel, with his twenty thousand fol- 
lowers, on June 23, 1450, defeated and slew Sir Humphrey 
Stafford, King Henry's general, and, after the rout, marched 
to London, and encamped on Blackheath, while the king fled 
to Kenilworth. Lynne, on the sea-coast of Lincoln county : 
there King John attempting to cross the washes, to Lincoln, 
by high water, lost, in the sudden inundation, part of his 
mercenaries, all his carriages, treasures, and baggage, and 
arrived, sick and in despair, at the neighboring Newark, 
where he died October 17, 1216. Lewes, in Suss^: here 
the Earl of Leicester, May 14, 1264, routed the army of 
Henry III., in spite of the bravery of Prince Edward, and 
forced the king to surrender himself prisoner. EenUtoorth 
Castle, in Warwick county, where Prince Edward surprised 
and defeated Simon de Montford, son of Leicester, in 1265. 
Evesham, in Worcester county, where, after the battle of 
Kenilworth, Prince Edward, on the 4th of August, by strat- 
agem, surrounded, defeated, and slew the haughty Earl of 
Lancaster, and delivered his father, Henry III., from his 
captivity. In the neighborhood lies Tewkesbury, Mortimer^ s 
Cross, Bloreheath; and north, Wakefield and Lowton, in 
York county, Hexkam-on'the-Tyne in Northumberland, and 
Northapiptan, east of Warwick, — all well-known cities from 
the bloody battles fought in their vicinity during the wars of 
the Roses (1452-1485). The castle of FamJ'ret (Pontefract)* 


east of Wakefield, county of York, the prison of the unhappy 
Richard II., who was here ruthlessly slaughtered by Sir 
Piers Exton and his satellites in 1399. Berkeley Castie, on 
the gulf of Severn, in Gloucester county, where, on Sept. 21, 
1327, Edward II. was treacherously and cruelly murdered 
with a hot iron by Ooumay and Ogle, the creatures of Queen 
Isabel and her paramour Mortimer. Famous historical places 
on the borders of Scotland during this period are : — Nevitte^s 
CrosSy near Durham, in Northumberland, where the spirited 
Queen Philippa, in the absence of Edward III. in France, 
with 12,000 men, totally defeated the Scottish army, and took 
King David Bruce prisoner, with his noblest barons, October 
17, 1346. North AllerUm^ in Richmond county, north of 
York, Aintaick, Otterburn^ SbmUdon-Hill, and Hatydon- 
HiU^ north of Berwick, — ^all battle-fields, on which the Scots 
were routed and cut to pieces by the chivalry of England. At 
Alnwick, King William the Lion was taken prisoner, in 1175, 
and forced to surrender his English fiefs (430). Bt^migh 
Bridge^ near Burton-upon-Trent, in York county, where 
Thomas Earl of Lancaster was defeated and taken prisoner, 
March 16, 1322, by Sir Andrew Harclay, and executed as a 
rebel. By the king's order the same cruel punishment was 
inflicted on the earl which he had formerly imposed on the 
king's fftvorite, Giiveston. Shrewsbury ^ a fine old city, on the 
banks of the Severn, was often visited by the English kings, on 
account of the military importance of its situation on the 
Welsh marches. Here was fought one of the most chivalrous 
battles of England, on July 21, 1402, between Henry Percy 
— ^the Hotspur — and Henry IV., in which Hotspur fell 
Douglas was taken prisoner, and the King of England gained 
a complete victory ; two thousand three hundred barons and 
knights, and more than six thousand private warriors perished 
on the field. Bosworth^ on the Ashby canal, in Leicester 
county, was a small market town. Here was fought the last 
battle of the Roses, on the 22d August, 1485, in which the 
tyrant Richard III. fell, and Henry Tudor-Lancaster wa0 
raised to the English throne. 



II. The Ejngdoii of Scotland. 

435. Scotland under the Bruges and the Stuarts. — 
On the death of the Maiden of Norway in 1291, begins the 
contest about the throne of Scotland and the bloody wars with 
the kings of England, which, after the battle of Bannock- 
bum, in 1314, and the expulsion of the English, are mostly 
changed into mere border-forays. Later, however, when Scot- 
land unites in alliance with France and attacks England, 
while she is actually engaged on the continent, those fierce 
and indecisive wars are renewed, and continue with greater 
fury until the reign of Henry VIII., when they terminate with 
the death of James lY. on Flodden Field in 1515. Among 
the number of the pretenders to the crown, John Baliol of 
Galloway and Bobert Bruce of Annandale were the nearest 
akin to the defunct Malcolm dynasty.^ Edward L, having been 

David L, 1124^-1158. 
Senry^ Prince of Scotland. 

Maixx>lm IY. 



Daaidy Count of Huntingdon. 






married to Alan^ 

Lord of Galloway. 

married to John Baliol, 


married to Robert Brtteet 

Lord of Annandale. 

JfarffareLjf 1284, Johk Baliol, 

married to King Eric Lord of Gallowar, 
Prieet-Hater of Norway. 129 1—1296. 

MABChABKr, JEdmund MaHok 

the Maiden of Norway, 
heiress of Scotland, dies 
on the passage, 1290. 

Bobert Bruce. 



1 1829. 

married to 

John Comyn of 

stabbed 1806. 

David II. 


married to Joan 

of England. 

married to Walter 
Stuarty ancestor of 
the Stuart dynasty. 





Puke of Bothaay, 


James L, 

married to 

Joan of Somerset, 



Duke of Albany, 


Court of 


chosen umpire in the question of the succession in the as- 
sembly at the castle of Norham, on the Tweed, in June 1291, 
declared for Baliol, who closed the disgraceful scene by doing 
homage to Edward as Lord Paramount of Scotland. This 
haughty and ambitious sovereign soon put his creature aside 
altogether, occupied all the castles and strongholds of Scot- 
land with his English knights and garrisons, and treated the 
brave Scottish nation with heartless cruelty. The insurrec- 
tion of Sir William Wallace was put down with the sword, and 
that noble-minded chief, betrayed by the traitor John of 
Monteith, was dragged to London and executed in 1304. 
But his spirit survived in the young Robert Bruce, who was 
crowned Bang of Scotland at Scone (220) in 1306, and under 
the most romantic adventures in the Highlands and on the 
Western Islands, succeeded in driving out the English and 
securing the independence of his kingdom by the brilliant 
victory over Edward II. at Bannockburn in 1314. His son 
David II., after new defeats and a long captivity in England, 
died childless in 1370, and the crown then passed to the 
talented but most unhappy house of the Stuarts. This family 
long ruled in Scotland; they mounted the throne of Eng- 
land in 1606, but under terrible disasters were expelled in 
the revolution of 1688, and perished in exile and misery. 
Their medicBVcd history in Scotland presents a fearfdl suc- 
cession of border-forays, internal feuds between Highlands - 
and Lowlands, between the nobles themselves, or against their 
kings, two of whom, James I. and III., were murdered, whilst 
James II. perished by the bursting of a bombard, and James 
IV. fell in the battle of Flodden. Yet, in spite of all these 
disorders and crimes, we discover the steady though slow 
progress of the Scottish nation. A constitutional government 
developed itself during the contest of the Baliols and Bruces, 
and the first parliament, consisting of clergy, nobility, and 
deputies from the cities, was assembled by Bobert Bruce in 
1326. The misfortune of Scotland lay in th« unruly i^irit 
of the great ; the barons of the Lowlands at the head of their 


Tfussals and the Highland lairds with their clans, regarded 
the kings as their equals, and refused all obedience to the 
laws. The Lords of the Isles (287) often carried open war 
into the heart of the country; the Highland clans of the 
M'Dougalls of Lorn, the Campbells, the Bosses, the Orawfords, 
and principallj the border family of the Douglases of Lid- 
desdale, Galloway and Annandale, became so dangerous to the 
royal authority, that the mild James II. could only free him- 
self by the assassination of Archibald, Earl of Douglas, the 
expulsion of the whole race, and the confiscation of their 
castles and immense estates. Nor were the prelates less war- 
like and quarrelsome than the nobles. The Bishop of St. An- 
drews did not obtain the archiepiscopal dignity before 1468 ; 
even then the clergy refused him their recognition, and the 
Parliament, in 1471, repelled energetically the encroachments 
of the Pope. From the times of David II. the estates met by 
delegates, called the Lords, of Articles^ who consulted about the 
laws ; ELing and Parliament formed the legislative power, and 
a vast number of excellent decrees and police regulations were 
promulgated, which in other countries did not appear until 
centuries later. In the year 1457 the general exercise in 
arms was ordained, and often renewed. Every Scot from his 
twelfth to his sixteenth year had regularly to be drilled in ar- 
chery. The Lords of Session formed, since James II., the High 
Court of Justice. The Scottish youths studied in the Univer- 
sities of the continent. High schools or Colleges, were estab 
lished at St. Andrews in 1411, at Glasgow in 1453, and at 
Aberdeen in 1 493. The commerce of the Scots was insignificant, 
and they were often in open feud with the Hanseatic Confeder- 
acy. Cattle breeding was thriving, but agriculture neglected, 
nor did the fisheries on the coast prosper like those of the 
nations on the Baltic. Wool was manufactured, but Scottish 
industry was still far inferior' even to that of England. The 
people were poor and barbarous, and fond of the wild life on 
tiie border (284), that curious mixture of chivalry and brigan- 
dage, while the domestic virtues, conjugal tenderness, chastity. 


paternal affectioD, honestj and heroic deyotion and bravery, 
proved the tme Scandinavian stem from which the noble 
Pictish race had sprang. 

436. Cities, Castles and Historical Sites. — Edinburgh 
was still a small town, only important on accoant of its almost 
impregnable castle, which, however, was taken by stratagem 
and surprise, by the daring Randolph in 1312. — Stirling 
and Perth were the habitual residences of the Stuarts. In 
the latter city the awful murder of Jamea I. by Sir Bobert 
Graham and the Earl of Athole was perpetrated February 
20th, 1437. — Near Kingshorn^ on the coast of Fife, rises 
the precipice from which the good old Alexander III. was 
thrown down, with his steed, and perished on the rocks 
below, still called the King^s Crag, — EUerslie^ now Pais- 
ley, in Renfrew county, was the birthplace of William 
Wallace, the Protector of Scotland. — Falkirk^ in Stirling 
county, where William Wallace and the Scots on the 22d of 
July, 1298, lost a great battle against King Edward I., in con^ 
sequence of which all Scotland was occupied by the English. — 
MoslyUy in Edinburgh county, south of that city, a strong castle 
overhanging the deep glen ; there John Comyn of Badenoch, 
after the battle of Falkirk, defeated three English divisions 
in one day, and raised the sunken spirits of the nation. — 
Robrayston, near Glasgow, the hiding-place of Wallace, 
where he was betrayed by Sir John Monteith and delivered 
up to the English. — Dumfries^ in the Nithsdale, on the Solway 
bay,' where in the church of the Minorites Robert Bruce 
stabbed Sir John Comyn, the Red, in February, 1306, and 
raised his banner against the English. — Miethven^ northwest 
of Perth, where Robert Bruce, immediately after his corona- 
tion at the Abbey of Scone, was met by the English Earl of 
Pembroke on the 19th of June, 1306, and suffered a complete 
defeat. Dalric in the county of Argyle, in a romantic site 
on Loch- Awe. In a narrow defile there, overhanging the lake 
uid commanded by precipitous mountains, Robert Bruce, on 


his flight to the Western Islands, forced a passage for his 
annj by heroical bravery against the treacherous M'Dougalls 
of Lorn. The king only lost his mantle, and the brooch which 
thus fell into the possession of John M'Dongall of Lorn 
is still preserved in that ancient family as a precious memorial 
of the feudal times. Kildrummie Castle, on the Don, west 
of Aberdeen, the refuge of Robert Brace's wife and family, 
held long against the English, but surrendered at the fall 
of Nigel Bruce, the youngest brother of the king. Douglas 
Castle, on the river of the same name, in the upper county of 
Lanark, the paternal seat of that brave but turbulent family, 
became celebrated in the English wars under the name of 
Castle Dangerous by the various stratagems of good Lord 
James of Douglas who retook it from the English. Ban^ 
nockburfiy on the Bannock, five miles east of Stirling Cas- 
tle, the well-known village, in the swamps of which Edward 
II. lost his chivalry and his supremacy over Scotland, on the 
24th of June, 1314. Eobert Bruce, Edward, hu brother, 
the Lords Eandolph and Douglas, and the Scottish spearmen, 
showed here an extraordinary bravery, and gained the finest 
victory that ever smiled on Scotland. A^bercorn CastU^ east 
of Bannockbura, on the shores of the Frith of Forth, where 
the arrogant Earl of Douglas met his sovereign in arms, in 
1458, but during his idle bravado, was abandoned by his vas- 
sals, and obliged to fiy to Douglas Dale. Other famous 
castles on the Border (286) were the Hermitage, in the mo- 
rasses of Liddesdale, and Arkenhdlme, in Eskdale, where the 
elder Douglases, in their rebellion against King James II., 
suffered a severe defeat, and were forced^ in consequence of it, 
to seek refuge in England in 1438, whence the Earl of 
Douglas returned, twenty years later, to die a monk in the 
Abbey of Lindores, on the Frith of Tay, in Fife county. 
Lauder, southeast of Aberoorn, in Lauderdale ; there Archi- 
bald Douglas, called BeUtheCat, at the head of the dissa- 
tisfied lords, arrested and hanged the- mean counsellors and 
favorites of young James III., on Lauder Bridge, in 1482. 


South of Lender, at Boidoun or Halidon ffUlj near the Abbe j 
of Melrose (286) Sir Walter Seott, the Lord of Buccletich at- 
tempted, on the 25th of July, 1526, to delirer young King 
James Y. from the tyrannical govemment of th6 Douglases, 
but was defeated with great loss by the Border elans of the 
Homes and Kers, who suddenly fell upon his rear, and forced 
his border riders to flight. Saucheey a small hamlet, a mile 
southeast of Bannockbum, saw, on the 18th June, 1488, the 
disgraceful scene of the defeat of James III., in his war with 
his insurgent nobility, and the awful murder of the fleeing 
king in the Beaton^s MiHy on the Stirling road. Duppliit^ 
on the Earn, west of Perth, where Edmund Baliol, 12th of 
August, 1332, defeated the Earl of Mar, Regent of Scotland, 
by a nightly surprise, and was raised to a tottering throne, 
which he lost as quickly, when he fled to England on an un- 
saddled horse. Yet King Edward III. eame to his assistance, 
and the bloody defeat of the Scots at Hdiidon Hill, near 
Berwick, on the 19th of July, 1333, seemed again to turn the 
scale of victory in favor of the English by the surrender of 
that fortress and the southern counties. But the heroical 
defence of Loch Leven Castle by the gallant Alan Yipont, and 
of Dunhar by Black Agnes, Countess of March, steeled the 
courage of the Scots. Their ardent love of independence, 
and hatred of foreign tyranny, induced them to regain, by 
persevering and stubborn exertions, by stratagems and the 
boldest deeds, the strongholds they had lost* Thus Edi^ 
burgh Castle and Per^A were retaken; and when, in 1341, 
the young David Bruce, on his return from France, landed at 
Inver-Bervy^ on the coast of Kincardine, the Scots flocked to 
his banner; and Baliol, fleeing again to England, left the 
contested throne to the son of Robert Bruce. 

437. The Hebrides, Shetland, and Orkney Islands, 
on the west and north of Scotland, were, during this period, 
united with the cr<rwn. The Syderder^ or Hebrides, had been 
conquered and colonized by tiie Northmen (224), and when 


they, duiing the reign of King Alexander III., were attacked 
by the Lords of Ross and other Scottish chiefs, King Hakon 
IV. of Norway — 1207-1263 — ^armed a powerful fleet and army, 
with whic^i he occupied the islands of Arran and Bute, plun- 
dered the Scottish coast, and attempted a landing at Largs^ 
in Renfrew county. But a sudden storm arising, the Nor- 
wegian fleet drove out to sea, while the Norwegian troops on 
shore were totally defeated and routed by the superior number 
of Scots whom Alexander Stuart, the grandfather of the 
first monarch of that name, led against them. Hakouy in his 
despair, retired to the Orkney Islands, to refit his fleet ; but 
he died at Kirkwall in 1263. Magnus Lagabseter, his son 
and successor, immediately set on foot a negotiation with the 
Scots, which terminated in 1266 in a treaty of peace; wherein 
he renounced his pretensions to the Hebrides and all the other 
islands, including Man (224, 431), but excepting the Orkneys 
and Shetlands ; a sum of money (4,000 marks) was paid by 
King Alexander III., and his daughter Margaret married the 
Norwegian crown-prince Eric. The more northern islands 
were, from the earliest times (101, 106), inhabited by the 
Northmen ; and their laws, language, usages and manners, were 
there more firmly established than in the Hebrides and in 
Man. About the year 1380, during the reign of Robert II. 
Stuart, Henry Sinclair, Count of Caithness, on the Scottish 
coast, opposite the Orkneys, obtained the earldom of those 
islands, which included the Shetlands, from King Hakon YI. 
and Queen Margaret of Norway and Denmark, and this pos- 
session continued in his family for a century under the sov- 
ereignty of Norway. In the year 1469 James III. of Scot- 
land married Margaret, daughter of Christian I. of Denmark 
and Norway, and with her he was to get a dowry of 60,000 
florins; but the father-in-law, haying no money, he arbitrarily 
mortgaged the Orkney and Shetland islands, and, as the 
Oldenburg kings of Denmark never redeemed their mortgage, 
the two groups of important islands remained, since that 
time, attached to the kingdom of Scotland. The Norse laws 


ftnd usages, howeyer, contiBued in fiill force in Shetland, 
and still differ in many parts from those of Scotland. The 
free property of lands was known by the term Udal — Odel — 
as in Norway (223), the proprietors being called IJdallers — 
Odehbonder — and descended in the udaller^s family. The 
chief judge was called (Jreat Foad — Foged — or Law-man — 
Laugmand — and under him different officers attended to the 
good morals, police, and general administration of those indus- 
trious, kind-hearted, and hospitable islanders. 

III. The Calmarian Union of Denmark, JSorway, and 
Sweden, a.d. 1397-1523. 

438. Constitution and Government. — ^A new period in 
Scandinavian history commences with the union of the three 
crowns under Queen Margaret, the daughter of King Wal- 
demar III. (378), a princess whose extraordinary talents and 
address have rendered her name illustrious as the Semiramis 
of the North. Yet happy circumstances facilitated the suc« 
cessful execution of her great designs. There were no promi- 
nent pretenders in Denmark and Norway, and the arrogant 
and heedless Albrecht of Mecklenburg, then King of Sweden, 
had alienated the good will and respect of the. Swedish nation 
by his promoting ^worthless German knights to the most im- 
portant offices in court and army, and thus gave Margaret an 
easy victory. Albrecht and his German chivalry, while cross- 
ing a frozen lake near Falkopingj in order to attack the 
Danish army, met the fate of the English at Bannockbum, 
and the French at Poitiers — ^the ice gave way, and the German 
knights, on their barbed war-steeds, ingulfed in the morass, 
were slaughtered or captured by the nimble yeomanry of 
Denmark. Albrecht was taken, imprisoned, and not given 
freedom until he, seven years later, had renounced all preten- 
sions to the northern crowns.**** Margaret then called together 

^ The manners in Scandinavia were still very coarse during the 


oommissioners from the diets of the three nations, who as- 
sembled at Caknar, on July 12, 1397. There the articles of 
the great Union were discussed and settled, and the kingdoms 
accepted young Prince Eric of Pomerania, the nephew of 
Margaret, for her successor. He was crowned with solemnity 
by the Archbishops of Lund and Upsala. By this deed the 
three northern sister nations were to form one permanent 
confederacy, and to be governed by the same monarch. The 
states were to choose the successor among the princes of the 
reigning king ; and, in the event of there being no royal 
progeny, the vacant throne was to be filled by the consent and 
with the concurrence of the Union in the new election. The 
afiairs of each kingdom were to be administered by its own 
laws and usages ; but treaties with foreign powers were not 
to be concluded without common consent. An attack, how- 
ever, upon any one of the confederated states was to be con- 
sidered as an aggression upon all, and to be repelled by their 
joint forces. The Act of Calmar was a mere sketch, which 
left the widest field for able and intelligent monarchs to build 
up a magnificent empire in the north. The daughter of 
Waldemar ruled the immense territories from the Icy Ocean 
to the Eider, — a country destined by nature herself to unity, 

fourteenth oentnry. Albert of Mecklenburg need to call Margaret the 
Breeehless Qneen — J)ronning BuxeW9'-^nd he sent her a whetstone, 
three feet in length, with the intimation to lay aside her sword and 
attend to sharpening her needles. This ungracious compliment the 
Danish Queen answered by sending him in return a chemise of hers 
attached to a flagstaff for his colors, when marching his army against 
her. Nor did this epigrammatic war terminate with the defeat of 
Albert' at Falkoping, for Margaret ordered her indiscreet prisoner to 
her presence, and clapped a fooFs cap, with a tail nineteen yards long, 
on his head, for a mock crown, and sent him, thus exposed to the scoff- 
ings of the populace, to the dreary prison vaults of Lindenholm Castle^ 
in Skaaoe. Among the many curious historical relics, still deposited in 
the sacristy of the splendid cathedral of Upsala, the traveller will be* 
hold the enormous whetstone, the smock banner, and the lengthy fool's 
eap of Prince Albert 



inhabited by a spirited and brave people, of the same mce, 
language, and manners, who, if now united by constitution and 
government, might have formed one of the most important 
elements in the civilisation and development of the political 
system of Europe ; it might have flourished by commerce, navi- 
gation and fisheries, possessing all the coasts and islands of tho 
Baltic and the Northern Ocean. The kindred dialects of 
Danish and Swedish would then have melted into one, and the 
full strength of the three numerous warlike tribes, if directed 
toward the protection and aggrandisement of the Union, would 
have been able, by so easily defensible coasts, to decide the su- 
premacy in the North. The great mind of Margaret, no doubt, 
had a presentiment of the important results which might be 
obtained for the wd&re of her people by this combination, and 
she flattered herself with the bright hope of having already 
gained her point by the unanimous election of a successor ; 
but the prudent queen could hardly have chosen a more un- 
worthy prince than Eric of Pomerania, who, immediately on 
her death, in 1412,*^ by his vain, cowardly, and unjust con- 
duct, produced a reviving animosity and hatred between Danes 
and Swedes, whieh soon became the cause of civil dissensions 
and feuds that caused the Union to remain a pfauitom until 
it vanished at the Stockholm massacre by Christian the 
Tyrant, in 1523. Eric treated the Swedes with scorn as a 
conquered nation. Denmark considered herself as the prin« 



Margaret .A.D. 1412 Oharle» Knudion MBVLtpB 

^rto, depoMd . . ** U89 the throne . . .^1x1448 

Okriitoplur III . . " 1448 Charle9Kwudatm expelled, 

Cfhrittian I^ of Oldenburg 1481 but finally restored, 

ir<iiM(John) . . " 1618 and dies . . . *< 14*70 

ChrUtian II deposed . *' 1622 Sten Sture, the Elder . << 1608 

Flees to Germany , " 1623 Bvanie Sture . . .. " 1612 

Captured and imprisoned 1682 Sien Sture, the Younger " 1620 

Dies in misery . « . " 1669 (TiMtovut V<ua (kinst 1628) 1680 


^pal state, the royal seat of the Union kings ; she sent her 
nobles to govern Sweden with an iron rod ; the Swedes felt 
indignant at this parUalitj, Bud were ever ready to rise in 
defence of their nationality ; while the cities of the Hanseatic 
League, who by the most anrogant measures had appropriated 
to themselves the entire northern traffic, sought to counteract 
every union of the Scandinavian nations, and to maintain 
their hostility and internal weakness by all possible means. 
Thus the l^eaoh widened more and more. The Swedes 
raised Charles Knudson to the throne in 1448 ; and, though 
the Swedish clergy and part of the nobility sided with Den< 
mark and called King Christian I. to the throne in 1471, the 
defeat of the Damsh army near Stockholm, October 10, again 
dispelled all hope of a renewed union. During this long series 
of dissensions the constitutions of Denmark and Sweden had 
taken a different development. In Denmark, the nobility had 
fettered down the kings by capitulations, which brought almost 
the entire executive power into the hands of the state council 
— Rigsraad — composed of the most powerful nobles, while 
ihe free landholders — the Bonder — successively were de- 
prived even of their personal liberty, and became the serfs-^ 
tenants in socoage — on the immense estates of the counts and 
barons. All the burdens of the State, save that of its defence, 
were thrown off the shoulders of the privileged classes, and 
heaped on the citizens and peasantry. Civilized Denmark 
sank, while barbarous Sweden rose. In the latter country, 
the nation was likewise represented by the state council ; but 
the mass of the Swedish people had better preserved their in- 
dependence than in Denmark ; in the mountain regions there 
existed no nobility ; there the free and proud highlander 
stalked about with the mien of a nobleman ; only the armor 
made the knight ; ev^ tenant who appeared mounted on his 
war-horse in steel armor, brandishing his lance at the military 
gatherings, enjoyed the privileges of the aristocracy itself, 
snd this feeling of equality between yeoman and nobleman has 
been the palladium of the Swedish constitution do?m to the 


present day. However violent the parties of the church and 
the aristocracy became in their aspiration to power, they 
needed the support of the people, who universally decided the 
question against Denmark. And then the Knudsons, the 
Engelbrechtsons, and the Stures were decidedlv statesmen 
and warriors of greater talents than the crowned Erics, Christo* 
phers, and Christians — ^all of them Germans by birth, who, in 
the distress of the times, were called to fill the Danish throne, 
and fought their battles, not with the sons of the land, but 
with bands of German mercenaries and poor adventurers, who 
flocked to Denmark to be defeated by the spears and halberds 
of the Dalecarlians in Sweden and the Ditmarskers in Hol- 
stein. The untoward relations of Sleswig, between Denmark 
and Holstein, maimed the strength of the former, and Sweden 
eluded her grasp. Different was the position of Norway ; the 
turbulent princes of the dynasty of old Harald Haarfager had 
died off. Norway had no nobility; her Odelsbonder (223, 
296) were freemen, living on their own estates ; they wished 
for tranquillity, and were occupied with their fishing, agricul- 
ture, and bear-hunting, under the mild sway of the Danish 
kings, who seldom visited that distant country, though it must 
be owned that Norway made little or no progress ; it had no 
national representation of its own, and took no part in the 
diets — Rigsdage— of Denmark; it had no university, and 
continued for nearly four centuries to send its youths for edu- 
cation to the colleges of Copenhagen. Thus Norway vanishes 
from history towards the close of the middle ages, after having 
performed so wild, but brilliant a part in the times of the 
Norman conquests and the crusades. 

439. Divisions op Provinces, CiTifis, and Historicai. 
Sites. — ^As Sweden now enters boldly upon the great theatre of 
history, on which she is to perform so important a part in the 
following centuries, we shall give a more detailed account of 
her geography in the fifteenth century, and only indicate some 
few changes in Denmark and Norway. 


L The Kingdom of Sweden. — ^Before the union of 
the Suithian and Gothic tribes, Sweden had been divided 
into the two distinct kingdoms of Suithiod and Gothland 
(225). On the accession of the dynasty of the Folkungar, and 
the erection of the archiepiscopal see of Upsala (about a. d. 
1250), a more regular government was established by Mag- 
nus I., Ladulaas (Barn-door Lock), who, in 1278, took the 
title of King of the Swedes and the Chths, In the four- 
teenth century the kingdom was divided into four regions con- 
taining twenty provinces: — I. Southern Region, — Goth- 
land, Gothcdand (Gothia), with the provinces, 1, East Goth- 
land^ 2, We^ Gothland^ 3, Smaaland^ and 4, Dalsland, which 
bordered east on the Baltic, south on Denmark, west on Nor- 
way, and north on the province of Sweden. The large lakes 
Wenern and W^tm^n, surrounded by forest-clad hills, occu- 
pied the centre ; on the south, a fertile plain extended to the 
more dreary table-land of Smaaland, whose soil gave only a 
scanty produce of oats and barley. Falkoping, on a small 
lake in West Gothland, where King Albrecht was totally 
defeated and captured by the Danish General Ivar Lykke, 
Feb. 24, 1389. Calmar, on the west of Smaaland, opposite 
the island of Oela^id, In its old castle, formerly esteemed 
one of the keys of the kingdom, was held the congress of the 
northern nations in 1397, which acceded to the celebrated 
treaty of the Cal?narian Union, Bogesund, south of Fal- 
koping, on the lake Aasund. Here, on the frozen lake, was 
fought the bloody battle in which Otto Krumpen, with the 
Danish army, defeated the Swedes, January 19, 1520. The 
Administrator of Sweden, Sten Sture, fell in the action, and 
Stockholm opened her gates to Christian the Tyrant, who 
soon was to deluge her streets with the blood of her noblest 
and most generous citizens. 

440. II. Central Region. — Svealand, or Sweden, with 
the provinces, 5, Sodermanlandj 6, Upland y 7, Westmafp- 
land 8. Nerike, 9, Wrmeland, 10, Dalamey 11, Gestrik- 

542 EIOBTH PSEiOD.'-<-8WB|>EN. 

Idndy and 12, Mdnngdandy bordering east on the Bothniau 
Gulf, south on Gothland, west and north on Norway (Heije- 
dalen) and Norrland. The lake Malarn^ with its hundreds of 
islands, presents every where romantic views ; the soil is good 
in many parts ; horses, cattle, and sheep are numerous ; yet 
the mojst interesting scenery of Svea is the mountain range 
of the Copper Mines — Daktrne — on the frontiers of Norway. 
Stockholm (225) was early the capit^ of the Swedish kings. 
Northwest of the city, on the steep eminence Brunkdfergj was 
fought the obstinate battle of the 10th October, 1471, in 
which King Christian I. and the Danish army were totally 
defeated by the Swedish yeomamry and the garrison of Stock- 
holm. The king was wounded by an arrow ; thousands of 
Danes perished in their disorderly retreat to the fleet ; and 
camp, banners, and kingdom were lost. On the ^at square 
in Stockholm, Christian II., the Tyrant, ordered ninety-four ec* 
elesiastics, senators, knights, and burgomasters, the most distin- 
guished and virtuous men in Sweden, to be beheaded, as guilty 
of heresy and schism, on the 8th of November, 1 520. Loaded 
cannon were planted on the avenues ; the troops oocapied the 
streets, and the deathlike silence in the terrified city was only 
broken by the toll of the castle bell during this horrible scene, 
which cost the bigoted despot three crowns and a life of exile 
and misery.^ Strengnds, south, on the M^am. Here 
Gustav Vasa, after the expulsion of the Danes, assembled a 
diet, where he was unanimously called to the throne, on 
June 6, 1523. Nyk^ping^ in Siidermanland, on the coast of 
the Baltic, with a strong castle, in which King Birger of 
Sweden, in 1318, imprisoned his brothers Waldemar and 
Eric; and^ throwing the keys of the prison into the sea, 
left the unhappy princes to perish by hunger. TJpsala^ the 
ancient seat of Paganism (106), had become that of learning 

*** More than six hundred men of high standing and influence were 
beheaded or hung in different parts of the realm, before the young 
Gustav Vasa, at the head of hia mountaineers^ drove the Danish tyrant 
out of the country. 


by tiie erectioii oi the celebrated uuversity by Sten Stare, 
in 1477. Fhlufiy situated in a deep valley, between lakes, 
near tHe DaX-df^ is the centre of the mining district — the an- 
cient JemhcBToIand (225), and the home of the brave and 
honest JDalecariiafiSf who, on .the appearance of Gustav Yasa 
in the valley, rose in their might, defeated the mercenaries of 
King Christian II. in every battle, and carried the young 
hero in triumph to Stockholm in 1523. 

441. III. Northern Eegion. — Norrland consisted of 
the provinces of 13, Wester-BoUn, 14, Medelpad^ 15, Anger* 
manlandj and 16, the Eastern Lapmarky on the frontiers of 
Finnland. The large central re^ons, Jemteland and Heije^ 
dalen, belonged to Norway, and were not ceded to Sweden 
until the treaty of Bromsebro in the year 1645. Hemosand^ 
JjuLeaay Piteaa and Umeaaj are the only towns on these wild 
and dreary coasts. Northern Sweden was inhabited by Lap- 
landers and Swedes ; the former were either mountaineers^ 
inhabitants of the forests, fishermen, or vagabonds, who hired 
themselves out to the Swedish farmers. The rigor of the cli< 
mate, want and misery, and, in consequence, the barrenness of 
the Lapland women, prevented the increase of their popula 

442. lY. Eastern Begion.— Finnland, with the pro- 
vinces, 17, NyUmd or Finnland Proper^ 18, Tava^stkindj 
19, Oester-Bottny and 20, Savolaiz or Kyriakmdy on th« 
frontiers of Permia, in Eussia. Finnland is the Region of 
Cheat Lakes, That ext^isive c^imtry was inhabited by 
Queans^ or Quains (225), TavastianSy KardianSy Suomij 
Finns, and TchtuieSy who all lived in eternal feuds wil^ one 
another, until the cross banner of King Eric of Sweden ap* 
peared on the coast. After a most bloody war, which lasted 
for more than one century and a half — 1156 — ^the Finnish 
tribes were subdued and converted to Ohristianity. The 
Swedes built on the westfim ooast the castles of Korsholm^ 


Bjomeborgy Nystad^ and Aaho^ while the Kussian armies 
invaded the eastern regions on the Ladoga, But after the 
defeat of the Russians on the Kalka/ by the Mongols, in 
1224 (304), they disappeared in the north, and the Swedes, 
under Birger Jarl, the founder of Stockholm (225), penetrated 
victoriously into the interior, and built the strong Tavasthns. 
The Marshal Jorkel Knudson conquered Kyriala, or Garelia, 
and founded Viborgy on the Finnic Gulf, and advancing boldly 
upon the Neva, built Landscronay on the site of the present 
Saint Petersburg. But there the Swedes, for the first time, 
came in hostile contact with the Russians. The rich republi- 
cans of Novgorod could not suffer the mail-clad warriors of 
the north in so dose a neighborhood. Swarms of Russians 
invaded Finnland, burning and destroying; several of the 
young Swedish colonies were laid in ashes, the settlers 
slaughtered, and their families carrried off. In 1318, the 
Russians besieged Aabo, and spread devastation through the 
lake districts; but the interest of both parties demanded 
peace, and the first treaty between Russia and Sweden was 
signed in 1323, at Noteborgy on the Lake Ladoga, according 
to which the Swedes had to retire thirty-six versts west of the 
Neva, the mouth of which thus remained in the possession of 
the merchants of Great Novgorod, and the Syster back (Sister 
Brook) became thenceforth the frontier between the two hos- 
tile nations. The border forays, nevertheless, continued ; the 
Swedish crusading spirit lasted longer than that of the southern 
nations ; but it was not until the year 1462, when Ivan I., after 
his victories over the Mongols, had restored the Moscovite or 
Russian empire, that the war on the Baltic took a serious cha- 
racter. Finnland had become a highly flourishing country, 
and the strong fortresses of the Swedes repelled all the attacks 
of their barbarous neighbors. 

443. II. The Kingdom op Norway had been divided into 
four provinces, or Stifter : 1, Aogershuus, 2, Christian- 
sand, 3, Bergen, and 4, Trondhiem. It enjoyed a perfect 


tranquillity, and the national antipathy between Norwegians 
and Swedes had not yet taken the violent character which it 
afterwards assumed. Ohristiania, in Aggershuos, had become 
the capital. Bergen^ the first city for commerce and wealth, 
had suffered much from the attacks of the Hanseatic League 
(403) until it entered the confederacy and became the 
great emporium for their northern commerce. OpslOy the an- 
cient capitid, near Christiania, became in 1508, the scene of 
the only rebellion which the Norwegians ever attempted 
against the Kings of Denmark. Herulf Hydefad, the leader, 
together with some other noblemen, bishops, and their parti- 
sans, were surrounded by Prince Christian, taken prisoners, 
and executed. It was, perhaps, the successful massacre in 
Opslo which, twelye years later, prompted him, ,as Danish 
king, to renew it on a larger scale in Stockholm. 

444. III. The Kingdom of Denmark seemed to haye been 
placed at the head of the Union, yet this honor cost her im- 
mensely dear — ^her liberty at home, and her treasures, armies, 
and reputation, abroad : weakened and crest-fallen, she relin- 
quished her bloody grasp. Of all her German conquests there 
remained nothing but the islands of Rugen and Oesel. Wal- 
demar III. had conquered the large and fertile island of 
Gothland (Gulland), in 1360, where he made a rich booty in 
the city of Wisby, the seat of the Hanseatic commerce, and 
the stronghold of the Baltic pirates. Copenhagen (293) be- 
came the permanent residence of the kings of Denmark in 
1440, and a unirersity was erected in 1479, which ever since 
has maintained its rank among the most distinguished in 
Europe. It was principally the downfall of Wisby which 
drew commerce to Copenhagen. Jealous of this new rival, 
the Hanseatic League sent, in 1428, a large fleet and 
12,000 German troops against it; yet Queen Philippa, the 
daughter of Henry IV. of England, at the head of the citizens 
defended it so heroically, that she defeated the Labeckcrs in 
several successful sorties, and forced them to raise the siege. 


But instead of pnise and ajflfectiox!, the admirable princesft 
only received the grossest inialt from her husband, King Erie, 
which caused her death. An important change had taken 
place in the geography of medifleyal Denmark with regard to 
the duchy of Scbleswig and its relations to the Counts of Hoi- 
stein. On the extinction of the male line of King AbePs do- 
scendants, in 1375, the duchy of Schleswig (South Jutland) 
had reverted to the crown of Denmark. Yet Queen Margaret, 
desiring the aid of the Counts of Holstein against the over- 
bearing Hanseatio Confederacy, bestowed the duchy upon 
Count Gerhard, of Rendsborg, as a Danish banner fief for 
the usual military service to the crown. Eric, her successor, 
proud of his power, demanded back the duchy, but the war* 
like Counts of Holstein were neither daunted by the arms of 
the three northern kingdoms, nor by the sentence and threats 
of the German Emperor Sigismond, who adjudged the whole of 
Schleswig to Denmark, in 1424. Henry of Holstein had de- 
feated a Danish army of sixty thousand troops, at Immervad^ 
before the Lobeckers besieged Copenhagen. Eric was deposed, 
and the first act of his successor, Christopher III., the Bavarian, 
was the recognition of the hereditary rights of the house of 
Schauenburg (377) to the duchy of Schleswig. At the diet 
in Colding, in 1439, Duke Adolph, the successor of Henry, 
who fell before Flensborg, in 1427, kneeling down before 
his liege lord, took the oath of allegiance, and received from 
the hand of the king the banner of investiture. Yet Denmark, 
who had gained nothing by her doubtful union with Sweden, 
felt most deeply this loss of her finest and most fertile pro- 
vince, and all her efforts now tended towards its recovery. 
The Danish nobility, in compliance with this feeling, after the 
death of King Christopher, in 1448, sent a deputation to Duke 
Adolph of Schlesmg- Holstein, to offer him the crown of Den- 
mark. The Holsteiner refused the honor, but directed the at- 
tention of the Danes to his young sister's son. Count Christian 
of Oldenborg, who accepted the crown, and became the founder 
ci the present dynasty of Denmark, in the year 1448. On 



the snbseqne&t death of Duke Adolph (1459), Ohristian inher- 
ited both Holstein and Schleswig, the latter of which ought 
then, as an escheated fief, to have been incorporated with the 
kingdom, or, at least, its relation to Denmark to have been 
plainly defined by a new Investiture to the king, as Count of 
Holstein. But this important act was not called into exist- 
ence on account of another difficulty. Duke Adolph of Hol- 
stein, moved, perhaps, by his old rancor toward Denmark, 
against whom he had spent his youth in hard fighting, and 
still more by his natural desire to preserve the close union of 
his two beautiful states, Schleswig and Holstein, had per- 
suaded his young nephew. Christian of Oldenborg, at the time 
when the Danish crown was offered to him, to renounce his 
right to Schleswig as King of Denmark^ and to promise that 
the duchy of Schleswig and the kingdom never should be 
united again under the same sceptre, and that the duchy of 
Schleswig'Holstein should remain for ever undivided — ewich 
tosammende ungedeltJ*^ But the wary Christian, who wanted 
to stand well both with Danes and Germans, did not dare to 
claim his hereditary right in Holstein, and give Schleswig 
back to Denmark. He simply offered himself as a candidate 
for the free election of the Schleswig and the Holstein jiobil* 

•^ The curious LouhQerman document of Count Christian of Olden- 
borg, containing this illegal promise, is dated June 28th, 1448, more 
than a year before his coronation at Copenhagen, as King of Denmark, 
Oetober 28th, 1449. It had, of course, no validity, because Count 
Christian could not give away any territory or rights of the kingdom 
of Denmark, whose crown he did not yet wear; nay, he could not even 
do so after he was a crowned king, except with the consent of the 
states in a general diet or Danehof. This renunciation of the young 
candidate may, therefore, be considered null and void. Yet it has for 
centuries been the cause of much trouble to Denmark, and it was 
mainly on account of this antiquated and absurd document^ that all 
the innocent blood was spilt during the late Schleswig war in 1848- 
1850 — ^until at last the hea^y sword of the victors at Bau, Dyppel, 
Fredericia, Idsted, and Frederikstad, has cut it to atome^ and proved 
that the duchy of Schleswig or South Jutland, is an integral part — ^the 
v^ery flesh and bone of old Denmark. 


ity. This be obtained ; be then paid off the many cla' ^.d ^ 
the collateral lines, such as the Counts of Scbauenborg Finne 
berg, persuaded tbe German Emperor Frederic III. to gin 
Holstein tbe rank of a ducby, and left tbe feudal question 
about Scbleswig undecided.^^ 

445. Tbe nobles of tbe Danisb council, at tbat time, no 
doubt, considered tbis election of a Holstein prince to tbe 
tbrone of Denmark, as a masterly coup d^etat, wbicb tbus peace- 
fully brbugbt botb tbe ducbies under tbe crown. Yet tbe inbab- 
itants of tbe small district of JDUmarsken refused tbeir bomage. 
Tbey formed a free commonwealtb, wbicb was governed by 
bailiffs and aldermen, and, united by tbe love of independence, 
tbey maintained tbemselves in tbis situation against all aggres- 
sion. Wben, tberefore. King Hans (Jobn), in tbe year 1500, at 
tbe bead of a large army of feudal cbivalry and Gem^an lance- 
knecbts attempted to invade tbeir marcbes, tbe brave Ditmarsk- 
ers defeated bim on tbe dikes between Meldarf and Hemming- 
stedj on tbe 13tb of February, witb so terrible a slaughter tbat 
three hundred and sixty nobles and fifteen thousand soldiers 
perished on the battle-field. The king himself escaped witb 
difficulty, having lost bis banner, tbe celebrated old Dancbroge 
(377), bis camp and baggage, and was forced, through the 
mediation of the Hanseatic cities, to recognize tbe indepen- 
dence of tbe victors. Thus, then, does tbe middle age of 
Denmark close with a most disastrous defeat, and its modem 
era opens ominously enough witb the massacres of Opslo and 
Stockholm, and the dissolution of tbe Calmarian Union. 

*" Our space does not permit us to give here the later history of 
the Schleswig-Holstein question, which belongs more properly to th* 
Historical Geography of Modem Europe. See our first article in the 
New-York American Review: Wars hetvaeen the Danes and Germans 
for the possession of Schleswig, Vol II., No. 6, new series (September) 
1848. The following articles describing the late events in Denmark, 
hare not yet been published. 


IV. The Kingdom op Poland and Lithuania. 

446. Extent and Eloueishing State of Poland undbr 
THE Jagellons. — A glance at the map of the fourteenth 
century will at once show the urgent political necessity of the 
fierce wars of the Polish kings against the Order of the Teu- 
tonic knights. By the cession of Samogitia (380) to the Order, 
by Duke Witowd of Lithuania, in 1394, Poland had become 
entirely excluded from the Baltic coast; and the narrow-minded 
politics of the Teutonic knights did not feiil to throw still greater 
impediments in the way of the exports of Poland and its com- 
munication with the Hanseatic cities on the Lower Vistula. 
Yet the important step for the final humiliation of the military 
hierarchy had already been taken, in a. d. 1386, by the marriage 
of Princess Hedwig, the younger daughter of King Louis of 
Anjou, with Jagellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the al- 
liance of the two powerful nations, the Poles and Lithuanians. 
But great difficulties — the ambition of the Lithuanian princes 
and the vanity and pride of the nations themselves — still pro- 
tracted the permanent union and brotherhood of the Lith- 
uanian and Polish nationalities. This auspicious event took 
place at last at Lublin, in 1568. The male line of the old 
Piast dynasty (250, 312) became extinct with Kasimir the 
Great in 1370.«» The JageUons foUowedfrom 1386 to 1572 ; 

*" Poland owea to Kasimir, the Peasant King, her constitution, con- 
solidation, and greatness ; he united the duchy of Halitch (802-81^) 
with the kingdom in 1840 ; lightened the burdens of the Kmetom — 
peasants — and brought an admirable order in the administration of 
the kingdom. His nephew, Louis of Anjou, King of Hungaria, fol- 
lowed him on the throne until 1881. The beautiful Hedwig, youngest 
daughter of Louis, was then elected queen, and that virtuous princess, 
silencing the voice of her heart, gave generously her hand to the 
elderly heathen Duke Jagellon, on the 17th February, 1886, and se- 
cured thus the union of thirty millions, the wide extent and pros- 
perity of glorious Poland. The Jagellon dynasty is the following : — 
JageUon (Jagal, Jagiel)^ after his baptism, 14 February, 1886, called 


jet Poland had already become an elective aristocratic repub* 
lie since the celebrated diet of Ohenciny, in 1331. During 
this period there were in Poland four distinct classes of in- 
habitants. First, the Voivods and Starosts, or earls, the 
high commanders of the proyinces, who, together with the 
bishops, formed the council of the king. The second class 
formed the ZemaniSj or landholders, great and small — some 
with thousands of acres and thousands of tenants, others 
with small farms, themselves tilling their fields — ^yet all were 
nobles, with emblazoned shields, fighting^ on horseback, and 
forming the Polish feudal army — PospoUte Ruscenie — of a 
hundred thousand cavalry. The third class were the tenants 
— ^the Kmetons or Wiesniacy — ^that is, people living in vil- 
lages, the peasantry ; they were a free and independent people, 
but they were mostly tenants doing service in soccage on the 
estates of the wealthier nobles; their public duty was to 
guard the castles — Crrod — ^in time of war, and all those who 
volunteered to fight the battles of the country in the open 
field, on horseback, were ranked with the nobles or knights — 
Szlachzikes. The fourth class of people were the prisoners 
of war and their descendants ; these were considered as slaves 
of the voivods or nobles who made them prisoners; their 
eondition, however, was not worse than that of the English 

WUuUdaw n^ 1886--1484; Wladidaw III,^ liis sod, perishes in the 
battle at Yama, against the Ottomans, 1484-1444 : Ktuimir IV*, 
Grand Duke of Lithuania his brother, 1444-1492; John L Albert^ 
1492-1601; Alexander, 1601-1606; Sigismund Z, 'l'606-1648; Sigif- 
mund IL, 1648-1672. This was the period of the fSftrthest extent and 
highest bloom of Poland. It reached from Fomerania, on the Baltic, 
all along the frontiers of Silesia, Hungary, and Moldavia, to the shores 
of the Black Sea ; embraced all Piiissia, Samogitia^ Courland, Livonia, 
and Esthland as feudal principalities, and ran eastward along the 
Diina, by Smolensk and Novgorod Seversky, through the Ukraine, to 
the mouth of the Dnieper. On the west, this immense frontier stood 
firm for centuries; but on the east. began already (a. p. 1686) the fear- 
ful wars with the powerful Czars of Moscow. It was the term of the 
grandeur of Poland, and how terrible was her decline and fall i 


Tillains (284) and tenants at will. All the serfs were emanci- 
pated at once, and declared freemen, like the peasants, by the 
great national assembly held in the city of Wizlica, in 1347. 
This diet also limited the power of the kings, and extended 
the earlier constitution of Oheneiny in 1331.^^* 

447. The cities in Poland were not nnmerons ; but they 
enjoyed nearly all the priyileges of the German free towns ; 
they were exempted from the feudal regulations, and Krakau, 
the beautiful capital of ancient Poland, on the Vistula, was a 
prominent member of the Hanseatic Confederacy. Yet com- 
merce and industry could not flourish in Poland ; the long 
exclusion from the Baltic, the oppressiye rule of the nobility, 
the badness of the roads, and, most of all, the pernicious 
influence of the hundred thousands of Jews settled in the 
country — ^like a cloud of locusts- — smothered already in the 
bud every generous attempt at national industry and commer- 
cial deyelopment. '^ Master Jew" — Fcm-Zyd — ^was the 
mighty man, who ruled both kings and diets, and held the fate 
of the national credit, and the treasury in his hands. 

448. The Poles are the most spirited and handsome of all 
the Sdavonian nations. They are open, generous, and hos- 
pitable. Their bravery in war, and fortitude iu adversity, 
are as unrivalled as their social and domestic virtues at home. 

** Poland succeeded in reforming her people by military merit and 
education ; in the course of a single century about one-eighth of her 
population became nobles, and in 1600, when her population did not 
etceed fifteen millions, she boasted of four hundred uid eighty thousand 
voters ; while France, in 1847, after f90 many bloody revolutions, with 
a population of thirty-five millions, numbered only one hundred and 
eighty thousand voters, — ^three hundred thousand less than Poland 
numbered three centuries ago with her fifteen millions. The nobility 
of Poland sprang from among the people, and were the creation of an 
adopted reform of the nation ; while the feudal nobility of the rest of 
Europe originated in the aseendeney of a oonqnering raoe over the 
original inhabitanta. 


The hit sex are celebrated in the north for their .beauty and 
patriotism ; they surpass the Russian women in symmetry of 
form, and the Germans in the delicacy of their complexion. 
The Polish ladies haye an excellent education, and are more 
animated and agreeable in their manners than the women of 
Russia. After the alliance with Lithuania, and the yictory 
at Tannenberg over the Teutonic knights, Poland enjoyed 
for more than a century a yery happy po&ition ; the resources 
of the country increased by commerce, agriculture, and mining, 
after the road of the Vistula had become opened to the Baltic. 
The victorious arms of the Jagellon princes secured the dis- 
tant frontiers ; and, at home, the lively Polaks lived in plenty 
and pleasure. The nobles, and even the Jews, wore splendid 
Besses of velvet and silk, richly lined with sables and pre- 
cious furs. In war, they disdained the heavy suits of plate- 
armor then in use, and preferred the light and graceful costume 
of the Utdans, Nor did they neglect literary polish and ac- 
quirements ; their language and literature began to flourish, 
and the newly-established University of Krakau — 1369 — ^be- 
came crowded with learned professors and studious youths.*^® 

449. Division into Provinces and Voivodats; €itie8 
AND Historical Sites. — A. The Kingdom of Poland (250, 
312) comprehended : I. Polonia Magna, Crreat Poland^ 
with the duchies of Mazovia and Cujavia, The former a 
most important province, situated on the Vistula^ the Bug, 
and the Narev, had, since 1220, its own ducal dynasty, and 
was not united to the kingdom before 1463-76, and the 
western parts only in 1526; it contained the principalities of 
Flockf Warsawaj and Czersky with the cities FuUusk and 
Praga on the eastern bank of the Vistula, opposite to Wasawa 

*^ See, for interesting details on this latter period of the medisval 
history of Poland, the admirable work of Prof. Joachim Lelewel, in 
the German translation, Q§9ehiehte Polens, (Leipzig, 184'7X with an 
AtUs, pp. 96, 100, 116-125. 


(Warsaw), then a small city. Cttjavia, likewise long separated, 
and ruled by its own princes, fell back to the mother country 
in 1401. It was the border region toward Prussia, and con- 
tinually exposed to the wars with the Teutonic Order. Its 
Toivodats were' 3>o&ry«, Wlaslaw, Dobrzyn^ and Brzesc^ 
with the commercial cities of Bromberg, Lobav, Coronovo 
(Polish Crown), colonized with Germans. Voivodats, 1, Posen^ 
on the frontier of Brandenburg ; 2, Kalisch, east of Silesia ; 
3, Widun, brought back to the crown in 1401; 4, Sieradz ; 
6, Lemzyc^ on the Warthe ; 6, Rawa^ and 7, the principality 
Jjotaicz. II. PoMERELLiA, or Polish Prussia, which was 
ceded to Poland by the Teutonic Order, in the disastrous 
treaty of 1466, with the thriving cities Danzig (382), Oliva^ 
JSllnngy Stargard, Graudenz, Culm, the first conquest and 
colony of the knights in 1228 ; Marientaerder and Marienburg, 
with magnificent monuments of the order ; Thorn, on the Vis- 
tula, the birthplace of the celebrated Pole, Nicholas Copemik 
(Oopcmicus), who, " diving through the mists of error, ren- 
dered yenerable by time, discovered the true system of the 
world, and established for himself a name that will live while 
Ban and moon endure." The first printed copy of his masterly 
work he received dying, on the 23d of May, 1543, and sur- 
vived the joy only a few hours. Ermeland, inclosed in 
Prussia, with the city of Braunsberg, on the coast of the 
^EHsche-Haff ; Seeburg, Wartensteiuy and AUenstein, were 
strong castles of the knights. III. Podlachia, east of Ma^ 
sovia, with Augtistowo, Bielsk, and the extensive possessions 
of the Badzivil family. 

450. II. PoLONiA Minor. — Lesser Poland — eouth of the 
former, bounded on the west by Silesia, south by the Carpa- 
ihian range, separating it from Hungary, and east by Ha- 
litch. The principal voivodats were Krakau, Sandomirz, 
JjiMin^ and Bochrda. The principalities Zator and Zips, in 
the Carpathians, were acquisitions from Hungary. Krakau, 
on a high and picturesque site on the Vistula, was the ancient 
. 24 


metropolis, where the kings were crowned and interred. 
Among the numerous mausoleums is that of Saint Stanislaus, 
Bishop of Krakau, whom King Boleslaus the Bold killed be- 
fore the altar. Near Krakau lie the celebrated mines of 
fossil salt of Bochnia and Wieliczka, which were discovered, 
as is said, by Saint Cunegunda, a Hungarian princess, the 
wife of King Boleslaus Y., in the year 1351, though the mines 
were neglected, and the works on a large scale did not begin regu- 
larly before 1442, under King Wladislaw III.*" Chenciny, 
north of Krakau, where, in the first general diet of Poland, 
Wladislaw II. Loketek, in the year 1331, laid the foundation 
of the constitution of the kingdom, and the rank and priyileges 
of the SzlachzikeSy or nobles, were defined. Wislica, south- 
east of the former : here Ka^mir the Great, the son of Wladis- 
law II., in another important diet held 1347, published new 
modifications of the earlier constitution, and the final union of 
Polonia Magna and Minor in one kingdom. All these fonda 
mental laws were written in the Latin language. Sandomirz 
and Lublin were strong fortresses (312). 

451. lY. Halitch (Halicz), or Red Russia^ east of 
Lesser Poland, came to the crown in 1392. The city of Ha- 
litch, the earlier capital, on the Dniester, yielded later to 
Lemberg, which took its rank. At Horodkne an important 
diet was held in 1413, in which the Lithuanians were declared 
liable to the same taxes, and subject to the same laws, as the 
Poles. There, too, the arms of the two nations (the white 
eagle for Poland, the armed knight for Lithuania) were united, 
and the grand dukes of the latter country were appointed 
by the Kings of Poland. Principalities were Chdm and 
Bdz; cities, Sambor and Busk. Y. Wolhynia, east of 
Halitch, and YI., Podolia, south of the former, old Li- 

*" The entire city of Wieliczka is undermined ; the works extend 
on every side some thousand feet^ and the depth beneath the lowest 
part of the valley is abont eight hundred feet 


thuanian conquests, were, in 1392, likewise united to tho 
Polish crown, to make Jagellon popular among his new 
subjects. Principalities were Czartorisky^ Korecz, CzaslaWf 
and others. Cities, Krzemieniec and Wladimir, VII. 
The vast principality of Kiow ^Kijow), on the Dnieper, with 
Bielograd and Perejaslaw. It extended southward below the 
waterfalls of that river ; the whole southern region was inhabit- 
ed by the Saporogian Cossacks, who appear for the first time 
about the year 1320. The origin of their military republic 
has been ascribed to the terror excited among the southern 
Sclavonians by the victories of the Lithuanian prince, Gedhe* 
myn, on his desolating march to Kiow. Swarms of fugitives 
left their country, assembled at the mouth of the Dnieper, and 
formed a number of warlike colonies, which were compelled, 
in order to resist the aggressions both of Lithuanians and 
Mongols, to live on horseback, under a military government, 
and submit to the lance-law. Such a life has its own charms ; 
thousands of new settlers — Cossacks^ in the Tartar language 
signifying light-armed horsemen — arrived from the north; 
they built towns and villages, where they resided with their 
fiimilies during winter, but in summer they mounted their 
steeds, and galloped off to the eastern steppes, making con- 
tinual inroads upon the Tartars. The unmarried young men 
were selected as an advanced guard against the enemy, and 
occupied the more exposed regions on the Dnieper and the 
shores of the Euxine. These warlike youths were the Sapo- 
rogues, who drilled in this excellent military school, became 
the most esteemed and feared of the ^different Cossack hordes 
of the seventeenth century. Their country, between the Bug, 
Dnieper and Don, was also called Malo-Eussia, or Lesser Bus* 
sia, and the lower steppes Ukraine, which had an important 
part to perform in modern history.*^' 

'^^ The Saporogian Cossacks belong to the Riisaniaka or RuihenioM, 
also called Rttssiniana and Malo-Ruasians. This Sclavonian tribe, 
who are distinguished from the eastern Russians by their finer fea- 
tures, dark or hazel eyes, loftier stature, and more harmonious Ian- 


452. B. Grand duclij of Lithuania. I. Lithuania Proper, 
between the Njemen and the Dflna with the Toivodats, Wil- 
nay Troki, Keydanyy Olszant/y BraclaWy and the cities Wil- 
na and WUeikay on the Wilja — Grodno and KnovmOy on the 
Njemen. Lithuania proper is a very level country ; the great- 
er part of it is covered with sand, intersected with fens and 
marshes. The hnmid climate there is subject to oppressive 
heat, and to extreme cold. Three or four weeks of a Lithua- 
nian winter proved fatal to the veterans of Napoleon, in 1812. 
The country is covered with immense forests, where bears, 
wolves, wild boars, and beavers are found in thousands. The 
inhabitants resemble the Poles and Russians, though they 
are even less advanced in civilization than these ; struggling 
against poverty, oppressed by slavery, their appearance indi- 
cates thei? degraded condition. There are still several wealthy 
&milies of the ancient Polish nobility, among others the Rad- 
ziwils, the Sapiehas, and the Oginski, but their gorgeous pa- 
laces are surrounded by wretched cottages. IL SAMocmA 
(Szamaithen), extending from the Njemen along the coast of 
the Baltic, toward Livonia, was conquered by the Teutonic 
Order, as an important province for the communication with 
the State of their brothers, the Elnights Swordbearers of 
Livonia ; but after the most furious attacks of the Lithuani- 
ans, the knights found themselves obliged to give up the new, 
formidable castles which they had built on the Njemen, such 
as Jurborg and Christmemelj and retire from the country in 

guage» have a more generous and confiding character ; the Malo-Rus- 
sian never thinks of to-morrow ; he enjoys his mild climate, and labors 
only when compelled by necessity. The free and fierce Cossacks show 
the Malo-Russian character in its opposition to that of the slavish, 
croaching Weliko^ or Great Russians, who have become accustomed to 
the yoke by the lapse of ages. All the inhabitants of Southern Poland, 
Galicia, Ludomiria or Red Russia (Halitch), the Bukovina, also of 
the nortli eastern part of Hungary, and many scattered over Wallachia 
and Moldavia belong to this Russniak race. Yet the Cossacks of the 
I>on are more mixed with pure Russians. Hie whole number of that 
raee is given at thirteen millions. 


1409. The soil of Szam&itlien is better thau in other parts; 
the plains are well wooded, and large herds of the elk and 
urns wandered formerly in the forests. The Saniogitians are 
a simple and superstitions, but brave people, who contended 
long against the Teutonic Knights, and adopted Christianity 
with great reluctance. Miedniki and Bosienna are the only 
towns which deserve such a name. III. White Russia, east 
of Lithuania proper, on the rivers Berezina, Drucz, and Dnieper, 
extended eastward to the principality of Smolensk, and south 
to Black Eussia. It was divided into the Yoiyodats, Witepsk^ 
Mzcislaw, Lukoml, MohHetPy and Minsky with the cities Bo- 
rissow on the Berezina, Mohilew, Bobry, and Czasniki. The 
family of Eadziwil had large territories in the west. IV. 
Black Eussia, south of Lithuania proper and White Eussia, 
belonged in part io the great families Sapieha, Eadziwil, and 
Olelko. NowoGRODEK was the principal city on the Njemen, 
which had witnessed many a hard fought battle of the Lith- 
uanians with the Teutonic Knights. Y. Podlesia, south of 
the former, is the marshy region of the numerous tributaries 
of the Pripjet, the Berezina, and the Dnieper ; it is almost 
cov4ai:ed with swamps, on the outskirts of which lay the cities 
Biala, Brzesc, Rosannaj KamienieCy Slonim, Slucz, Bobruiskj 
and Bogatschew, the latter forming a separate principality. On 
the east of these Lithuanian provinces lay YI., the principality 
of PsKow (Pleskow), YII., that of Smolensk, and farther 
southeast, YIII., ihe extensive Severian Lands, bordering 
on the Tcherkassian Cossacks, on the Don. Those immense 
tracts formed the border toward the grand duchy of Eussia 
during the period of the Mongol Empire, in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, yet after the restoration of the Mosko- 
wite power, under Czar Iwan the Great, about 1470, they were 
successively reconquered by the Eussians; Severia in 1494- 
1526, and Smolensk in 1500. 

453. C. Prussia. — The. great battle at Tannenberg, in 

1410, had abfeftdy d^eided the &te of the Teutonic Order 


(383). The few fleeing knights that reached Marienbnrg 
were there besieged by JagelloD) and all the provinces, discon- 
tented with the military hierarchy of the steel-clad monks, 
hastened to submit to the victor. Lezkau, the burgomaster 
of Danzig, saved the knights from destruction, by closing 
the gates of that important maritime city against the Poles. 
But those suspicious tyrants, fearing the power and influence 
of that high-minded man, had the baseness and madness to 
assassinate him with their own daggers. This unheard-of 
crime at once opened the eyes of the Prussian people ; Dan- 
zig, Elbing, Thorn, and other cities, as well as the nobility 
and secular clergy of the maritime provinces, entered into a 
league against the order in the year 1 440. The whole of western 
Prussia revolted in 1454, and placed itself under the protec- 
tion of King Kasimir IV. of Poland, who confirmed the priv- 
ileges of the inhabitants, and guaranteed the Prussians their 
separate independent diets. Yet the knights made the most 
desperate resistance, supported by adventurers from Germany. 
The disastrous war which was the consequence of this revolt, 
lasted twelve years ; and, in the course of it, the eastern part 
of Prussia, which had remained under the authority of the 
knights, was laid waste by the Poles ; two thousand churches 
were destroyed; and out of twenty-one thousand villages, 
eighteen thousand were reduced to ashes. The peace con- 
cluded at Thorn confirmed the Poles in the possession of 
Western Prussia, the territories of Ctdm^ Michelow^ and 
^Pomerdlen (380), together with the cities of Marienhurg^ 
Stuhm, Elbing^ and Christburg^ and the bishopric Ermeland, 
whose bishop had recognized the supremacy of Poland. Na- 
tangeHy Sairdand^ and the other eastern districts (380), the 
knights were permitted to retain by acknowledging themselves 
vassals of Poland. Yet the haughty warrior-monks could not 
long bear such a humiliation ; they grasped the sword again 
in 1520, against King Sigismund I. of Poland. ^But the 
times of crusades, cluvaliy and monachism were passing 
away. The artillery of the Poles demolished without dif 


ficalty their strongest castles, and the light arquebnsiers 
brought down the stoutest knights, who in vain filled Ger- 
many with their lamentations. The Beformation had thrown 
its light on the world, and now nobody cared for the monks 
in Prussia. In their despair, the knights chose for their grand 
master the young- Prince Albert of Brandenburg, who, by 
the most remarkable artifice, secured his sovereignty through 
the destruction of the order. Albert visited Luther and 
Melancthon in Wittemberg, and learned from the great re- 
formers the invididity of the vows of monks and knights. 
Having thus become a Protestant, the Prince married Dor- 
othea, Princess of Denmark, and invited his knights to follow 
his excellent example. No doubt the greater part of them 
preferred marriage to celibacy; they adopted the reform, re- 
nounced Bome and the Pope, and, from a rank equal to that 
of pri^tly sovereigns, the Teutonic knights now gladly de- 
scended to the condition of secular nobles. The closing scene 
took place in Krakau, April 8, 1525. On the square before 
the palace the royal throne had been erected, adorned with 
the united escutcheons of the White Eagle for Poland and 
the Mounted Knight for Lithuania. There Margrave Albert 
of Brandenburg, the grand master, with his Teutonic knights, 
knelt down before the Polish King Sigismund, and, surren- 
dering the banner of the order, swore allegiance to his sover- 
eign for the Prussian territories ; Sigismund then in return 
embraced him as Duke of Prussia, and handed him the banner 
of his new dignity. Thus the order was expelled from the 
Baltic. A few stubborn old knights transferred their chapter 
to Mergentheim, in Wttrtemberg, where their order was sup- 
pressed by the Emperor Napoleon in 1809, and their estates 
sold and dispersed. Tet it appears that the skeletons of the 
order have recently been called forth from their sepulchres, 
and that their shadows still stalk about in Germany, with an 
Austrian archduke for their ghostly grand master — Deutchr 


454. D. Livonia, Esthonia and Ooux.i«and kad a Bome- 
what different fate from that of Prussia. On the dissolution 
of the Teutonic Order in the latter county, the Heermeister of 

' the Knights Swordbearers (3$0) proclaimed his independence, 
under the protection of the German Emperor Charles Y. 
The knights therefore continued to occupy those coast-lands 
until the fearful advance of the Russians under the Czar lyaii 
Wasiljewitch II. ; the sword-knights were defeated, and their 
ci^tles stormed. Esthonia, with the capital, Reval, called in 
the Swedes, and surrendered to King Eric XIY. by capitula- 
tion. Denmark occupied the bishoprics Oesel, on the island, 
and Pilten, on the mainland, while Livonia hurried to do 
homage to King Sigismund II. of Poland, who, at the diet 
held in Wilna, November 28, 1561, united this country with 
Lithuania, but granted the two western provinces, Courland 
and Semigallia, as a secular hereditary duchy to t^e last 
grand master Gotthard Kettler. 

455. E. Silesia, an important possession of the Polish 
crown, was ceded by the pacific King Kasimir to John of Bo- 
hemia, at the celebrated congress of Wischerad, in 1335, and 
lost for ever. That rich province had been awarded to princes 
of the royal feunily of the Piasts, and these appanages soon 
became separate states, which were again subdivided into a great 
number of small principalities. Weakened by the imprudence 
of its princes, Silesia excited the ambition of the chivalrous 
Luxemburger, John II., King of Bohemia, who, entering the 
country at the head of his knights, forced some fourteen Sile- 
sian dukes of the Piastian dynasty to submit to his arms and 
acknowledge themseves his vassals, in 1325. Only the Dukes 
of Schweidnitz and Jauer maintained their independence, and 
their resistance was facilitated by the mountainous position 
of their territory on the Sudetian range. But they were 
unsupported by Kasimir the Great ; and when Poland thus 
wantonly renounced by solemn treaties its ancient and just 
claims to the sovereignty of that beautiful and important 


eoio&try, CliaTles IV., the son of Jofan^ and Emperor of Gkr* 
many, was enabled to add all Silesia to the Bohemian crown, 
by an act of tho empire in 1355 ;* from that period the Scla* 
Yonic Silesian^lbecamc (rermanized by thouisands of colonists, 
and continue^ thenceforth the allies, if not the yassals, of the 

V. Grand Duchy op Moscow. 

456. Consolidation of the Bussian Empire. — The yic* 
tory of the Mongol%Qfii the.Kalka, had decided the fate of 
Bassia (385). For more than two centuries and a half, from 
1224 to 1480, that nnb^py nation continued to be held in 
abject yassalage by the Mongols of Kaptchak, whose wild 
hordes overspread the eastern and southern proyinces, and the 
plains between the Caspian and the Volga, on the banks of 
which river the Goiden Hordcy or imperial camp of the chans 
of the race of Batu, the nephew of Dshingis-Chan, was estab- 
lished. The farthest extent of the Mongol devastations is de- 
lineated in our map, running north, between Moscow and 
Novgorod, and westward into the heart of Lithuania, It ap- 
pears, however, that the Lithuanian Dukes soon threw off the 
yoke ; they took possession of Smolchsk, the Severian Lands 
on the Desna, and Kiow on the Dnieper, and the Grand Duke 
Olgerd drove the horde beyond that rive^ and the Doniec, 
in 1377. But other tribes of Tartars occupied parts of 
the Crimea, where they gave great trouble to the Qenoese in 
their commercial colonies on the coast. At the extinction of 
the line of Batu-Chan^ in 1361, disputes began to arise among 
the Mongol princes for the succession, and the fierce civil wars 
which ensued encouraged the Russians to resistance. In con- 
sequence of these disturbances, the Golden Horde became 
split into the Chanate of A^trakan^ or Siurai, on ^e Volga, 
that of the Crimea^ that of Kasan^ on the western slope of 
Mount Oural, and that of Turan^ or Ssibir, beyond the chain, 
on the east, in Siberia. Such an opportune division of power 
enabled Dimitri IV .^Donskoiy in 1380 to defeat Mamai-Chan 


in the celebrated battle on the Don, in Rjaesan, from which 
tiie Russian hero took his name. Yet it was the invasion of 
the mighty Timur-Ohan (Tamerlane), in 1389 and 1395, into 
the Kaptchak, that gave the fatal blow to the Mongol domin- 
ion. The Russians had now risen, and fearful battles were 
fought between those savage nations. Once more the Tartar 
sword prostrated Moscow in 1441, but Iwan III. the Great, 
inspired by his admirable wife, Sophia of Constantinople, at 
last succeeded in shaking off the still remaining vestiges of 
dependence on the Golden Horde, which was finally dissolved 
in 1480. Iwan then directed his arms against Easan, which 
was made tributary, and thus strengthened, reduced the 
principalities of Twer, Wereja, Kostow, and Jaroslaw — the 
Republic of Viatka, Obdoria, and Ugria did homage be- 
tween 1480 and 1499. The Lithuanian princes of Severia, 
and the cities of Wiasma, Mstislaw, Smolensk, and many 
others, followed the example, and thus toward the close of the 
fifteenth century, the unity of the Russian monarchy was fully 
established. Iwan Wasiljewitch restored Russia to independ- 
ence, but he laid the foundation .of that boundless despotism 
which ever since has been the scourge of Russia. He extin- 
guished every spark of democratic fire in the commercial re- 
publics of Fleskow and Novgorod^ every trace of their popu- 
lar institutions; life, honor, fortune, all depended on the 
whim of the autocrat ; the former princes and their descend- 
ants now became the subjects of the Czar of all the Russias, 
as Iwan styled himself Those princes, together with thirty 
Boyards of the high council, formed thenceforth an hereditary 
nobility, enjoying many privileges; they attended at court, 
and supplied the numerous officers around the throne ; all the 
noble families were carefully inscribed in the Radoslovnie- 
Knigi, The citizens, even the wealthiest bankers of Novgo- 
rod, were considered as the serfs of the Czar ; while the pea- 
sants sank back into the most abject slavery, and the lot of the 
thousands of Tartar prisoners of war was still worse. The 
penal code of Iwan distinguished itself by bloody austerity 


and by its ingenuity in devising the most ezcruoiating tor- 
ments ; difficult cases were decided by combat ; in civil law 
the decision depended entirely on the will of the judge, and 
the Czar was the sole dispenser of life and death. The mili- 
tary system of the Russians was as barbarous as their man- 
ners ; they attacked their neighbors by surprise or stratagem, 
without any declaration of war; the mass of the male popula- 
tion were driven to the camp ; the Russians fought on horse- 
back, they rushed to battle with furious yells, following the 
red horse-tail banners of their chiefs. Long time after other 
nations, Poles, Swedes, and even Tartars were using fire-arms, 
the Russians only wielded their sabres and long Cossack-lances^ 
until toward the middle of the sixteenth century the Czars of 
Moscow at last took into their service some thousand foreign 
mercenaries, drilled to handle the arquebuss and to serve the 
cannon. The Russians mustered by hundreds of thousands, as 
they served without pay or provision ; they lived on the plun- 
der they gathered from the nations exposed to their continual 
invasions. The Gzar wielded the knoiU^ or knotty Russian whip, 
with vigor on the shoulders of his priests and Boyards — ^he ate 
with his servants from the same dish : the food ^as coarse ; 
cookery almost unknown ; the early attempts at literature 
(304) had long been abandoned, and no spark of mental cul- 
tivation could now be discovered among the Russians ; their 
clergy could not read, and they learned their prayers from 
hearsay. Their manners were gross, and, like the Tartars, 
their bridal festivals were attended with ceremonies of revolt- 
ing indecency — ^finally, we plainly discover the deteriorating 
influence which the ages of bondage had left on the manners 
and institutions of the otherwise intelligent and good-natured 
Russian people, whose middle ages do not terminate until the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, when the present 
dynasty of the Romanoffs mounted the Moscowite throne. 

457. Divisions op the Empire, Cities, and Historical 
Sites. — Mo«coviA,*or the Empire of the Czars^ consisted^ in 


the year 1500, of the following principalities and territories : 
I. the Grand Duchy of Moscow, bordering north on the 
territory of Novgorod, east on the chanate of Kasan, south 
on the grand duchy of Bjoesan, and west on the Lithuanian 
principalities of White and Black Russia (452). It was di- 
vided into a great number of principalities, which, during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, had become united under the 
sceptre of the Czars of Moscow. In the ancient principality 
of that name, the cradle of the Bussian empire, lies the im- 
mense city of Moscow, on the banks of the river Mosktoa. 
The earlier capitals, Susdal and Wladimir, had sunk into 
decay during the. intestine feuds, when Tourg I. — Dolgoruki 
— (George Long-hand), in 1156, built his n^w city around the 
villa of the Boyar Kutschko, with whose beautiful wife the 
Czar had fallen in love. Moscow increased rapidly, and 
was fortified with wooden walls and towers ; but it could not 
withstand the invasions of the Tartars, and was, in 1293 and 
1439, burnt and levelled to the ground. Yet it soon recov- 
ered, and rose with greater splendor. Iwan I. — Kalita — 
(the Pourse, or the Generous), erected the first stone-built 
cathedrals in Russia, and the celebrated Kreml, — Kremlin or 
Castle— which became the imperial palace of the Czars. This 
immense mass of buildings was encompassed with high and 
thick walls, protected by battlements, and flanked with gi- 
gantic towers, and became the scene of many of the frightful 
catastrophes that shook the Bussian throne, until the times 
of Czar Peter the Great, who removed his court to the marshy 
banks of the Neva.^^' 

*>* Moscow has been rebuilt with great elegance sinoe the confla- 
grittion in 1812. It is at present the most extensire city in Europe, 
after Constantinople, though the number of its inhabitants is only 
860,000. The Kremlin^ which Napoleon in his ire attempted to blow 
up in vain, and the four hundred and fifty churches^ monasteries^ and 
nunneries of Moscow, all towering above the maze of houses and 
bazaars^ with their gilt oriental cupolas, present a most magnificent 
view, when beheld glittering in the mornlDg sun from the high tower 
of Czar Iwan. 


458. We giye here the names of the smaller prinoipalities, 
with the year of their annexation to the Grand Duchj of 
Moscow. In the north: W6U>k^ 1410; Dmitrow^ 1472; 
Pcres/aw/, 1302; UglUch, 1401; RostoWy 13S9-U25\ Jo- 
roslaWyUm\ Z75(;'ws»a, 1425-1491 ; JTi^^na, 1425-1481 ; 
Bjdosersk, 1340-1435, and Saoserje, 1425-1481. These 
latter four territories had formerly belonged to the republic 
of Great Noygorod, and were giyen as appanages to princes of 
the Grand Ducal family before they became annexed to the 
crown, as the double number of years will indicate. East of 
Moscow lay: Galitsch, 1340-1450; Kostroma, 1460; the 
large principality of Susdal, with the ancients capital of that 
name, 1392; Gorodez, 1392, and the important Nischni -Nov- 
gorod, 1392, on the Wolga; Wladimir, 1363-1389; Mesckt- 
schera and Murom^ 1392, botib on the banks of the Oka. 
South of Moscow lay : Tarusa, with the celebrated cities Tula 
and Kaluga, 1392; Kolomna^ 1367; Kasimow, 1380; and 
Jelez, 1450. West of Moscow were situated the following: 
Wer^a, 1485, with the city Ma^ Jarodawez, where Napo- 
leon Bonaparte suffered his first defeat, on the 24th October, 
1812, and resolved upon his disastrous retreat; Moshaisk^ 
1303-1472; said Rshew, 1410-1503. 

459. II. Principality and Republic of Novgorod, ex- 
tending north of Moscow to the Finnic Gulf, the White Sea, 
the Icy Ocean, and Mount Oural. It embraced on the north 
and northeast the extensive provinces of Savwol^tchi and 
Udoria — the ancient Biarmeland of the Northmen (226) — 
r^rm, the home of the Ugrians (Hungarians) in the valleys of 
the Ouralian range, and the small independent republic Bielo- 
sersk, on the White Lake. On the west lay, on the lake Ilmen, 
the celebrated Great Novgorod, the commercial republic 
(304), which, having victoriously escaped all the invasions of 
the Tartaro-MongoUan hordes, fell at last, in 1471, under the 
despotic sceptre of Iwan Wasiliwitch, after an attempt to 
throw oft the yoke in 1478; the glorious city was treated 


with the utmost barbarity by the Czar, who not only remored 
its treasures of gold, silver, and jewelry on three hundred 
carriages, but transported its most distinguished mercantile 
families to remote parts of his domains, and substituted for 
them more humble subjects from other places. By this ty- 
rannical proceeding, the flourishing commerce of Weliki-Nov- 
gorod received a shock from which it never rose again. Sta- 
raja-Rtissa, an interesting old town, on the southern bank of 
the lake of Ilmen, with the monastery Iwerskai, is considered 
as the early capital of Old Ruric and his Danish Varangians, 
on their first arrival in Gardarike (Russia) in 852 (226). 

460. III. The principality and Republic Pskow (Ples- 
kow), west of Novgorod, and bordering on Esthland, on the 
lake of Pelpus, a small but enterprising city, which de- 
served the name of the Younger Sister of Novgorod, concil- 
iated the despotic Czar, and maintained her popular govern- 
ment until the year 1510. IV. The Republic of Wi-etka, 
southeast of Novgorod ; and V., that of Peemia, at the base 
of Mount Oural, were both conquered by Iwan in 1472-1489 ; 
the latter was treated with the same cruelty as Novgorod, 
and sunk back into insignificance. VI. The Grand Duchy of 
Twer, northwest of Moscow, with the smaller statekof Ckolm 
and Bjeshczk, and the important city of Twer, on the Upper 
Volga, had, under its prudent duke, Michael Borissowitsch, 
maintained its independence by alliance with the Poles. But 
Michael was, in 1485, betrayed by his own boyars, and es- 
caped the pursuing Russians only by the swiftness of his 
horse ; his duchy and treasures were then captured by the 
Czar, who united the former with the crown lands. VII. The 
Principality of Rj^san, south of Moscow, retained its princes 
until 1517, when it was incorporated into the Czar's domin- 
ions, together with the extensive Severian lands (452), Smo- 
lensk, and other conquests from Lithuania. 

VIII. The Mongol Chanate of Kasan embraced the ter- 
ritories of the TcJiermessians and Mordtvim (226, 303), on the 


riyers Volga and Kama, toward Mount Coral. After tho 
separation of the Elasanian Tartars from the Golden Horde 
of Sarai, they became exposed to the attacks of tho Russians, 
and though their chans kept up a show of independence by 
paying tribute to the Czars of Moscow, they were, neverthe- 
less, unable to withstand the invasions of Iwan II. Wasilii- 
witch, who, springing mines below the walls, entered the city 
of Kasan, sword in hand, in 1552, and reduced the country as 
far as Siberia beyond the mountains. Kasan (Kozan, Oson), 
a handsome oriental city, situated on picturesque hills above 
the Volga, was the great emporium of Siberian commerce, and 
has maintained a shadow of its former importance by its 
university and other literary institutions. South of Kasan 
lie, on the. Volga, the interesting ruins of Bolgari (Bolghar), 
the ancient capital of Great Bulgaria, the home of the wan- 
dering Bulgarians (195, 303). Arabic and Armenian inscrip- 
tions, Cufic coins (222), and many other remains of mediaeval 
splendor are excavated in the environs, and excite the curi- 
/ osity of the Russian antiquarians. The native inhabitants of 
Kasan, the Tehermessians, a mixture of Finns and Galmucks, 
are generally considered as the true descendants of the Huns 
(89) ; they are as deformed and savage as their forefathers ; 
their relig2bn is a curious mixture of Scandinavian (Odinian) 
and Oriental ' idolatry, and the Russian knoiU has not yet 
been able to whip them into civilization. 

Such was the condition of the Russian Empire toward the 
beginning of the modem era, when, during the sixteenth cen- 
tury, the terrible Czars, with their hundred thousands of horse- 
men, inundated the lands on the Lower Wolga, Astrakhan 
(1554), Kabarda, on the Kuban, the steppes of the Cossacks, 
on the Bon, as far as the Crimea, in 1577 and the chanate of 
Turan (Sibir), beyond Mount Oural, which opened to their 
ambition all the broad lands to the distant frontiers of China. 
Even the ocean put no stop to those conquests ; for the bold 
Russians, crossing Behring's Straits, subdued a considerable 
part of the western coast of North America. 


Yh The Kingdom of France, 


461. Origin op the Contest. — ^We hare already re- 
viewed the first period of the rivalry of France and England 
(386-388). The second phase of that protracted straggle, 
known as The Hundred Years^ War, begins, with the 
accession of Edward III. in England, a. d. 1327, and that of 
the family of Yalois in France, in 1328, and extends through 
an alternation of frightful reverses and brilliant victories to 
the middle of the fifteenth century. The contest of this pe- 
riod becomes more general than the former, and is carried on 
with all the forces of both the rival nations. It is no long^ 
a mere question about cities and provinces, or feudal homage 
to be rendered ; the entire nationality of France is bow at 
stake, and the proud King of England aims ftt nothing less 
than the conquest of the throne of France. Edward III., a 
youth fifteen years of age, who had been proclaimed King of 
England during the captivity of his unhappy father, Edward 
II., in 1327, laid claim at once to the inheritance*bf Charles 
lY., the last king of the Capetian dynasty, by right of hns 
mother, Isabel of France."^ 

Thus, then, all that brilliant family of princes, who had 
sat neair their father, Philip the Handsome, at the Council of 

su derivation of the pretensions of EDWARD m. 

Philip IIL, Capet King of Fnmoe. 

Philip IV., le Bel, Charles, Count pf Valoto» 

Louis X., Philip V., Chablbb IV., Jwbel, Ihaur VI, of Valota. 

SuHn. • Is Long. IsAL maniedto 

JSdtoard IL, 
of England. 

Jane'of France, ftiree one Edwabd IIL 

I daoghtem danghtar. 

Charles le Maavaia, 
King of NaTane. 


Yiennawas extinct 1 In the popular belief the oorses of 
Pope Boniface and of the murdered knights templars had 
taken an awful effect. Yet four daughters and Charles of 
Navarre, the son of Jane, still surviyed. How, then, can 
the historian hesitate in condemning the injustice of King 
Edward^s pretensions ? Whether the Saiique Law were or 
were not valid, no advantage could be gained by Edward ; 
there stood in his way not only the express decision of the 
entire French nation, but, as our genealogical table shows, Jane 
of France daughter of Louis Hutin, then the three daughters 
of Philip le Long, and one daughter of the last King, Charles 
le-Bel. Aware of this, Edward set up a distinction, that 
though females were excluded from succession, the same rule 
did not apply to their male issue ; and thus the British king 
philosopher pretended that though his mother Isabel could 
not herself become queen of France, she might transmit a 
title to him ! But this was not only contrary to the com- 
monest rules of inheritance, but Jane of France herself had 
a son, afterwards the famous Charles of Navarre, who stood 
one degree nearer to the crown than Edward. 

462. Divisions. — ^Fhus the most bloody and devastating 
war of kingly ambition and national antipathy broke out in 
1339, and became the cause of great disasters and dismem- 
berments of provinces, which completely modified and changed, 
at different returns, the whole political geography of France. 
The astonishing vicissitudes of alternate defeats and victories, 
which characterized this long and obstinate contest were the 
cause of the modifications. They may be reduced to. four 
distinct periods, viz. : I. From the beginning of the war, in 
1339, to the Treaty of Bretigny, in the year 1360; II. from 
1360 to the death of King Charles V., in 1380; III. from 
1380, and the renewal of the war, to the appearance of Joan 
of Arc at the siege of Orleans, in 1429 ; and, finally, IV. 
from the defeat of the English before that city to their ulti- 
mate expulsion from France, in 1453. Our circumscribed 


space will not permit ns here to give any historical relation 
of events, moreover so well known ; we shall therefore confine 
onrselves to some geographical details on the political geog> 
raphj of France during the first period, and then only indicate 
briefly the most important changes which that kingdom under- 
went daring the three others. 

^ I. France, at the time op the Treaty op Bretignt, 
A.D. 1360. 

463. Historical Remarks. — The period between the 
battles of Crecy and Poitiers^ down to the treaty of Bretigny, 
is the most disastrous and melancholy in the annals of France. 
The misfortunes which overwhelmed that unhappy country, 
in consequence of the shameful defeat at Maupertuis^ near 
Poitiers, in 1356, and the capture of its king, reduced the 
French nation to the direr necessity of giving adhesion to the 
humiliating treaty, which, by raising up an entire independent 
sovereignty within her bosom, for the advantage of an odious 
rival, became at once the source of still greater calamities, the 
terrible effects of which continued to be felt long after the 
time when the original cause had ceased to exist We shall 
here give an account of the provinces and other possessioms 
assigned to the kings of France and England according to 
that treaty. In continuation of our earlier paragraphs (229- 
232), we shall make a distinction between those provinces of 
France which directly belonged to the Royal Domain and 
the others, which were possessed by the great feudatories^ 
many of whom made common cause with the English. Finally, 
we shall give a short description of the cities, castles, and 
battle-fields with which the most interesting events of this 
period are connected. 

I. Possessions op the King op France. 

464. The Botal Domains. — ^The provinces which formed 
the Royal household power immediately after the treaty of 


Br6tigny, in 1360, were the following, in the succession from 
north to south. I. Picardy, except the county of Ponthieu 
(232, 1 Y.), situated at the mouth of the Somme, and which be- 
longed to England. On the northeast of Amiens, the capital 
of the province, lies the small town of Cr€cy, so celebrated on 
account of the brilliant victory which Edward III. gained 
there, on the 26th of August, 1346, over Philip VI., by the 
bravery of his young son, the Black Prince, and the skill of 
the English archers. 

II. The Isle op France, south of Picardy, with the 
capital Paris, on the Seine. It had already become a large 
city, and the regular residence of the Capetian kings (235). 
Two strong fortresses — Le Grand and Le Petit Chatdet — 
on the north and south banks of the river, defended the island 
of Ndtre-Dame, All the suburbs were inclosed by walls, 
and incorporated with the city. Under Philip August, a new 
wall, with numerous towers, was built, comprehending a more 
' extensive inclosure than those of former times, and the larger 
streets and thoroughfares were paved. Outside the walls, on 
the northeast, lay the splendid castle Le Temple^ an immense 
irregular pile, the seat of the Knights Templars, which, after 
the destruction of that Order, by Philip IV., in 1307, became 
the royal residence of the French monarchs. Other kings 
resided at the Chateau de Vincennes, east of Paris. On 
Montmartre stood an abbey, and all the environs were covered 
with vineyards. Paris possessed, at that time, two national 
colleges and three hospitals ; several large market-places 
opened from the centre ; aqueducts led into the city, and 
some fine fountains were erected. The space inclosed by the 
walls of Philip August was in many parts, particularly south 
of the Seine, unoccupied or covered with -gardens and vine- 
yards ; but the vacancies soon became filled up with the huge 
monasteries, churches, and schools founded by Saint Louis, 
his grandson, and numerous palaces erected by succeeding 
princes; so that, in the reign of John II. (a. d. 1350-1356), 
Paris had outgrown its limits, and many edifices had been 


erected without the walls. In apprehension of an attack from 
the English after the battle of Poitiers, new walls were raised 
all along the north side of the river, comprehending a yet 
larger space than those of Philip August. The population of 
Paris at that time was about 150,000 souls. The state of 
morals was extremely bad ; and the clergy, the monks, and 
nuns shared in the general corruption. The police was 
wretched; nor did there exist a regular municipal govern- 
ment. The provost of the traders — Le prevot des mar' 
chands — ^was a person of considerable importance. All the 
merchants formed a brotherhood— Con/rerie — ^which was 
called la HJanse Farisienne; it enjoyed several privileges and 
a limited judicial authority, but came gradually to occupy the 
place of a municipal body. Such was still the condition of 
Paris when it fell into the power of the English, in 1420. 

III. The Okleanais, south of the Isle of France. The 
capital was Oaleans, a strongly fortified city on the Loire. 
Bretigny, a village six miles southeast of Ohartres, where, on 
the 1st of May, 1360, Edward and the Dauphin signed the 
notorious treaty, which at once put England in the full pos- 
session of some of the finest provinces of France : Aquitaifie^ 
Calais^ with the counties of FonthieUj Cruines, and the vis- 
county of Mbntreuily and obliged the prisoner King besides to 
pay the enormous sum of three millions of gold crowns for his 

465. IV. The duchy of Normandy (236, XVI.) had been 
given by King John as an appanage to his eldest prince, who 
himself became king in 1364, under the name of Charles V. 
Three years before, Normandy had been reunited to the crown 
by an edict of King John. V. Maine, and VI. Anjou (238, 
XXII., XXIII.), had both, like Normandy, been united to the 
royal domains on the accession of John, in 1350. But he gave 
them, in 1356, in appanage to his second son, together with 
the barony of Ohllteau-du-Loir, on the frontier of Maine and 

BiaHTH PSftlOB. — Km&DOVt OF FRANOE. $73 

Tonraiiie, and the seigneury Ohantooeaux, on that of Anjou 
and of Brittany. 

VII. TouRAiNE, east of Anjou ; capital, Tours, the old 
city on the Loire. At the very time of the ratification of the 
treaty of Br^igny, it was given as appanage, with the title of 
duchy, to the fourth son of John, Philip the Bold, from whom 
the king took it back in 1363, when he gave him in exchange 
the duchy of Burgundy (239, 388). VIII. Berri, east of 
Touraine, with the capital Bourges, between the Loire and 
the Cher, was given in appanage by King John to his third 
son, called John, like himself, with the title of duchy. 

IX. Dauphtne, on the left bank of the Rhone, was already 
united to the crown since 1343, by the cession of Humbert 
II., the last Dauphin of Vienne, to Philip of Orl6ans, the 
younger son of Philip of Valois (386). The Epperor Charles 
IV., on whom Dauphin6 depended as a fief of the German 
empire, confirmed, this transaction in 1357. Vienne, on the 
Bhone, and Grrefncbh on the Is6re, were then the principal 
cities of Dauphine — ^and, finally, X. The seigneury of Mont- 
felLier (243, LII.) which had been sold to the King dl 
France, in 1349, by King Jayme II. of Mayorca. 

466. Provinces Possessed bt the Great FEirnATORiES. 
— ^These provinces, several of which King John united to the 
crown, in compensation for the loss that France had sustained 
in the treaty of Bretigny, were the following: 

467. I. The county of Flanders (232, 1.), north of France. 
This industrious and closely inhabited county presented the 
spectacle of a continuous city. But the inhabitants, mostly 
manufEU^torers and mechanics, were proud of their wealth and 
industry; they spumed all obedience to their counts, and 
when the French took possession of the country, they rose in 
bloody rebellion against Philip le Bel, in 1302-1305, and 
united with Edward III., in 1338, under their leader, the 
brewer Jacques van Artevelde, of Ghent. Brugge (Bruges), 


in a fertile and highly cultivated country, intersected with 
canals, was the populous capital of the province. There " the 
prodigious ant-hills and formidable wasp-nests of Flanders" 
were put in motion on the 21st of Mardi, 1302. The 
burgesses, mechanics, monks, and women, rushed upon the 
French, who were ruthlessly slaughtered ; the massacre con- 
tinued for three days, and 1200 knights and 200 sergeants 
and archers fell victims to the popular fury. Kortryck (Cour- 
tray), south of BrOgge, where the tumultuous army of Flem- 
ish republicans, with their gutentags (heavy stakes, shod with 
iron), defeated the feudal army of France, on the 11th of 
July, 1302. Thousands of French nobles found their death 
in the ditches, and this glorious feat of the Flemings was 
called the battle of the spurs, because the victors found more 
than four thousand gilded spurs upon the ^eld. All the envi- 
rons of Oourtray are famous in history for the great number 
of battles fought there. At Mbns en Fuelle, Philip le Bel 
took revenge on the Flemings, defeating them with great loss, 
in 1304. Casselj west of Mons, where the Flemings were 
again routed in 1328. Another severe defeat they suffered by 
Charles VI. of France, at Rosbecquey west of Cassel, in 1382. 
SluySj on the sea-coast, north of Bragge. In the harbor of 
this town the war between the English and French was opened 
in 1340, by abloody naval battle, in which the latter lost their 
entire fleet of a hundred vessels, and thirty thousand men. 
The moral effect of this naval disaster was fatal to the 
French : they lost all heart at sea, and the straits remained 
open to the English for centuries. At BovineSy east of Cassel, 
the French chivalry of Philip August gave, in 1216, a distin- 
guished proof of their superiority over the Germans, in one 
of the most brilliant battles of the middle ages, defeating the 
Emperor Otho IV., the Welf, and pursuing the Germans back 
into Lorraine. 

Ghent (Gttnd), on the Scheldt, the ancient capitis of Flan- 
ders, which, in the time of Charles Y., surpassed Paris in ex- 
tent The small islands between the rivers Scheldt, Lys, 


Moere, and Lieve, on which the city is built, were united by 
more than three hundred bridges. Its magnificent cathedrals 
and public buildings are still speaking monuments of its 
wealth and importance during the days of independence in the 
middle ages. Ghent was the native city of the brewer Arte- 
velde, who swayed all Flanders with the power of a soyereign. 
The Count of Flanders possessed besides, in France, with the- 
title of pair J the counties of Bethel (234, VIII.) and Ne- 
VERS (238, XXX.), with the barony of Donzi. The county 
of Hainaut, east of Flanders, with the capital of Valenciennes^ 
The county of Cambrai, south of Hainaut, belonged to the 
Bishop of Cambrai, to whom it had been given by King 
Henry II., in the year 1007. 

468. II. The duchy of Burgundy (239, XXVIIL)compre. 
bended, besides the counties of Boulogne (232, III.) and Ar- 
tois, on the north of Picardy — that of Auvergne (240, 
XXXIII.), southwest of Burgundy. On ^the battle-field of 
Poitiers, John the Good, surrounded by enemies, had been 
bravely defended by his youngest son, Philip the Bold. From 
tenderness for this son, he gave him Burgundy, and when Philip 
afterwards married Margaret of Flanders, he united all the Bur- 
gundian lands. This powerful state, under the ambitious and 
warlike dukes of the Second Burgundian dynasty, brought 
the greatest disasters on France by their alliance with the kings 
of England. Dijon^ on the Ouche and the Suzon^ which 
unite in the city, stands in the middle of a delightful and 
highly cultivated plain, terminated with verdant hills, all 
covered with the famous vineyards of Burgundy. The ancient 
palace of the dukes adcums the great square, and the ramparts 
that surround the city are shaded by lofty trees. The cathe- 
dral, Si Michael, and other churches, are built in the boldest 
Gothic architecture. Dijon is one of those fine old cities that 
carry the traveller at once among the monuments and scenery 
of the middle ages. Clermont, at the base of the Puy de 
D6me, was the capital of Auvergne, and the lively, manufac- 


taring Arras that of Artois. The eastern part of Old Bnr- 
gundy, beyond the Sa6ne, was called the Free County 
(Franche Oomt6), with BesangoTiy on the river Donbs, for its 
capital. It belonged to the Germanic empire, together with 
Lorraine^ Alsace, on the Bhine, and Bresse and Buget/, on 
the Sa6ne and Ehone — ^the latter of these was already held 
by the counts of Savoy (413). 

III. The counties of Champaign (234, X.) and of IV. Brie 
(west on the Seine), were united with the crown lands at the 
same time as the duchy of Burgundy. Troyes was the capi- 
tal, where the marrirge between Henry Y. of England, and 
Catherine of France, the daughter af Charles VL, was cele- 
brated on 21st May, 1420. Rheims, so rich in ancient 
buildings and historical recollections, was, in vain, besieged 
by Edward III. in 1359, who intended there to be crowned 
King of France. 

469. V, The Bottrbonnais, the ancient lordship of the 
Bourbon family (238, XXVII.), was erected into a dukedom 
and peerage by Charles leBel, in 1327. The Duke Louis 
the Good, who owned it at the time we speak of, possessed 
besides the county of Clermont, in Beauvaisis, which, in 
1 358, was enlarged by the liberality of the Dauphin Charles, 
then regent of the kingdom, in order to compensate the old 
duke for the fearful ravages which the English bands com- 
mitted throughout the country. Moulins, on the river Allier, 
became at that time the capital of the Dukes of Bourbon. 

VI. The county of La Marche, southwest of Bourbon- 
nais, was erected into a peerage by Philip le Long, in 1316, 
and became later, in 1342, the inheritance of the younger * 
branch of the Bourbon family. The county of Ponthietj,. 
which Philip IV. of Valois had confiscated on the English 
and given to the Duke of Bourbon, was, at the treaty of 
Br6tigny, restored to England. 


YII. The county of Ltonnais and of Forez, southeast 
of Bourbonnais, and separated from Auvergne by the high 
range of the Oevennes. Capital cities were Lyons, on the 
union of the Sa6ne and Bh6ne, and Montbrison, southwest in 
the upper valley of the Loire. Lyons formed an archbishopric 
which depended on the German Empire. Frederic Barba- 
Tossa gave that prelate the vicariate of the empire, with all 
the regalian rights over the city. Yet the industrious and 
wealthy citizens of Lyons soon got inte difficulties with their 
ecclesiastical prince; they called in the French king, who, 
after many troubles with Pope Boniface VIII. cut the nuvtter 
short by occupying Lyons and its territory with his army, 
in 1311. Germany, as usual, did not stir, and lost thus one 
of her most important possessions. The Count of Lyonnais 
perished, in 1361, together with the Constable Jacob of Bour- 
bon, in the sanguinary battle they fought against the robber 
hordes from the English war, who called themselves the 
Grand Company of Sluggards — ^les Tard-venus. The battle 
took place at Brignais^ some miles southwest of Lyons. 

470. VIIL The county of Toulouse (243) embraced at 
that period dOl LanguedoCj from the banks of the Garonne, 
eastward, to the Bhone. The capital was the splendid Tot). 
LOUSE, on the Garonne. This province, which had belonged 
to France since the year 1224, was not united to the Crown 
lands until 1361, together with Burgundy and Champaign. 

IX. The duchy of Bretaone (Brittany, 237, XX.), east 
of Maine and Anjou, became, during the period we are de- 
lineating, the scene of one of the most interesting episodes 
of the English wars. On the death of John III., Duke of 
Brittany, in 1341, John of Montfort and Charles of Blois 
both claimed the succession to the duchy. Charles de Blois 
claimed in right of his wife, Joan of Penthievre, the lawful 
heiress, and was supported by France. John of Montfort, 
however, took possession of the duchy, and sought protection 


from King Edward III. of England ; thus the singular case 
oocorred, that the latter, who claimed the crown of France 
through K female^ supported Montfort against a female claim; 
while Philip VI. of France, whose right rested upon the ex- 
clusion of females from the succession, aided a female in her 
claim to the ducal coronet of Brittany. The Breton war from 
1341-1365 presents a series of remarkable events. Brittany 
became the Troy of the fourteenth century ; kings, barons, 
and knights-errant flocked to the country; the names of Beau- 
manoir, of Clisson, of Duguesclin, threw a brilliancy over the 
ehiyalrous deeds performed there ; nor were the women less 
distinguished than the men, and the three heroines, Joan of 
Montfort, Joan of Penthievre, and the widow of Clisson, by 
their courage, fortitude, and conjugal affection, excited the 
highest admiration in an age of poetry and romance. The 
treaty of Gu^ande, in 1365, secured the duchy of Brittany 
to the house of Montfort."' Nantes, on the right bank of the 
Loire, was the capital of Brittany. It was invested, in 1341, 
by the army of Charles of Blois, who, launching into the city 
the heads of thirty Breton knights of the Montfort party, so 
terrified the townsmen that they surrendered the city and 
John of Montfort, who was carried a prisoner to Paris. 
Henndxm, on the river Blavet, was heroically defended 
by the Countess of Montfort against all the forces of Charles 
of Blois, until the arrival of the English fleet"* Yannes, 

«« ArOur 11^ 
Duke of Brittany, 


Fintwl^ Second wife, 

Mwry^ holrefls of Tolande of I>reiiz, 

the Viscount of Llmogcfl. heiress of Montfort 

John ni. Ouy ds PmUhUmre, J<>hn IV, of Montfort 

Ihike of Brittany, , ' » the Eretender, 1 1848, _ 

1 1841. JOAK, lawftal helresa married with the celebrated 

of Brittany, married to Joan of Flanders, Countess of 

OharUa of Ohatillon and Montfort 
Blola, killed at Auray, 

1864. ,/a&» K tl899. 

JbAn of Brittany, 
Count of Penthidvre. 

'Froiasart tells us that when the brare old Sir Walter Manny; 


near the western gulf of Marhihan^ was the ancient capital 
of Armoriea (70, XL). Bennes, on the Vilaine, in the in- 
terior, the residence of the Dukes of Brittany, while their 
tomhs were deposited in the sepulchral vaults of Ploermd^ 
in the west. The oak of the Thirty stands in the plain he- 
tween Ploermel and Josselin, where, on the 27th March, 1351, 
thirty Breton knights and squires fought in a deadly tourna- 
ment with a similar number of English. After extraordinary 
feats of bravery, the Bretons gained the day, by one of their 
knights breaking, on horseback, the ranks of the English, the 
greater part of whom were killed. All Brittany rejoiced. 
La Roche-Derien, north, near 7}reguier^ where, in 1347, 
Charles of Blois was surprised and taken prisoner by the 
widow of Clisson, at the head of a small body of English 
knights. His wife, Joan of Penthievre, sustained his cause 
with a valor equal to that of the Countess of Montfort, and 
the hatred of the Bretons for the English induced many of 
them to embrace her party. Awray^ southeast of Hennebon, 
on the coast of Morbihan, where^, in 1364, the decisive battle 
was fought, in which the young Count of Montfort and Olivier 
of Clisson overthrew the army of Charles de Blois, who him- 
self fell in the struggle. GhtescHfif near Saint Malo^ on the 
northern coast, the paternal castle of the celebrated {cnight 
and general, Bertrand du Guesclin, who so quickly drove the 
English out of their French conquests. 

IL Possessions of the Kmo of England. 

471. Provinces and Towns vthich they Contained. — 
The duchy of Aquitaine was, in the treaty of Bretigny, 
erected into an independent sovereignty in favor of the King 

after the defeat of the besiegers, entered the gate of HenneboD, the 
noble Coiintess descended from the castle to welcome her deliverers; 
'*Bhe kissed Sir Walter and all his companions^ one after the other, two 
or three timet, and one might well say that she was a valiant and 
splendid lady," 


of England. This duchy oonsisted of Cfuyenne and Geu* 
cogne^ which the predecessors of Edward III. had held as fiefs 
of the French crown, and of which Bordeaux and Auch were 
the capitals. To this soyereignty were annexed the following 
prorinoes : 

472. The town^ castle^ and couiUy of PorriEas (240, 
XXXIX.) and of all Ponou, together with the fie& of 
^Dumars and the district of Belleville^ in the same province. 
The refusal of King John the Gk>od to surrender the latter to 
the English gave cause to prolonged contestations. The 
woody ridge of Maupertuis, east of Poitiers, was the battle- 
field, where, on the 19th September, 1356, the English archers, 
almost without opposition, destroyed the brilliant chivalry of 
France, and King John surrendered himself a prisoner to the 
Black Prince. 

The city and castle of Xaeetctes (Saintes) and all Saint- 
ONQE (241), together with Aunix, and ike imjportant maritime 
city of Rochelle, its port and fortress. 

The city and castle of Angolesme (Angoul6me), on the 
Oharente, and the county of Angolesmois (Angoumois) (240, 
XXXVIII.), on the east of Saintonge. 

Th^ city and castle of Limoges, on the Yienne, and the 
whole of LiMosiNy on the southeast of Angoumois. 

473. The city, castle, and county of Pierregort (ie P6ri- 
gord) (240, XXXVII.), southeast of Limosin, and the entire 
province of Pierreguts (P^rigueux), on the river Isle. 

The city and castle of Caours (Cahors), on the river Lot, 
and the district of Caottroin (Querci, 243), on the southeast 
of P^rigord. 

The dty and castle of Bodeis (Ehodez), near the Avey- 
ron, and the district of Bovergve (243,. LI.), southeast of 

The city and castle of Agen, on the Garonne, and the di& 
trict of Agenois in the centre of Guyenne. 


The county oi G-attre^ a dismembered part of the south- 
eastern Armagnac, on the Riyer 6ers, with the small town of 
Ftmence for its capital (242). 

The cUy^ castle, and district of Tarbes, on the Adour, 
and the county of Bigorrk (242, XL VIII.), in which this 
town is situated. The county extends into the valleys of the 

All those possessions belonged to the French crown, and 
could be surrendered to the English king as allodial property^ 
while the many noblemen, whose domains lay within the 
limits fixed by the treaty, could only be ordered to do homage 
to the King of England ; these were, besides the Viscount of 
Limoges, and the Count of P6rigord, I. The Count of Aa- 
MAGNAC, a branch of whom held the county of Gaure ; II., the 
Count of Isle Jourdajn, east of Armagnac ; III., the Count 
of Eoix. These lords were mentioned in tiie treaty, because 
they were almost entirely independent of the ^French crown, 
and remained sword in hand, defending their liberty against 
the English kings. The vigcounty of Bearn and the 
Gounty of CoMiiiNGES (242, XL VII., XLIX.) are not men- 
tioned in the treaty, but they belonged to the surrendered pro« 
yinces since they formed part of Gascogne. 

474. Besides these proyinces, situated on the southwest 
of France, the King of England obtained, likewise, on the 
coast of the British Channel and the Straits of Calais, two dis- 
tricts of no great extent, but in a high degree important, on 
account of their position opposite the shores of England. 
They were: 

I. The duchy of Ponthiett (232, IV.), together with Mon- 
treuil and its territory, at the mouth of the riyers Sommcj 
AuthiCy ^nd Canc^, where the French used to fit out their 
fleets for their intended nayal expeditions against England. 

II. The small district of Calais, with the seigneury of 
Sangatte, and the dty and casth of Calais, lately so cele* 
brated by its protracted siege and the patriotic deyotion of 


Eustaohe de Saint Pierre, in 1347, who brought the keys of 
the city to the haoghty conqueror. Farther : the tovms and 
castles of Coulogne, Hames, Wale (Yaldun), Merch (Marc), 
northeast of Coulogne, and Oye — ^and the dty^ castle^ and 
county of GuiNES (232, II.), south of Calais. The county of 
Ponthieu was separated from the district of Calais by the 
county of Boulogne. The treaty of Br^tigny conferred more- 
over on the English, the islands lying off the coasts of the ceded 
proTinces, viz., NoirmaiUier and Zkeu belonging to Poitou ] 
Re to Aunis, and Oleron to Saintonge. 

475. The yictorious English army had in the year 1360, 
possession of nearly all the central provinces of France ; of 
Champaign^ Brie, NivernaiSf AttxerroiSy Bourgogney Or- 
leanaisj Isle de France^ Perche^ le Pays Char train, Drouais 
(county of Dreux), Berry , Bourbonnais^ the counties of Macon 
and Ijyonj Auvergne^ Jburainey Normandy^ Anjou, and 
Maine! — eighty-two cities and fortresses were occupied by 
them ; but on the faithful execution of the treaty, they began 
to march off, and all the provinces were successively given 
back to King John. 

^ II. France at the Death of Charles Y., a. d. 1380. 

476. English Possessions in France. — The Gbiscon Lords 
were too proud to do homage to the Prince of Wales. They 
all conspired against the English, and the Counts of Armagh 
nac, Perigordy and Comminges, the Lord of AJJbret^ and 
many other feudatories of Upper Gascogne, were the first to 
draw the sword. So did the clergy ; and sixty towns, burghs 
or castles, expelled the English. Popular preachers advo- 
cated the cause of the pious. Charles Y. from their pulpits, and 
all the cities which opened their gates to their native king, ob- 
tained confirmation and increase of their privileges. The 
war had already broken out in Ponthieu, in 1368, where Abbe* 
ville joyfully received the French army ; in a week they re* 


oonqnered the whole province. Quercy (473) revolted in 
1369 ; Angoumois and Saintonge (472) were taken with steel 
gauntlets by Du Guesclin, in 1372. Limosin, Rovergzfe^ and 
Aunis followed the example, and La Rochdle obtained impor- 
tant privileges. Thouars surrendered, and the signal defeat 
of the English at Chizey^ southeast of Niort, caused the joy- 
ful submission of all Foitou. Brittany was still in their pos- 
session ; but the old Du Guesclin, in 1373, drove them into 
Brest, and a few other places of retreat on the coast. Still 
they besieged Nantes, which was bravely defended by the 
Breton Barons. In 1374 the English raised the siege, and 
left the province, whose duke then submitted to the King of 
France. After a truce of two years, signed at Bruges, in 
Flanders, 1375, the war broke out again, and continued dur- 
ing the lifetime of Charles V. ; the French took some towns 
and eastles in the north, and blockaded the English garrisons 
in Guines and Calais, the only places that remained to them 
in that part of France. 

477. Yet the English still occupied in the west, the strong 
maritime cities of Cherburg, Brest, Mortagne, and Bor- 
deaux, on the Gironde, together with Bayonne, at the mouth 
of the Adour, and some castles in Guyenne and Gascogne. 

§ III. France at the Arrival of Jeanne d'Arc, to the 
Siege of Orleans, a. d. 1429. 

478. Historical Remarks. — The insanity of King Charles 
VI., the dissatisfia^ction and revolts excited in the provinces by 
the hateful conduct of the king's uncles ; the civil feuds be- 
tween Burgundians and Armagnacs, and the foul murders of 
the Dukes of Orleans and of Burgundy, had left France split 
into parties, and without protection against the ambitious 
plans of the young King Henry V. of England, Taking ad- 
vantage of the miserable condition of France, he boldly de- 
manded the restitution of all the provinces ceded to England 


by ilie treaty of Br6tigny. Soon after^ in 1415, his fie^ enters 
ed the mouth of the Seine, and disembarked a powerful army 
on the shore of Harfieur, That wealthy and commercial eity 
of Normandy surrendered five weeks afterwards, while the 
royal government in Paris did nothing to save it. Yet sickness 
spread among the English troops, thousands were carried off ; 
the country around remained hostile : with the aspect of affairs 
thus changing, Henry resolved, by rapid marches, to gain Ca< 
lais. The French had, in the mean time, gathered their 
strength. The nobility, full of enthusiasm, appeared in the 
field, and the Constable of France, with sixty thousand bril- 
liant troops, mostly steel-clad cavalry, pursued the ten thou- 
sand English on their harried retreat through Picardy. After 
a most distressing march, Eang Henry succeeded in crossing 
the river Somme, at Betkencourt, at a short distance above 
JPeronne, but while pressing on northward to Calais, he meets 
the whole French army at Aginaruatj cutting off his retreat; 
only a battle can save the English, and they boldly prepare for 
the struggle. This astonishing battle, or rather slaughter, 
takes place on the 24th of October, 1415, on a swampy ground 
between forests, and terminates with the total defeat and rout 
of the French army. More than ten thousand French, almost 
all of generous blood, covered the battle-field. Among the 
prisoners made were the Dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, 
the Counts of Eu, yend6me, Bichmont, the Marshal of Bou- 
cicaut, and hundreds of Barons — an entire French colony 
transported into England. This shameful defeat, and the 
atrocious murder of the Duke of Burgundy on the bridge of 
Montereau, four years afterwards, became a source of th^ 
frightful disasters which overwhelmed that unhappy country 
during the following years. Henry enters Paris triumphantly, 
marries Catherine of Valois, is declared heir to the kingdom, 
while the Dauphin, driven south across the Loire, is scornfully 
balled the King of Bourges, Yet we shall now see that ho 
was not yet brought to such a point of despair as to deserve 
that title. 

sioatB neaioix— KDrcTDOH op f&ano^. i^ 

I. Provinces Obstino the Attthoritt ot the DAtrPHm as 
Ktsg Charles YII. 

479. Their Name, and Situation* — At the moment when 
the devoted virgin^ Joan of Arc, by her sudden appeAranoe 
and words of hope, began to reyive the courage and confidenoe 
of the French, in 1428, King Charles YII. possessed still the 
greater part of the provinces situated south of the Loire, viz. : 
Touraine, which he had obtained as appanage during the life- 
time of his father, when he was still only Count of Ponthieu. 
Chinofiy a fine castle, southeast of Tours, the old capital of 
the province, on the river Vienne, was then the residence of 
the fugitive monarch, and there, surrounded by his court, ho 
received Joan of Arc. LocheSj southeast of the river Indre, 
was the birth-place of the beautiful Agnes SoreL 

Orleanais (464), north of the Loire, was then invaded by 
the English — ^who were actively engaged in the siege of the 
dity of Orleans, when Joan of Arc arrived for its relief, itu- 
vray Saint Denis, north of Orleans, where the French suf- 
fered the severe defeat by Sir John Falstaff, called the Bat- 
tle of the HerringsJ^" Patay, a few miles northwest of the 
former, where Talbot and Falstafif were borne down at the 
lance's point of the French chevaliers, and the former made 
prisoner ; the bodies of two thousand English strewed the 
plain. The maid of Orleans shed tears at the sight 

*" The battle was fought during Lent» 1429, and took its name from 
the great transport of wagons, with provisions, particularly barrels 
with herrings — an indispensable provision for lent — ^which the brave 
Falstaff carried along with his army to reinforce the English before 
Orl^ns. Tet on the road he was attacked by the impetuous La Hire, 
the Sootoh auxiliaries, and the army of the Count of Clermont. After 
a brilliant defence behind the herring barrels, the English charged 
and defeated the French, but the barrels having burst open by the 
shots and knocks, the field seemed strewed with herrings rather than 
corpses, and the French, satirical as usual, called the fight la joumie 


480. Berki (465), south of Orl6anais, had been giyen 
to Charles YIL, together with Poitou, when he, in 1417; 
inherited the title of Danphin. Bourges, his capital, was 
scoffingly called that of the pigmy kingdom of Charles YII. 

Porror, west of Berri, belonged, as we said, to the appa- 
nage which Charles YII. had receiyed as Dauphin ; he united 
it with the crown, from which it was never separated after- 
wards. This province had remained like the preceding, ex- 
empted from the misfortunes of the war; such was likewise 
the case with La Marche, Lihosin, Atjnis, and Saintonge. 

The powerful Count of Foix, who had united B:gARN and 
BiGORRE to his own inheritance, demanded, in 1424, as the 
pruee of his allegiance to King Charles YII., the government 
of Langttedoc. The Count of La Marche, James of Bour- 
bon, held possession of that province, but was found willing 
to resign it the next year, reserving for himself only the 
county of Castres. The viscounty of Narbonne likewise 
passed into the house of Eoiz in 1447, having been bought by 
Count Ghiston lY. 


481. Guienne, with the exception of Bordeaux and its en- 
• virons — ^the Bordelais — ^which were occupied by the English, 

was, like Gascogne, governed by the same Count of Foix and by 
his brother, the Count of Comminges, with an almost absolute 
.independence ; both brothers kept up a kind of neutrality to- 
wards their neighbors, the English. 

The Counts of Armagnac possessed the greater part of 
Gascogne, with almost perfect independence, and arrogantly 
styled themselves " by grace of God,^^ yet they still recog- 
nized the authority of the king. Their lands lay together in 
two groups, in Rovergue, on the Cevennes, and in Gascogne, 
on the Pyrenees. There, too, the Count of Astarac (242, 
XLYI.), the chief of an ancient family on the east of the Ar- 
magnac territories, had always shown himself as a faithful 
vassal of the French kings. This was likewise the case with 
the Lord of Albret (242, XLIIL), who, besides his viscounty 


in the Lafides (Heathes) of G-ascogne, possessed the viscoimty 
of Tartas and the county of Drjextx, in Normandy^ then occa- 
pied by the English; as a compensation he received the 
county of Gaure, a dismembered portion of Eezenzac.'^^ 

482. BoTTRBONNAis, AxTVERGNE, Beaujolais, and Lton- 
NAis, all appertaining to the Duke of Bourbon, the prisoner 
of the English at the battle of Agincourt, were governed by 
his son, the Count of Clermont, who, though he kept up a 
show of neutrality between the contending parties, had yet 
fought in the ranks of the French at the battle of Herrings 

483. DAtrPHiNE, between the Bhone and the Alps. It was 
to this quiet and happy region that Charles and Agnes Sorel 
intended to flee, in order to escape the bloody scenes of the 
war in which the Dauphin was then engaged with the English. 
Yet the enthusiastic reception of Joan of Arc, and her first 
brilliant victory, soon brought the French prince back to 
his duty. 

II. Provincss Conquered bt the English. 

484. These Provinces extended from the Somme to the 
Loire, and were the following : 

I. Isle de France, on both the banks of the Seine. Pa- 
ris, its capital, fell into the power of the English in 1420, and 
was then in such a state of decay, in consequence of the ter- 
rible civil war of the Armagnac and Burgundian parties, 
that twenty thousand buildings were ruined and abandoned. 
The English government and army kept Paris for sixteen 
years, and it was not until 1436, after the separation of Bur- 
gundy from the alliance with England, that the last bodies of 
men-at-arms of that country left the Bastile and the Chatelets, 

*" HouuUlon had belonged to the crown of Amgon since 1112, and 
i^ therefore^ not mentioned here. 


and under the hooiings and maddening cries of the Pariman 
people, left the city- and retired to the north. MontereaUj 
south of Paris. Here was perpetrated one of the most awful 
crimes during the civil wars of unhappy France : the massacre 
of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Dauntless, during his in- 
teryiew with the Dauphin on the bridge oyer the river Aube, 
on the 10th September, 1419 — Meaux, on the Mame, was the 
refuge of the Duchesses of Orleans and Normandy and num- 
bers of noble ladies, demoiselles and children, during the rebel 
lion of the peasantry — the Jacquerie — ^who had risen against 
the nobles and were demolishing the castles in 1358* In the 
market-place of Meaux, the poor ladies were besieged by the 
infuriated peasants, in imminent danger of suffering outrage 
and murder — ^when most unexpectedly the Count of Eoix and 
the Captal of Buch, with a band of knights threw themselves ' 
headlong among the boors, and after a terrific slaughter drove 
them into the river and saved the honor and the life of the 
&ir ones. Meaux was a brave and faithful city ; it sent its 
bailiff at the head of its oivic bands to the battle-field of 
Agincourt, where they were scomfally abandoned by the 
chivalry and perished miserably by the arrows and battle-axes 
of the English yeomanry. Smlis, north of Paris, Saint 
Quentin in Yermandois, and Caen in Normandy, sent like- 
wise their bailiffs and national guards to Agincourt and shared 
the fate of the rest. Saint Denis, the sanctuary of French 
Royalty, witnessed in 1422 the funeral pomp of Charles YI. 
and the proclamation and ceremonious inauguration of Henry 
YI. as King of France and England. 

II. Normandy was totally conquered and occupied by the 
English after the battle of Agincourt. Bouen was captured 
by Henry Y. in 1419 after a fearful siege, during which fifty 
thousand helpless citizens, old men, women and children, per- 
ished miserably in the fosse between the English camp and 
the walls of the city, from which they had been expelled as 
unable to bear arms. On the market-place of Bouen the 


iBBOcent Maid of Orleans, the lictim of the bigotry and ha* 
tred of the English prelates, suffered a cruel death on 30th 
of May, 1431. •" 

III. Champagne, with La Brie, east of the Isle de France, 
had long been bravely defended by La Hire, until he was 
compelled to eyacuate them in 1424. In Troyes, the capital 
of this province, the treaty between Henry Y. and the imbe^ 
cile Charles YI. had been signed in 1420, by which the Dau- 
phin was declared unworthy of the crown, and France deliv- 
ered over to the King of England. 

lY. PicARDY was partly possessed by the Duke of Bur- 
gundy and partly by the English ; the latter held the coun- 
ties of Ponthieu and Boulogne with the Calesis. Com- 
piegne^ on the Oise, into which the Maid of Orleans had 
thrown herself for its defence, and where, during a sortie on 
l^e 23d May, 1430, she was dastardly aibandoned by the 

"* When Jeanne d*Arc set foot on the top of the pile and she beheld 
the great city below, the motionless^ silent crowd of the thousands fill- 
ing the square and every roof around, she cdald not refrain from ex- 
claiming ** Ah Rouen, Jioue^iy mtteh do I fear ifou toill mfer from mp 
death !" She, who had saved the people and whom both king and peo- 
ple now deserted, gave voice to no other sentiment^ when dying, than 
that of compassion for them. Meanwhile the flames rose. ^ . .' When 
they first seized her the unhappy maiden shrieked for holy waier — ^but 
soon recovering, she called only on God, on her angels and her saints. 
" Ftfc, my voices toerefrom God, my vidon has not deceived me/* In the 
midst of the flames she called on her Saviour . • . at last her head 
sunk on her bosom, the smoke enveloped her, and when it disappeared 
her blackened body was seen hanging over the chain with which she 
was fastened to the stake. Lamentations and cries re-echoed through 
the square ; only the English men-at-arms, on horseback, surrounding 
the pUe laughed, or attempted to laugh, at the torments of the witch. 
Some, however, had better feelings, and one of the English chancellors 
present said aloud on returning from the dismal scene, " We are lost: 
we have burnt a saint — the retribution will be fearful !" and that Eng* 
lishman spoke a true word. 


French knights, captured by the Borgondian traitorB and sold 
to her mortal enemies the English. 

V. BoRDELAis, or the city of Bordeaux^ with its envi- 
rons, had remained in the possession of the English ever since 
the first conquest ; they held likewise a number of castles and 
strongholds in Guyenne imd Gascogne, 

III. P&ovmcES IN Alliance with the English. 

485. These consisted principally in the eztensive states of 
the Duke Philip-le-Bon, of Burgundy, who in order to take 
revenge on the murderers of his father had thrown himself 
into the English alliance. The possessions of this powerful 
feudatory embraced the two Burgundies, the duchy and the 
free county (Franche Comt6), the latter a fief of the German' 
Empire. The county of Macon (239, XXXII.), included 
within the duchy, had, like Paris and so many other cities^ 
sent its bravest citizens with their bailiff and town-banner to 
the battle at Agincourt, where they all perished miserably with 
the other foot-soldiers. 

The counties of Flanders and Aetois, and the Marqui- 
sate of Namur on the east. 

The counties of Bethel (consisting of the northern part 
of Champagne), £tamfes, Nevers with the barony of Donzi, 
likewise situated in NivemaiSy belonged since the division 
made in 1401 by Philip the Bold and his wife Margaret to the 
younger branch of the Burgundian dynasty. The duke had, 
moreover, since 1427, pretensions to the counties of Hainaut^ 
Holland, Zealand, and Friesland, on the coasts of the North 

IV. Neutral Provincbs. 

486. Several feudatories attempted to escape the devasta- 
tion of the war, by observing a strict neutrality between 
i'rance and England during the contest These provinces 


were the following. Brittany (Bretagne), whose Duke John 
Y. (470) although a friend and ally of the English, remained 
neutral while the war was raging throughout France. 

Anjou, Maine, Provence and the Barrois, or Duchy of 
Bar^ which latter consisted of the western portion of Lorraine. 
All the eastern parts of that country belonged still to the Ger- 
manic Empire ; but Bar soon fell to the all-powerful house of 
Anjou, already in possession of the three first mentioned 
provinces. The beautiful woodlands on the frontiers of 
Lorraine had not been exempted from partial excursions of 
English and Burgundian bands. Bar-le Dug, on the Onain^ 
was the capital. On the banks of the Mouse lay the small 
village of Doniremi belonging to the Diocese of Taul, in 
which the brave and beautiful Jeanne d'Aro was bom in the 
year 1409, the third daughter of a laborer, Jacques d' Arc and 
of Isabella Bom6e. The fountain where Joan watered her 
sheep, and the oak tree beneath which she meditated the de- 
livery of France, were long in the remembrance of the villa- 
gers.**^ Vaiicouleurj a few miles from Domremi, on the Up- 
per Meuse, and the outskirts of the Argonne forest, had for- 
merly belonged to the celebrated crusading family of Join- 
ville, whose territories were lying in the neighborhood ; but 
Philip y I. had obliged the Joinvilles to cede this frontier 
town to him in 1335. There Joan met the generous knight 
Beaudricourt, who furnished her with armor, horses and 
knights, to accomplish her important mission across the hostile 
country to the distant residence of the French Court at ChinoUy 
on the south of the Loire. 

*** There may still be seen at this day, above the door of the hut 
where Jeanne d*Aro lived, three escntcheons carved on stone — that of 
Loius XL who beautified the cottage — that which was undoubtedly 
given to one of her brothers^ along with the surname of J>u lis; — and 
a third, charged with a star and three ploughshares to image the mis- 
sion of the Pucelle and the humble condition of her parents. The tal- 
ented daughter of Elng Louis Philippe, the late Princess of Wiirtem- 
berg, placed some years ago her fine marble statue of the maiden of 
Lorraine on the market-place of the village. 


We shall here make no mention of AUaeey which at that 
time still formed an int^al part of the Germanic Empire, and 
was, at the period we describe, held bj the Elector- Palatine 
Lonis the Bearded, with the rank of an imperial vicar or La}id' 

^ IV. The Peuiod op the Expulsion of the English, 
A. D. 1453. 

487. HiSTomcAL Remarks. — The twenty-fonr years from 
the victories of the Maid of Orleans in 1429 to the termina- 
tion of the war in 1453, were a period of the most terrible 
calamities for poor France. The northern provinces of that 
beantiful country had become a desert. In the centre, the 
Beauce was so covered with copse-wood that armies songht. 
and could not find one another. Hundreds of villages lay in 
ruins, entirely abandoned, the inhabitants had fled to perish 
from want in the cities. Misery and famine had converted 
Paris herself into a focus of disgusting diseases, which by a 
common name were called the plague. Oharles YII. had a 
glimpse of the fearful sight of his capital, and fled from it. 
The English made no attempt to return to it. Both parties 
kept at a distance, as if in concert"^ Yet Oharles, from a 
wanton Dauphin in the school of adversity, became a wise 
and active monarch; under his energetic administration, 
France was cured — ^while England, overstraining herself in her 
continental excursions, fell sick, and during her lethargy and 
internal convnlsions, the French recovered their courage and 
patriotism ; Burgundy gave up her unnatural alliance in the 
treaty of Arras; the English were driven away from one 
province after the other. Master Bureau, the great engineer, 

*** The wolves alone came prowling to PBrie, entering at night in 
search of corpses. In September, 1488, they devonred fourteen persona 
between Manimartre and the Porte 8mnt Antoine, The bands of roh- 
ben or marauding soldiers that scoured the country were still 
more dangerous ; they put a stop to aU travel and commerce, and there 
was no refuge for the inhabitanta, save in the eastlea of the nobility. 


brought his heavj artillery to plaj upon English knights and 
archers ; in spite of all their prowess they sunk by thousands 
— ^last of all old Talbot, on the JDordogne^ where the total 
prostration of the English, in 1453, opened the gates of Bor- 
deaux to the persevering King Charles. Thus, of all their 
brilliant conquests, nothing remained except the city of Calais 
and the neighboring castles of Guines and Hames on the 
channel. The same year witnessed the downfall of the East- 
em Boman Empire, the Turks stand victorious in Europe, 
and the middle ages are at an end. Let us take a parting 
glance at France in her general division between her king and 
the great feudatories of the crown. 

I. The Royal Domains in 1453. 

488. Designation of the Provinces. — The provinces 
composing the Boyal domains at the act^ession of Louis XL 
and before the battle of Montlhery, were the following. 

The county of Paris (235), the primitive domain of the 
reigning dynasty, reconquered from the English in 1429, to- 
gether with the whole of Isle de France. The first attempt 
of Charles VII. to reconquer Paris in 1429 was unsuccessful. 
During the headlong assault on the walls, the Maid of Or- 
leans, who led on the troops, was wounded, and the attack re- 
pelled, but in 1436 the French monarch held his triumphal 
entry among ruins and skeletons. 

The counties of Stampes (483), Mantes, Montfort and 
Vertus, were held by the Dukes of Brittany. The Barony 
of Montmorency, north of Paris, belonged to one of the 
most ancient and distinguished families in France, which, a 
century later — 1554 — obtained likewise the county of Dam- 
martin, northeast of the capital. 

Southern Picardy, or the portion of that province lying 
south of the river Somme, belonged likewise to the crown. 
The district north of the Somme, with the cities on its banks, 


had been giyen to the Duke of Bnrgundy (483). The extent 
of Picardj toward the south was, at the time before us, greater 
than at a later period. It embraced then the coanty of Ya- 
ix)is, with the capital Crepi, the county and lordship of Ccmci 
in the ancient Vermandois (233), and other estates, all belong- 
ing to the younger branch of the royal family of France, the 
ValoiS' Orleans ; they were not united with the crown until 
the accession of Louis XII. of Orl6ans in 1498. The county 
of SoissoNs (233, VI.), east of this province, belonged to 
Joan of Bar, the wife of Louis of Luxemburg, who was count 
of SaifU Fol in Artois, of Brienne in Champagne, and of 
Ligny in the Barrois, one of the most powerful and illustrious 
feudatories of France. The county of Clermont (469), in 
Beauyaisis, formed part of the domains of the house of 
Bourbon (497). 

489. The counties of. Champagne and Brie. RheimSj 
on the small river Yesle, the venerable metropolitan of the 
realm, saw, in 1429, the day of joy and enthusiasm, when 
Charles YII., accompanied by the Maid of Orleans and her 
victorious army, was crowned King of France, and TroyeSj 
Chalons J Laon^ SoissonSy CltdteaU'Thierry^Provins, and all 
the surrounding cities surrendered to the oriflamme. The 
county of Bj^thel, on the north of Champagne, was then like- 
wise in the possession of a branch of the house of Burgundy 
(483). — Another alienation was that of the principality of 
Sedan, east of Bethel, which, together with the duchy of 
Bouillon, formed part of the large possessions of the counts 
of La Mardky Dukes of Cleves on the Bhine. The county of 
JoiONY, southwest of Champagne, belonged at this period to 
Louis de la Tr^moille, who enjoyed the title of Siguier 
Doyen of the seven count-peers of Champagne.*** The lord- 
ship of JoiNviLLE belonged to the counts of Vaudemont, 
on the frontiers of Lorraine. 

"* These seven nobles were the Counts of Jaiffny, JUthel, Brienne, 
Portien GrandprS, Rouci and Braine- VcUSon, 


490. Normandy (236) was reconquered from the EDglish 
in a single campaign by the brave Dunois — 1449, 1450 — with 
the enthusiastic assistance, however, of the Norman population; 

"the cities of P<mt-de-V Arche^ Pont-Audemer, lAsieux^Gour- 
nay^ Verneuilj EvreuXy Louvieri^ and Alerigony vied with one 
another to throw open their gates. Bouen was long defended 
by the iron arm of Talbot. Charles VII. entered with pomp 
on the 20th November, 1449, nine years after the awful sacri- 
fice of that devoted Maid to whom he owed his crown and 
France its independence. HarfleuTy the great military d^pot 
of the English, surrendered a month later. Honfieur, on the 
opposite bank, at the mouth of the Seine, followed the exam- 
ple, and the brilliant victory of the French at Formigntfj west 
of Bayeux, on the shores of the channel, opened them Lower 
Normandy, viz. Vire, Bayeux^ Avranches, and Caen, the capi* 
tal of this province, which was besieged by King Charles Y I. 
himself. Phlaise, DomfrorU, and the strong Cherhurgy though 
protected in vain by the sea and numerous garrisons, all fell 
successively into the power of the French. The King did 
not possess the southern part of Lower Normandy ; it formed 
the large duchy of Alenqon, since 1404 united to the counties 
of Perche and Beaumont : the Duke of Alen^on having been 
taken prisoner by the English in the battle of Vemeuily in 
1424, sold the more distant barony of Fougeres to the Duke 
of Brittany to pay off his ransom. The counties of Aumale, 
on the frontiers of Normandy and Picardy, of Harcourt, 
south of Bouen, and of Mortain, southwest of Normandy, 
were, at the time we describe, united under the sway of the 
widowed countess of Vaudenumty who transmitted them to 
her nephew, B6n6 11. Duke of Lorraine, in 1476. The county 
of Eu, southwest of Aumale, was held by Charles of Artois, 
for whose benefit Charles YII. erected it into a peerage in 
1458. The county of £vreux, had, in 1404, fallen back to 
the crown. 

491. Orl^amais (464, III.) was reconquered from the 


Esglish immediatelj alter the great Yictorj of the Maid of Or 
l^ans and the generals of Charles YII. at Patay. The faithfol 
city of Orleans herself, owed her rescue to the jonng heroine, 
who hy her mere adyance at the head of her knights and men- 
at-arms, so frightened the superstitions islanders that they 
raised the siege, and fled in disorder before a woman on the 
29th April, 1429. The duchy of Orleans was in 1392 giren 
in appanage by Charles YI., to his brother Louis I. of Or- 
leans-Yalois. It became afterwards, like Yalois (486), unit- 
ed to the crown on the accession of Louis XII. The county 
of Ohartres (235) on the southwest of this province, the 
viscounty of Chateaudun and the county of Blois (238 XX Y.) 
had passed since the year 1234 from the suzerainty of the 
Counts of Champagne to that of the Eling of France. The 
county of Dreux (236 XYIL), on the nor&west of Chartres, 
had of late been joined to the possessions of the house of Or- 
leans. This county had been given in 1382 by King Charles 
YI. to his son Charles YIL, who in 1441 granted it as a 
compensation to the £uthfal and distinguished house of Al* 
bret (470), from- whom it then devolved on the Orleans. 

Berri (478), whose political positbn had not undergone 
any change since the last period, was, in the year 1453, given 
in appanage by the king to his second son Charles. The 
latter, however, ceded it to his brother Louis XI. in 1463, for 
Normandy. The county of Sancerre, on the southeast of 
Berri, had abeady in 1334 become a fief of the crown, and 
was then held by Count John lY. one of the bravest generals 
of France, whom the kmg had made high admiral of the 

492. TouRAiNE (465) belonged to the Duke of Anjou 
since the year 1424, but King Charles YII. had reserved for 
himself the regalian rights and the town and castle of Chi'- 
non^ on the Yienne, his favorite residence. 

Ponx)ny La Marche, Limosin, Avnis and Saij^tonoe 


(476), remained all in the same political condition as they 
were during the preceding period. The viscounty of Li- 
moges belonged to John of Blois, who likewise' held the coun- 
ties of Penthievke (in the north of Brittany) and of Peri- 
GORD, consisting of the northern portion of Guienne. Charles 
of Orleans had sold it to the Count of Penthi^vre in 1437. 
The yiscounty of Turenne, south of Lower Limosin, had 
passed in 1444, by marriage, into a branch of the house of La 
Tour d'Auvergne. The county of Angoul^me (472), situated 
between these proyinces, belonged to the domains of the pow- 
erful house of Orleans. 

493. Guienne and Gascogne (479), which in 1 452 were 
reconquered by the brave Dunois at the lance's point, had again 
recognized the royal authority. Bayonne^ on the Adour, was 
the only city which defended itself with obstinacy. Bordeaux^ 
Fronsac and Dax opened their gates with joy. Many castles 
in the interior, commanded by English knights, held bravely 
out for a time, and received succor from England in October, 
1452; but they were successfully reduced in the following 
year. The last battle in the war was fought at Chatillon de 
Perigord, on the Dordogne, where the old Talbot perished on 
the 17th July, 1453, before the batteries of the great French 
engineer, Master Jean Bureau.'^ 

BsARN, and the counties of Eoix and Languedoc, were in 
the same political condition. The latter had five seneschal 

*" How much did it cost those stubborn haughty knights who would 
not understand that a new world had begun to supersede the old I Lord 
Talbot seeing the French digging in their lines, and throwing up fences 
like mole-hills, mounted his little pony, exclaiming, "May I never 
hear mats, ifldotCt ride them over/* The fiery old man left mass, chap- 
lain, and all, to bear down the French beneath the hoofs of his chiv- 
alry—on they came in their glittering array — yet a flash from the 
culverins, and down go the paladins of the middle age, — ^Talbot, archers, 
banners, and all. The French sally forth, and the rout of the English 
is complete — it was the last. 


courts — SineckausSeSj^—Tbulousej Carcassonne, Narbanne, 
Beziers, Beaucaire, and besides the seignory of MontpeUier, 
and the counties of Alby, Lodeve, Nimes, Uzis, and seyeral 
others. Datjfhins (48 1) finally with the counties of Valentinois 
and Diois. Valence, the capital of the former, in a charming 
site, on the left bank of the Rhdne. Die, the capital of the 
latter, more southeast, formed the appanage of the Dauphin 
from the time of I^uis XI. 

II. Domains of the Great Feudatories, a. d. 1453. 

494. Their Extent. — The Boyal Provinces we have de- 
scribed and inclosed — among which we have mentioned many 
feudal domains not belonging to the crown— did not yet em- 
brace half the territory of France. All the rest was still 
divided among the vassals, the most distinguished of whom 
we shall here give an account of. Five were the leading 
houses ; the first four of whom were allied to the reigning dy- 
nasty of Yalois. 

I. The House of Valois- Orleans.*" The first family of 
that name sprung from Louis, second surviving son of Charles 
Y., the earliest prince who bore the title of Duke of Orleans, 
and who, as we have mentioned, was assassinated at Paris, in 
1407, by his cousin and rival, Jean SansPeur, Duke of Bur- 


Charlet F., U Sage, \ 1380. 


Lous, Dnke of OrleoM, 1 140T. 

CharUe VTLiliSL 

Orleans, f 1406. 




LouB XII. 1 1618. 

t I 
Charles, Coimt of 

1 1 

Clauds mairied 

to JVanofo/. 

FnANOiB Ltl647. 


gandj. The resttlts of this crime were the conflicts of the 
two factions of Burgundians and Armagnacs, and the easy 
conquest of France by Henry V. The history of the first 
Duke of Orl6ans is also memorable for his marriage with Va- 
lentina Yisconti, daughter of Jean Galeazzo Yisconti, Duke 
of Milan, which eventually gave the house of Orleans preten- 
sions to that duchy, and produced the Italian wars of Louis 
XII. and his successors for its possession. 

Domains. 1. The duchy of Orleans (491), with which 
Charles VI. invested his brother in 1392. 2. The county of 
Valois (488), in Champagne, given to Louis, at his birth in 
1372, by his father, Charles V. 3. The counties of Blois 
(491) and DuTuds, with the viscounty of Chdteatidun, and 
many seigneuries in the environs, all bought by Louis, in 1391, 
from Guy of Chatillon, for 200,000 livres in gold. 4. The 
Lordship of Coud (488), which was one of the most beauti- 
ful and powerful baronies of the kingdom, possessing one hun- 
dred and fifty boroughs or villages, besides a great number of 
estates and castles, when Duke Louis of Orleans, bought it, 
in the year 1400, for 400,000 livres ; but a few years later 
after the assassination of the duke, nearly half of this rich 
seigniory was transferred to the ducal house of Bar, and, 
in 1431, together with that duchy, to the house of Anjou. 
5. The counties Longuevillej DreuXj Mortain^ Soissons^ Beau- 
monty and the barony Gournay — all in the north, and 6, the 
counties of Farthenay and Angoumois^ in Poitou, and 7, 
the important territory of Asti, in Italy. The vast domains 
of the house of Orl6ans were united with the crown, in 1498, 
at the accession of Louis XII., the heir of that family. 

""The county oiAngoumois (Angouldme) passed, in the year 1407, to 
the younger branch of the house, the Valois-Angoul^me, and returned 
to the crown when Francis I. of Angouldme mounted the French 
throne in 1615, 


495. II. The House of Bueoundy (Bourgogne). — ^The 
dukes of the younger Burgundian dynnstj had,^ by inherit- 
ance, marriage, purchase, and conquest, brought together one 
of the most powerful, civilized, and wealthy states of medi- 
»Yal Europe ; they ranged both under the Emperor of Ger- 
many and the King of France, as great feudatories, though 
almost entirely independent of either, and nothing seemed 
wanting to crown their hopes of ambition and glory, but the 
royal title which the last duke, Charles the Rash, was on the 
point of obtaining from the Emperor Frederic III., at the in- 
teryiew of Treves, in 1473, when his feud with the wary Louis 
XL of France, and his imprudent inyasion of Switzerland, in 
1476, brought on his terrible defeats at Granson and Monzty 
hb death at Nancy y and the dispersion of his vast territories 
in 1477. 

496. BuEGUNDiAN Lands. — I. The duchy of Burgundy, 
given in the year 1363, by King John the Good, to his fourth 
son, Philip the Bold, the ancestor of the second Burgundian 
dynasty, with the title of ^^ first peer of Firance^^ (385, 458, 
473). IL The county of Upper Burgundy (Hoch Burgund), 
or Franche ConUe, between the Sa6ne, Mount Jura, and the 
Bhine, with the capital Besan9on, the counties Mumpelgard 
and Neuchatel, and the Lordship of Salin. III. The county 
of Flanders, with Ghenty Brugge, JDunkerk, and Ostend. 
IV. The county of Artois, with the city of Arras, V. The 
county of Boulogne. VL The counties of Ponthieu (482), 
Amiens, and Yermandois, held by the Dukes of Burgundy as 
mortgages of the French crown. Corbie, Abbeville, with the 
whole district of Picardy on the right bank of the Somme, 
and the towns of Roye and Montdidier, in Santerre, were 
united to Flanders by the celebrated treaty of Arras, in 1435. 
VII. The county of Nevers, and VIIL, that of Bethel 

*** Serieb of thx Dukes : Philip the Bold, 1363-1404. John the 
Fearless^ I404-I419. PhiUp the Qood, 1419-1467. Charles the Rash, 


(473) on the Meuse. These counties, together with Artois 
and Flanders, had been inherited by Margaret, the wife of 
Philip the Bold, in 1384, and by her transmitted with the 
same title to her son John the Fearless, in 1405. IX. The 
marquisate of Namur on the Meuse, bought in 1421, for the 
sum of 132,000 gold crowns, by Philip the Good, from the last 
Marquis Jean Thierry, who, however, reserved for himself the 
tistLsfritctus of his possessions until his death, in 1429. All 
these territories the Dukes of Burgundy held as fiefs of the 
French frown, with the exception of Franche Comte, that be- 
longed to Germany. 

497. The prudent and active Philip the Good had by di- 
vers means, by money, intrigues, and the sword, still in- 
creased the number of his extensive states, with X., the im- 
portant duchy of Brabant (530), north of Namur, with the 
cities BruxeUes^ Louvain (Lowen), Malines (Mecheln), Bre- 
da^ and Nivelles. XL The duchy, of Limburg, east of the 
Meuse, and separated from Brabant by the Archbishopric of 
L'Uge (Liittich). XII. The marquisate of Anvers (Ant- 
werp), with the important commercial city of that name on the 
Scheldt. XIII. The county of Hainaut (Hennegau), on the 
frontiers of France, between Flanders and Brabant, with the 
cities of Mons^ Valenciennes^ Ath^ CondSj Quesnoy, Avesne, and 
Chiniay}^ XIV. The counties of Holland and Zealand, 

"" These rich countries had, on the death of Count William IV. of 
Holland, in 1345, as imperial fiefs of the Germanic Empire, been given 
by the Emperor Louis» of Bavaria, to his wife, the sister of Count Wil- 
liam lY. The Empress granted them to her son, Albrecht, Duke of 
Bavaria» and on his death, in the year 1404, his niece, the beautiful 
but extravagant Jacqueline (Jacobea), of Hainaut, became the heiress. 
She married Jean, Duke of Brabant, and brought him her rich inherit- 
ance. But the married couple could not agree ; mutual wrongs pro- 
duced a separation and then a divorce. Jacqueline fled to England, 
where she married the Duke of Gloucester, and returned to the Nether- 
lands with an army of five thousand English troops. The war now 
broke out between her and her former husband, the Duke of Brabant^ 


in the opulent and induBtrions Netherlands, with the duchy of 
Chielders (Geldern) (516), West Friesland^ and the flourish- 
ing cities of Amsterdam^ Hardewyke^ Arnhem, Alkmaer^ 
Harlem^ Leyden, Ddft^ Rotterdam^ Dortrecht, Ysselmonde^ 
Duiveland, Holswaerd^ and Leuwarden, in Friesland."^ XY. 
East Flanders, on the right bank of the Scheldt, with the 
cities Dendremonde^ Bevern, Alost^ RUpelmonde, and Aude- 
narde. XYI. The duohj of Luxemburg (Ldzelburg), between 
the Mouse and the Moselle, with the cities Jjiizdburg^ Mont- 
medy, ThionviUe^ and the counties Rochefort and Salh, in 
the forest of the Ardennes. The heiress, Elizabeth, of Lux- 
emburg-Gorlitz, surrendered her fall inheritance of the duchy, 
and her right to the county of Chiny (on the southwest), in 
1443, to Philip, who, on iiie resistance of the inhabitants, 

who was powerfully supported by his cousin, Philip the Good, of Bur- 
gundy. Gloueester and his English knights were defeated in 1424. 
Jacqueline the termagant^ getting in trouble with her English husband, 
fled, disguised in full armor, with closed yisor, and accompanied by some 
faithful knights (Ornold Spieringk and Yos yan Belfk), to Holland, 
where she was well receiTed by her subjects. Afterwards, on the death 
of Duke Jean, of Brabant^ and the Duke of Gloucester having divorced 
her, she put her dominions under the administration of the Duke of 
Burgundy, to whom, upon her death, in 1486, the whole descended in 
fuU po99e99um, Philip le Bon became thus one of the most powerful 
princes of Western Europe. 

"" In the year 1225, Frisia (Friesland) became 8q>arated from Hol- 
land by an inundation of the ocean, which formed the Zuyder Zee 
(Southern Se^). This disaster was repeated twice during the period we 
describe: firsts in 1421, when the ItikeBiet Bach, between Brabant and 
Holland, was produced by the rupture of the dykes of the Mosa; 
seventy-two villages were submeiged, and one hundred thousand in-« 
habitants perished ; by the second eruption, fifty years later, the tea of 
Harlem was formed, covering a territory of more than thirty-si^ miles 
of land. Friesland suffered a similar calamity in 1277, when the sea 
broke through on its eastern coast and formed the deep bay of Dollartt 
whose waters submex^ed thirty-three villages. Friesland, though nei- 
ther fertile nor pleasant, was the object of contention between the 
Emperors of Germany and the Counts of Holland ; yet the Prisons re- 
cognized neither, and lived in a state of almost entire liberty. 


marclied an army into the ducbj, took the eapital bj aso 
sault, and occupied the vicariate — Vavouerie — of Alsace (474), 
in 1444, under the title of mamhour^ or governor, but he did 
not assume sovereign power in these provinces until after the 
death of the Princess Elizabeth, in 1451. The Netherlands, 
East Flanders, Luxemburg, and Alsace, being fiefs of the 
Germanic Empire, the Duke of Burgundy rendered nominal 
homage to the emperor, though he was far more powerful and 
independent than the penniless Austrian, Frederic III., in 
spite of all his empty German titles. Philippe le Bon pos- 
sessed, besides, the following French fiefs: XVII., the county 
of Macon, on the Sa6ne, and XVIII., that of Auxerre, on 
the Yonne, with Chalons^ Aussone^ and the Castellany of 
Bar -sur- Seine, all which were granted to Burgundy by the 
treaty of Arras. Such was Uie splendid assembly of states, 
which, by the conquest of Lorraine by Charles le Temeraire, 
in 1474, might have b^n moulded into a renewed Burgun- 
dian Empire ; yet the inconsiderate and foolhardy enterprises 
of that quixotic knight-errant, overturned the wisest plans of 
the old duke, Philip the Gi>od, his father, and caused him to 
perish beneath the halberts of the Swiss cowherds, in the 
frozen swamps of Nancy, in 1477. The immense inheritance, 
descending to his only daughter, fair Mary of Burgundy, be- 
came then the object of the fiercest contests between Germany 
and France, at the beginning of the modern era. 

498. The Netherlands surpassed at that time, all other 
European countries, except Italy, in industry, population and 
riches ; in Louvain there were a hundred and fifty thousand 
mechanics. Liberty was the main cause of this prosperity. 
The duke raised only direct and moderate taxes ; he visited 
the cities, consulted the burghers, and changed the customs 
and duties, according to the convenience of commerce. With 
the spirit of commerce and enterprise, the Dutch combined 
that of arms and rebellion; violent feuds between dyers 
and fullers often stained the streets of Ghent with the blood 


of her citizens ; Ohent destroyed the factories of Tenremonde. 
The Borgundian power never rose higher than during the 
sway of Philip the Good ; he formed his administration on the 
happiness of his people and good order. By his popular man- 
ners he gained the affection of the Republican citizens ; he 
dazzled princes and nobility by the splendor of his court, 
tournaments and fetes, where he sat surrounded by merchants 
and mechanics, who were invited to his board. His fame 
spread over Europe, and in the distant East, Turks and Sara- 
cens called him the great Lord of the West. G-erman arts in 
painting and sculpture developed their most beautiful fruits 
under the fostering care of the old duke, nor did he neglect 
the sciences ; and he collected a rich and magnificent library; 
his standing army were the best drilled troops in Europe, and 
consisted of 20,000 men ; his hoarded treasures were immense, 
and his plate, of massive silver and gold, alone weighed 
72,000 ounces. The Burgundian period, with its pompous 
tournaments, bamquets, " its vows of the heron," and institu- 
tions of new orders of knighthood, such as that of the toison 
(Tor^ is an era of almost incredible extravagance, tasteless 
pageantry, stiff pedantry, the very quixotism of chivalry, which 
since the battle day at Hastings, and the brilliant career of 
four centuries in the east and west, had outlived itself, become 
degenerate, and forced to yield to the new inventions and 
higher intellect of the times. To what disasters did the in- 
corrigible nobility not expose itself before it gave up the vain 
contest for supremacy against kings and commoners 1 De- 
feats in Flanders, in Souabia against the citizens, in Swit- 
zerland against the mountaineers; captivity and disgrace 
at Nicopolis and Varna, by the superior tactics of the 
Ottoman Turks, and, at last^ the loss of its sovereignty and 
extravagant privileges, by the insidious politics of a Louis 

"• See the graphic and accurate description of the Burgundian 
Court, manners and politics, in the admirable History of the Jhtkea of 
Burffttndy, by the French Historian Moxu. de Barante. 


499. III. The House of Bourbon. The ancestor of the 
Bourbon branch of the royal family of France, was Bobert, 
the youngest son of Saint Louis.**** He invested his son, 
in 1269, with the county of Clermont in Beauyaisis (486), 
and Bobert, by marrying Beatrice of Burgundy, obtained 
with her the lordships of Bourbon VArchawhavd in the north, 
of Bourbonnais, CharoUais^ and Saint Just. The ancient 
eastle of Bourbon PArchambaud (238, XXVII.) was his 
residence, and from it he took his title. In the time of Bob- 
ert's son Louis, the Bourbonnais was created a ducal peer- 
age — duche pairee^^ — ^the owner of which therefore assumed 
the title of Duke of Bourbon and the arms of France in 1327. 
Louis obtained the county of LaMarche (469, 480) from King 
Charles le Bel, and his two sons Jacques and Pierre became 
the chiefs of the two branches of the Bourbon family, which 
flourished at the period we are now describing. 

600. Bourbon Territories. — I. The county of Cler- 
mont ; and II. the duchy of Bourbon, original domain of the 

Saint Louis, 

Bobert, his sixth bod, Goant of Clermont. 

Louis L, le Bon, 
Doke of Bourbon. 

Jacquxs dm Bofkbok, Beter L, Duke of Bourbon, became extinct in the Ckm- 

Coant of to Marche. stable Charles de Bourbon, in 1527. 

JoHK, Count of la Marche^ 

married to 

Catherine of Yenddme. 

Jaoqitis II., Coont of la Marche. 

Louis OF BouEBON, Count of Vendome, ancestor of the Counts 
Yenddme, afterwards Dukes of Bourbon, the Kings of Navarra, 
and of the Boyid Bourbon family. 

"* This title denoted at that time a high power and dignity, be- 
cause there were then in France only the Dukes of Burgundy^ Aquitaine 
and Brittany^ and the title of pair was not bestowed except on the 
children of the king, the princes of the blood and the seigniors of the 
most important fiefs* 


Iii<c^^ fafliily. III. The comity of Forsz, nortiieast of Bourbon- 
naifl ; and lY. The barony of Egansais, southeast of Forei, 
inheritance of Anne, the wife of Louis le Bon, in 1452. V. 
The barony of Combrailles, south of Bourbonnais, between 
La Marche and Auvergne, to which it formerly belonged, was 
bou^t by Duke Louis le Bon in 1400. VL The seigniory of 
Beaujolais, south of M&connais, on the right bank of the 
8a6ne, and YII. that of Bombes, on the opposite eastern 
bank, together with the oastles of iVevouXf ChaUlard and 
Afnberieu4t^ more east in the^ Bugey (406), VIIL the duehy 
of AuvERGNE (471), and IX. the county of Montpbnsier, in 
the same proyince northeast of Olermont, both brought as 
dower to Louis le Bon in 1400. 

501. It was at the death of Duke Jean I. the son of 
Louis le Bon in 1434, that the branch of Bourbon Montpen- 
sier separated from that of the Dukes of Bourbon, which kept 
all the other seigniories of this family. The Montpensier 
branch had added the following acquisitions to the county that 
bore its name : 

I. The DAtrpfiiN^ d'Attvergne, on the south, beneath the 
highest mountains, with the city Vodable near the AUier, and 
II. the county of Sancerre (491) on the northeast of Berri, 
which Count Jean inherited of his wife Jeanne, daughter of 
the last Count-Dauphin of Auv^gne. Besides the dtichy and 
the Dauphine d'Auvergne, there existed likewise a county of 
Auvergne, which Mary of Auyergne, the heiress of the county 
of Boulogne, brought into the noble family of La Tour in 1424. 
The seigniors of La Tour intermarried* with the Bourbon 
family. The county lay east of the Allier. Vic^e-ConUe, a beau- 
tiful small city on that rirer, was the residence of the Counts 
of La Tour d'Auvergne, whose patrimonial estates lay west 
of the high peaks of Mount d'Or. Moulin, north on the Allier, 
was built in the fourteenth century, by the Dukes of Bourbon, 
and their usual residence. Their fine (Gothic castle is still 
standing, and the city of Moulin has quite a medissyal appear* 


anee, the houses being fSsmtastioallj huilt of black and red 
stones. MotUhrison became, in 1441, the capital of the 
county of Forez. 

502. IV. The house of Anjou. The French King, Louis 
VIII., bequeathed, in 1226, the county of Anjou to his fourth 
son, Charles, who commenced the French house of Anjou, and 
raised it by his conquest of Naples, in 1266 (423), to a height of 
grandeur and renown, no longer proportioned to the small pro- 
vince from which it derived its title. The following were the 
Anjou territories in France : I. The counties of Provence 
(486) and 6f Forcalquier, the inheritance of the Beatrix of 
Provende (daughter of Raymond Berengario IV., the last 
count of those territories), and from 1240, the wife of Charles 
of Anjou, II. The duchy of Anjou. III. The county of 
Maine. IV. The duchy of Touraine (492) with the seign- 
iories Laudun and Mirebalais, These states descended from 
one generation to another in the same family, with the excep- 
tion of the county of Venaissifiy in Provence, which, in 1274, 
was given to the Boman See, with the only reservation of 
Avignon^ on the junction of the Bhone and the Durance. 
Pope Clement VI., however, bought this city, during the re- 
sidence of the Popes in France, for the sum of 80,000 gold 
florins of the light-headed Queen Joan I. of Naples, in the 
year of the plague, 1348. 

503. On the death of Louis III., in 1434, his estates had 
been divided between his two brothers, and they were so still 
at the period we treat ot B^ne (Binatus), the oldest of the 
two, who lost Naples by the sword of Alfonso V., of Aragon, 
and Anjou and Provence by the intrigues of the perfidious 
Louis XL of France, had, however, the good fortune to inhe- 
rit the duchy of Bar (486) in 1430, and to share the ducal 
crown of Lorraine with his -wife, Isabel, the heiress of that 
duchy. But after her death he resigned, and ceded Lorraine 
to John II. Duke of CcUahria^ his eldest son, who entered 


Nanct, his capital, on the 22d of May, 1453, the same year, 
during which we describe the political condition of France. 
Metz, on the Mease, more populous and industrious than 
Nancy herself, had, in imitation of the free towns of Germany, 
obtained her independence of the duchy a few years earlier. 
Toul and Verdun remained, likewise, in immediate dependence 
on the Germanic Empire. Ren6, — le bon Roi Rene — as he 
was called, devoted himself to poetry, literature, and the fine 
arts. He was himself author of a work on tournaments and 
knightly exercises, and spent his latter days in tranquillity at 
Aix, in Provence. On his death, in 1480, Provence fell back 
to the French crown. Lorraine, which had passed to his 
grandson, B^n6 II., was conquered by Charles the Bash, of 
Burgundy, in 1473, but the Duke, assisted by the Swiss, de- 
feated Charles, first at Morat, in 1476, and the year after at 
Nancy, where that turbulent warrior perished. Ben^ of Lor- 
raine, distinguished himself in the wars of Italy, and obtained 
from Charles VIII., the restitution of the duchy of Bar, which 
had been seized by Louis XL 

504. The house of Brittany (Bretagne). The family of 
Montfort still ruled the duchy, which had been enlarged by 
the barony of Fougekes. The Duke likewise possessed the 
county of Montfort L'Amaury on the southwest of Paris, 
and the estate of Niaujle^ northwest of Montfort. Brittany 
was the last of the great fiefs that became united with the crown 
by the marriage of Charles VIIL and Anne of Bretagne, in 

505. Territories op the other less powerful Vas- 
sals. — Besides the five great dynasties, we here notice several 
others who were not without some importance. Among those 
we have already mentioned were : that of Montmorend (488), 
Fuix (480), Armagnac (481), Astarac (481), Albret (481), 
Luxemburg^ or the Counts of Saint-Pol (488), Alengon 
(4'jO), BloiSy or Fenth'Uvre (491). We may add the fol- 
lowing : 


506. The house oi Ohalons, possessing, 1st, l^e barony 
of Aelat, in the free oountj, Franche CanUe, 2d. The princi- 
palitj of Orange, inclosed within the eomtcUy or county of 

VeTtaissifij and which owed its name to its ancient capital, 
ArauHum — Orange — on the 'Rhone. 3d. The right of suze- 
rainty over the county of Neuchdtel, in Switzerland. The 
county of Tonkerre, northwest of Burgundy, belonged for a 
length of time to a branch of this house. 

507. The house of ^ Laval, held in the Lower Maine, tine 
seigniory of that name, with one hundred and fifty villages 
and estates. Charles YIL erected it into, a county on the day 
of his coronation at Bheims, 17th July, 1429, on account of 
the antiquity of that family, and of their unshaken fidelity to 
the crown. Laval, the capital, was situated west of Mans. 
Dame Anne de Laval defended it heroically at the head of the 
citizens, against the English, in March, 1428 ; it was taken at 
last, but threw oflf the yoke in September, 1429. 

508. Such was the territorial division of France on the 
accession of Louis XL, in 1461. The prudent Charles YIL 
had consolidated the royal authority by the reunion of so 
many alienated provinces with the crown lands, by the organi- 
zation of a standing army of fifteen hundred lances, or nine 
thousand horsemen — les compagnies des ordonnances^ — and 
by his shrewd management of the parliaments and municipali- 
ties of the cities, who sought their refuge in the king against 

"■ Charles VII. had already in October, 1439, obtained the grant 
of a ground tax — taille — ^to the amount of 1,200,000 livres annually, 
for the erection of a standing army of fifteen companies, each of one 
hundred steel-^lad men-at-arms — peru <f arme«^^-eyery lance sceompa 
nied by five horsemen, a sword-man — coutellier^^two mounted archers, a 
squire and a groom — ^ros valet. Another organization was that of the 
Franca-AreherSy in 1446 — which, in spite of the ridicule that attached 
itself to the foot soldiers at that period of expiring chivalry, became, 
nevertheless, the ancestors of the celebrated infantry to which France 
owed her strength and glory in more modem times. 


tlie eBtroachBMnts of the 8ttQ powerM fimdal sobilitj. To 
enuh the ariatoeracy and gnap at the abBolate royalty was 
the great aim of hie treacherous, hut sagacious and success* 
fully perseTeriug son. The Italian princes of the fifteeath 
century were the inTentors oi tfaftt insidious, cunning, and per- 
fidious policy, of which Louis XI. was the most ^ainent im« 
prover, and to irtiich France, during thb important period, 
owed the unity of her monardiy. Tet at one time, the crown 
was on the point of sinking before a combination, which, in 
A. D. 1461, might haTe ended in the dismemberment of 
France. This was the League denominated of PuWic Weal — 
du bien public — in which all the princes and great vassals of the 
French crown were in arms against the king: the Bukes of Brit- 
tany, Burgundy, Alen^on, Bourbon, tiie Count of I>anois, the 
families of Foiz and Armagnac, and at the head of all, 
Charles, Buke of Berry, the king's brother and presumptiye 
heir. This great armament for tJie Public Weal was the last 
struggle of the aristocracy to preserve their independence. 
Yet the faithful adherence of Paris, then already the soul and 
heart's blood of France, and the blunders of the idlies after the 
indecisive battle at Montlhery, restored Louis to pow^r and 
to revenge. That crafty politiciam m the treaty of Confiaas, lull- 
ed his enemies into sleep by his liberal concessions, by his ap- 
panages, and life rents : — ^whole provinces, with commainds of 
troops, were dealt out among his covetous and short-sighted 
opponents. Thus all Normimdy, the most im^portant province 
of France, was aj^rently given away to the Duke of Berry ; 
other concessions were made to Charles of Burgundy and the 
rest. But Louis waited his time— and he crushed them all 
with a vigor that at once discloses the reckless fortitude of 
his mind ; the duchy of Alea^on was confiscated, the Count 
of Armagnac asBassinated ; the IHike of Nemours, and the 
intriguing Constable of St. Pol, perished on the scaffold. 
Charles of Berry was poisoned, in Guienne, in 1 472, by the 
contrivance of King Louis. The headstrong Charles of Bur- 
gundy was shrewdly baited on the Swiss, and immediately 


after his fall, at Nancy, in 1477, Lonis seised on tbe duchy 
and county of Burgundy, on the cities on the Somme, in 
Picardy, and only the sharp lance of the chivalrous Maximi- 
lian of Austria, the bridegroom of Mary of Burgundy, could 
save the Low Countries, in 1478. The sword, the axe, the 
rope, and the poison, of Louis XI. had proved successful ; on 
his death-bed, at the gloomy castle of Plessis-les-Tours, on the 
Loire, in 1483, surrounded by all the furies of a conscience 
loaded with crimes, the old sinner bequeathed to his son, 
Charles YIII., a united France, an improved administration 
and army, an obsequious parliament, a humbled and trembling 
nobility, a faithful and prosperous bourgoisie, and the preten- 
sions of the crown to an absolute monarchy, under which 
France at once enters on the stage of modem history. 

509. Cities, Castles, and Histobical Sites. — Montlk^ry 
(306), a superb Gothic castle, two leagues southwest of Paris, 
on the west of the Seine, between Rambouillet and £tampes, 
where wasfoilght the singular battle on the 16th July, 1465, 
between King Louis XL and Charles ilie Bash, then Count of 
Charolais (497), and the other chiefs of the League, for the 
Public WeaL Louis routed the left wing of the hostile army 
under the Count of Saint Pol, whilst the impetuous Charles 
bore down the French centre and left wing, under the cow- 
ardly Duke of Maine, but was himself wounded in the throat, 
and in imminent danger of beii^ unhorsed and captured. 
Charles announced his vain triumph by sound of trumpets and 
ehivalroud show — ^but the prudent Louis obtained all ilie 
fruits of victory by occupying Paris, and shrewdly flattering 
the fickle Parisians into fidelity and enthusiasm for his cause. 
Conflans^ near the Yincennes, south of Paris, on the eastern 
bank of the Seine, Here, on the 29th October, 1465, the 
treacherous peace between Louis XL and the confederates was 
concluded, which apparently placed the finest provinces into 
their hands. Peronne-la-Fltcdle — ^the Virgin Castle **• — a 

*** Th« citicezifl of Peronne were proad of the maiden name of theit 


strong fortress on the right bank of the Somme, in Picardy, 
where, on the 9th of October, 1468, Louis XI., while playing 
his double game against Charles of Burgundy, was made the 
prisoner of the latter, and placed in that awkward position so 
admirably delineated in the Quentin Durward of Sir Walter 
Scott. It was on the return of Louis to Paris, from his dis- 
graceful capture at Peronne, that he was receiyed by the sa- 
lute of Peronne ! Feronne ! by hundreds of prattling magpies 
and parrots, whom the witty and sarcastic Parisians had 
taught this taunting welcome to their outwitted monarch. 
Treves y on the Moselle, the scene of the pompous inter- 
view between Charles the Bash and the old Emperor Fre- 
deric III. of Germany, September 19th, 1473, during which 
all the preparations for the coronation of Charles as King of 
Burgundy, were made, when the wary Emperor silently stole 
away with his Germans, and crossed the Ehine as a fugi- 
tive. Nancy ^ the 'capital of Lorraine, in vain besieged by 
Charles during winter, 1477. At Yireley^ near Nancy, was, 
on January 7, 1477, fought the battle against the Duke B6n6 
of Lorraine, and the Swiss, which Charles the Hash lost by 
the treachery of the Neapolitan Count Campobasso. While 
fleeing from the battle field, the duke sank with his barbed 
horse into the frozen morass, and was cut down by the pursu- 
ing enemies. His disfigured body was discovered and recog- 
nized several days after the battle, and buried in Nancy by 
the Duke Rene. Chiinegate^ west of Terouenne, in Flanders, 
where the young brilliant Maximilian of Austria, immediately 
after his marriage with Mary of Burgundy, met the French 
army of Louis XL, on the 7th of August, 1479. The French 
were ridden down by the German and Dutch knights j they 
fled on the spur, and that action took the significant name of 

town. It withstood victoriously every siege, and repelled the nnmer- 
OQB and warlike troops of Henry of Nassau, in 1563. But it lost its 
fmcellage in June, 1816, to the Duke of Wellington, when he took the 
fortress on the general consternation produced hj the battle of Wa- 


the battle of the spurs — the last, in which the French spurred 
out of the middle ages ! 

510. The Ecclesiastical Division op France in 1^22. 
— In consequence of the crusades against the Waldenses and 
Albigenses in southern France during the thirteenth century, 
some important changes in the Church goyernment of the 
southern proyinces were undertaken by Pope John XXII., 
— 1316-1334, — ^which afterwards remained unchanged until 
the great revolution of 1789. Alby (391, YI. 3,) became 
separated horn Bourges, and raised to a metropolitan see, to 
which were added the suffragan churches of CakorSj RkodeZj 
and Mende. Castres and Valfres were erected into bishoprics, 
and likewise placed under Albj. Toulouse was formed into 
an archbishopric ; and the episcopal churches of Montaubany 
IjombeZy Rieux, Saint Pepouly Pamiers^ and MirepoiXj were 
assigned as its suffragans, while the ancient see of Narbonne 
(392, X.), received as indemnification the newly established 
bishoprics of Aleth and JSaint Pons. In the west, the too 
extensive diocese of Poitiers (391, IV., 1,) became divided 
into three, and that of Agen (391, lY. 5,) into two bishoprics, 
by the erection of the suffiragan churches of Maillezais, 
Luqon^ Sarlat, and Condom, in 1317, by a bull of John 
XXII., in which all four were placed under the See of Bor- 

VII. Romano-Germanic Empire. 


to the close op the middle ages. 

511. Germany, under the Luxemburgian, Bavarian, 
AND Austrian Dynasties. — In France monarchy had become 
consolidated. In Germany, the imperial power was lost with 
Frederic II. ; and though the shadow of an empire was still 
kept up, yet Germany consisted in reality of nearly two hun- 
dred independent rulers, princes ecclesiastical and secular, 
nobles of different ranks, and free cities of the empire. Fre- 


the west, Pomerania^ the Neumark^ Latisitz and Silesia 
had been annexed on the east. In the north, the county of 
Holstein had, as a G-erman fief, been united with the Danish 
crown, shortly after the accession of Count Christian of 01- 
denborg to the throne of that kingdom, in 1448, and was 
some years afterwards, in 1474, erected into a duchy (436). 
In the south, the powerful Dukes of Savoy, already extending 
their possessions into Italy, still recognized their dependence 
on the empire; but the Swiss mountaineers had, by their 
victories at Morgarten,in 1315, at Sempaoh, 1386, and Nafels, 
1388, thrown off the Austrian yoke, conquered and occupied 
all the hereditary lands of the Habsburg family in the Aar- 
gau and Thurgau, and constituted their glorious confedera- 
tion of the eight old cantons. The relations to Italy had 
been temporarily renewed during the campaigns of Henry 
YII. and Louis of Bavaria. Charles lY. took the imperial 
crown in Bome, a.d. 1355 ; but this was only pageantry, void 
of any real political influence, and Italy, was, in 1453, almost 
entirely independent of the German empire. 

513. The Electoks of the Empire ani> their Digni- 
ties.— The Golden Bull,*" published by Charles IV., in 1356, 
sanctioned all the rights and privileges which the great vas* 

"'"This celebrated statute received that name from the OMen Seal 
affixed to it. It exempted the electoral domains from the imperial ju- 
risdiction ; gave the electors regalian rights over the mines, coins, and 
taxation, and insured their pre-eminence .over all the other princes. 
It gave likewise some regulations concerning the general peace — Land- 
fried&^ixd decreed that after a proclamation made three days pre- 
viously, the right of warfare among the princes of the empire should 
be declared and enforced. Yet the Golden Bull did not define more 
minutely the relations of the emperor to the states, nor those of the 
lower nobility and the cities to the electors, and became, therefore, by 
its indefiniteness, the cause of all the subsequent feuds of the noinlity 
against the princes, and those large confederacies of barons and repnb 
lican cities, which, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, waged 
an almost continnal war with one another. 


sals had usurped. Tlie electors were seven, ranking in the 
following order : I. the Archbishop of Mainz (Majence), as 
Arch- Chancellor of Germany. He possessed, as sovereign 
prince, the territories of Mainz, on the Khine and Mayn ; 
Askaffenburgj with a large tract on the Upper Mayn, in 
Franconia; besides Marburg^ Erfurthj Eichsfeld, Frizlar, 
and some fiefs oh the Rhine and in Lorraine. II. the Arch- 
bishop of Treves, as Arch- Chancellor of Burgundy, with an 
extensive territory on the Moselle. III. the Archbishop of 
Cologne, as Arch-Chancellor of Italy, with the duchy of 
Westphalia, IV. the King of Bohemia, as Arch-Seneschal. 
V. The Count-Palatine of the Bhine, as Arch-Sewer. VI. 
The Duke of S axe- Wittenberg, as Arch- Marshal (with 
the exclusion of the ducal line of Saxe-Lauenburg) ; and, 
finally, VII. The Margrave of Brandenburg. The votes of 
the seven electors were for ever united to their territories, 
which were considered as inalienable- feudal possessions of 
the empire. 

614. IV. Division op the States and Free Cities op 
the Empire. — The kingdom of Bohemia, with the LaiisitZy 
Silesia, and Moravia, the two latter not belonging directly 
to the empire. The Bohemians, in their hate against the 
grasping house of Austria, which asserted a claim upon the 
kingdom, gave, in 1311, the heiress of the throne, Elizabeth, 
the granddaughter of King Ottocar, in marriage to the 
chivalrous John of Luxemburg, son of Henry VII. By this 
nearer connection with Germany, the manners and language 
of the Czechs underwent great changes, and even the laws of 
Bohemia became written in the German tongue. Its bril- 
liant era was enjoyed by that beautiful country under the active 
and, for his own hereditary kingdom, highly beneficent Charles 
IV., the son of John of Luxemburg— 1346-1378. Prague 
(399) became then the capital of Germany. Charles embelr 
lished his favorite city with magnificent churches and palaces, 
and founded, in 1371, its celebrated university. His son and 


saeoessor, Wenoeslana, despised and deposed in Gkrmanj, 
reformed the laws of Bohemia, and substituted the national 
language in the different courts of justice. John Huss and 
Jerome of Prague flourished during his reign ; but the mass 
of the inhabitants were too ignorant to appreciate their vir- 
tues, talents, and noble disinterestedness, nor their wise and 
enlightened views concerning religious reform. It was not 
until after their awful execution at Constance, in 1413-14, 
that their partisans, the Hussites^ under the command of that 
astonishing warrior, John of Trocznow, now called Zisca — the 
One-eyed—- demanded the reform, sword in hand, and began 
those bloody and devastating Hussite wars, which, from 1414 
to 1434, spread death and destruction over all the neighbor- 
ing countries. Under the admirable governor, and afterwards 
king, George Podiebrad, who was elected regent during the 
minority of the young Wladislaw, son of King Albert of 
Oermany, but who himself mounted the throne in 1458, by the 
vote of the people; Bohemia quickly recovered from the 
wounds of the religious war. Her cities were rebuilt; her 
agriculture, commerce, and industry became flourishing, and 
her Protestant population, then forming the great majority 
of the nation, enjoyed quietly their liberties and privileges, so 
stoutly defended, until tiiey afterwards, during an eventful 
period in modem history, were undermined and annihilated 
by treacherous Austria. 

515. Cities and Historical Sites in Bohemu. — Phagub 
(Praha, Praga, Prag), the ancient and beautiful capital of Bo- 
hemia, is situated on the river Holdau, which traverses the 
city and divides it into four quarters : Hradschifij or Upper 
Town, and Kleinseite^ or Small Side, on the left, and Alt-stadt 
and Net^stadtj on the right bank. A magnificent stone bridge, 
supported by sixteen arches, and adorned with twenty-eight 
oolossal statues of saints, was built by the Emperor Charles 
lY., in the year 1338, across the river. It unites the Hrad- 
schin with the Old Town, and the access to it is fortified with 

EIGHTH PERI01>.-^BOHranA. 619 

hi^ and picturesque towers. On the commanding heights of 
the Hradsehin stand the superb Gothic cathedral and the im- 
mense castle and palace of the Bohemian kings, and on the 
market-place, in the Old City, the Carolinian university, with 
its rich library of Bohemian manuscripts, and the Gothic town- 
hall of that period. The infuriated Hussites stormed that 
building in July, 1419, and threw down from the windows the 
hostile senators, who were caught on the lance points of the 
multitude below. The old King Wenceslaus, beholding this 
horrible scene from his balcony, fell dead in a fit of anguish 
and despair. Mount Zigca (Wissehrad), south of Prague, 
where that blind and maimed Chief of the Hussites formed 
bis impregnable camp, and defeated King Sigismund and his 
ohiTalry of Germany on the 14th of July, 1420. HussinecZj 
a small town on the frontiers of Bavaria, was the. birthplace 
of John Httss. Mount Hradistic, in the province of Bechinsko, 
on a branch of the river Wultava, became the gathering place 
and the stronghold of the Hussites, who called their fortress 
Mount Tabor, and took themselves the name of Taborites. 
Trocznaw, south of Mount Tabor, was the paternal castle of 
the terrible Zisca. Kuttenberg^ east on the Upper Order, lay. 
in a mountainous region^ whose rich silver mines were disco- 
vered toward the beginning of the fourteenth century. Charles 
lY. drew from them the most abundant revenues of his king- 
dom. Carlstein, a magnificent castle on the Moldau, south- 
west of Prague, built by Charles lY., where the Bohemian 
erown jewels were kept. Carlsbad, on the Tepel, northwest 
of Prague^ in a beautiful valley, surrounded by high wood- 
clad mountains, beeame famous from the time of Charles lY., 
by the accidental discovery of the hot springs in 1458, while 
the king was enjoying a stag-hunting near the boiling pool. 
Brix, Aussig, Soots, Deutsch-Brod, Mies and Tauss were 
cities celebrated by the astounding victories of the Hussites, 
who there, with their iron-shod flails, mowed down the proudest 
knights of Germany, and frustrated all the attempts of the 
German princes to quell their insurrection, until ^e fanatie 


Taborites, after the death of Zisca, before Przybislaw, in 1 424, 
fell into fends among themselyes. Thns weakened, they were 
at last surrounded and totally routed at Bohmisch-Brod by 
the Catholic party, at Prague, in 1434. Their able generals, 
the two Procopii, fell, and, after another defeat at Lomnicza, 
they were forced to surrender Mount Tabor and their other 
strongholds, and do homage to King Sigismund, in 1436. 

516. Attached to the royal crown of Bohemia were the 
three provinces of MonAViA, Silesia, and the Lausitz. I. 
The Margrayate of Moravia (Maehren), was so called from 
the river Morava (March), which flows through its plains, and 
discharges into the Danube. Moravia formed, at the time of 
the dismemberment of the Oarlovingian empire, a powerful 
state under the able Prince Swatopluk. It extended through 
Avaria to Belgrade on the Danube. But it was soon de- 
stroyed by the invasions of the Hungarians and fche unpolitio 
divisions among the sons of Swatopluk. It became later, 
under the Bohemian kings, a margravai,e^ or border county, 
against the Poles and Hungarians, and was dreadfully devas- 
tated by the incursions of the Hussites. The mass of its 
inhabitants belonged to the Sclavonian race, though many 
German colonies had early been settled in the country. The 
Sclavonians themselves were divided into several branches. 
The HannackSy StraniackSy Slowacks or Chrawats, Horacks^ 
and WallackSy who all could be distinguished from one 
another by their dialects, customs, and dress. The Stran- 
iacks inhabited the frontier districts of Hungary. The 
Wallacks early migrated from the Carpathians ; they spoke 
the Bohemian dialect, and wore the Hungarian costume; 
they lived mostly in the immense forests of the mountain 
region, and carried on a lucrative trade in wood and tinder. 
The Hannacks were occupied with cattle-breeding. The 
language of the Moravo-Sclavonians, though a corrupt dialect 
of the BohemoPolish, has its own literature, and is described 
as excelling the other Slavic dialects in harmony and soft- 


ness. Cities were : Br'no (BrGnn), the capital of the border 
counts, Holomtccz (Olmutz), the archiepiscopal see for Mo- 
ravia. Iglau, situated in a wild and mountainous region, 
was the place where the Emperor Sigismund, in 1434, made 
peace with the Hussites, and was recognized as King of Bo- 
hemia. Kremsier, Znaym, and Hradisch, were likewise 
cities of some note. 

II. Silesia, extending all along the eastern frontiers of 
Moravia and Bohemia, had become united to the Bohemian 
crown in 1 435-1 45,5 (446). This fertile and beautiful province, 
which, during the period we describe, was the El-dorado of 
G-erman emigration, in the same manner as the United States, 
California and New Holland are at the present day, became soon 
Germanized, industrious and wealthy. Its mines were worked, 
and its natural products found ready markets in Germany, 
Poland, and Russia. Breslait, the ancient ducal capital, on 
the Oder, Glogau, Liegnitz, Brieg^ Neisse^ Oppeln, and 
Teschen, were flourishing commercial cities. The estates ob- 
tained from King Wladislaw, in 1498, extensive territorial 
privileges — Landesfreiheiten — which circum»ribed the juris- 
diction of the king and the feudal military service which the 
vassals were bound to render annually. All the German 
traffic with Poland passed through Breslaw. Its active cit- 
izens bought with ready money the enfranchisement of their 
town, and enjoyed an almost republican form of government. 
III. The principality of Lausitz, on the north of Bohemia, 
was likewise a precious acquisition from Poland, both on ac- 
count of its fertility and its advantageous position, thus uniting 
Bohemia, on the north, with Brandenburg, another of the 
immense territories which the covetous and grasping dynasty 
of Luxemburg, temporarily at least, succeeded in bringing 
under its sceptre. 

517. V. The margraviate of Brandenburg was bordered 
on the north by Mecklenburg and Wolgast, on the east by 
Poland, south by the Lausitz and Saxony-Wittenberg, and , 


east by the episcopal see of Magdeburg and the duchy of 
Loneburg. Its political division was into Altmarkj PriegnitZj 
Ukertnark, MUtdmark, Neumark, and the three smaller 
districts of Lebus, west of the Oder, Sternberg, on the oppo- 
site shore, and Cottbus, a territory inclosed within the pro- 
yince of Lausitz. 

During the fierce wars against the Sclayonians, Count 
Albert of Aschersleben (Ascania), called the Bear, conquered, in 
1 133, the town of Brannibor (Brandenburg) from the Wilzes and 
Welatabes (188, 389, II.), and received, in 1150, from the 
Emperor Conrad III., the title of elector and margrave. The 
whole Nordmark, as the county was then called, was still 
covered with marshes, heaths, and forests. Albert undertook 
to clear the land ; he built towns, which he peopled with nu- 
merous colonies of Germans, who had settled in Holland, but 
were obliged, in consequence of the inundation of the sea, to 
quit that country (497). Christianity was spread among the 
Slavi, and established in the Nordmark during his reign. 
He erected churches and monasteries, endowed schools, and 
labored to civiliie and enlighten his barbarous subjects. He 
was the true founder of the margraviate of Brandenburg, for 
before his time the different border counts were only appointed 
during life by the emperor, and Albert was the first for 
whom it was erected into an imperial fief His successors 
promoted the cultivation of the country, which they extended 
by conquests ; Neumark^ on the east of the Elbe, was wrested 
from Poland (380) ; the Ukermark^ from Pomerania, in 
1256; and Otto III. of Brandenburg, obtained by marriage 
the Upper Lausitz from Bohemia. When, at last, the As- 
canian line of Anhalt became extinct, in 1320, the neighboring 
princes were immediately at hand, ready to divide the rich 
spoils ; yet the active conqueror, Louis of Bavaria, perceiving 
the favorable opportunity to augment the influence of his 
house, declared at the diet of Nttmberg, in 1323, Branden- 
burg to be an escheated fief of the empire, and gave it to 
his son Louis. This sudden extension of the Bavarian dy* 


nasty in the north of Germany became a thorn in the eyes 
of all the neighboring Low-German princes. Their hate and 
envy broke out into open hostility, when Margrave Louis 
of Brandenburg) in 1335, married Margaret Maultasch, the 
heiress of the county of Tyrol, in the Alps. Yet Louis stood 
bis ground ; with the support of Denmark he defeated all his 
adversaries; and it was not until, in the year 1365, that 
Charles IV. of Bohemia, partly by force and partly by money, 
obtained the cession of Mark Brandenburg from Otho, the 
brother and successor of Louis. Puring so many feuds and 
troubles, the country had suffered dreadfully ; the people had 
become oppressed with taxes and debts ; vast tracts of land 
lay entirely waste. Here a new field opened for so active 
and organizing a mind as that of the Luxemburger. With 
laudable zeal and prudence he attended to the improvement 
and prosperity of his Brandenburg dominions. The whole 
territory combined, at that period, three provinces : I. Mar- 
CHIA Transalberana, or the Altmark^ west of the Elbe, 
with the ancient capital Saizwedd. II. Marchta Media, 
ilie Mittelmarky the country between the Elbe and the Oder, 
comprising Friegnitz and Ukermark, on the north, with the 
cities Brandenburg, ffavelberg^ Berlin, Colin, Bernau, and 
Frenzlau; and III. Marchia Transoderna, or the Neih 
mark, on the frontiers of Poland, with the cities Wedel, 
Soldin, Bernstedt, and JFHedland. King Wenceslaus gave 
Brandenburg to his brother Sigismund, who, already King of 
Hungary, was elected emperor by the interest and good offices 
of Frederic, Count of HohenzoUern and Burgrave of NOm- 
berg. But the emperor, being lavish of his treasures, 
and always in difficulties for want of money, ceded to the 
Count of HohenzoUern, in 1415, the state of Brandenburg as 
a hereditary fief, with the privileges of the electoral dignity, 
for the comparatively paltry sum of 150,000 gold florins. 
With this remarkable financial operation, the prudent Fre- 
deric I., now Elector of Brandenburg, laid the foundation of 
the mighty Prussian monarchy, which his descendants, th« 


Hohenzollerns, possess to the present day. Frederic II., 
who followed his father from 1440 to 1470, directed his whole 
attention to the future development of the country ; and his 
long reign was highly heneficial to its commerce, industry, and 
agriculture ;- nor did he neglect to encourage the education 
and chivalrous virtues of the higher classes. He instituted, 
in 1443, the order of the Swan-knights, chain-bearers of the 
fair ladies ; and he recovered the Neumark from the Teutonic 
Order in Prussia, to whom Sigismund had mortgaged it, in 
1 402 (380). Thus Brandenburg appears in a very prosperous 
state at the close of the middle ages ; and its importance in 
the political balance of the European powers became fully 
secured in the sixteenth century by the marriage of the 
Duchess Anna of Prussia with the Elector John Sigismund 
of Brandenburg. Its cities, however, were not of great mo- 
ment in this early period (398). Salzwedel was the an- 
cient capital of the Ascanian princes. Brannibor (Branden- 
burg), on the Havel, a Sclavonian fortress, gave its name to 
the principality. FostdepHmi (Postzein), on an island formed 
by the confluence of the Buth and the Havel, an ancient set- 
tlement of the Wiltzes, became afterwards the magnificent 
Potsdam of the great Frederic II. of Prussia. Berlin, in a 
sandy desert, on the Spree, opposite to Colin, was founded 
by Count Albert, in 1163, and rose slowly to its present im 
portance. Bernau, in the Mittelmark, withstood gallantly 
the attack of the Hussites ; it owed its industry and wealth 
to the fugitive French Huguenots, who found there a refuge 
during the religious wars of the sixteenth century. 

518. VI. The Electorate and Duchy of S axe- Witten- 
berg — Ku/r Sachsen — comprised the lands on the Upper 
Elbe, Misnia, and Thuringia (398) ; to it was attached the 
electoral dignity and the office of hereditary marshal of the 
empire. On the extinction of the Ascanian house (396, III.), 
in 1423, Frederic the Warlike, Margrave of Misnia, was in- 
vested with the duchy. It was then at the height of the Hus- 


site var, and the countries on the Elbe were continually ex- 
posed to the invasions of the Bohemian fanatics ; yet Frederic 
opposed them victoriously, and obtaining new enfeoffments 
£rom the emperor, he became, by the strength of his rich 
principalities, the splendor of his dignity united to his great 
personal qualities, one of the most powerful princes in Germany. 
He was succeeded in his electoral dominions by his son, Frederic 
the Mild — 1428-1464— who, disputing with his brother Wil- 
liam, the inheritance of Thuringia, caused the outbreak of that 
bloody war, the Brothers^ feud, which, for ^^q years, brought 
desolation over the most fertile civilized regions of Germany. 
His sons, Albert and £mest, joined in ,1482, the Thuringian 
possessions of their uncle William to Saxony and Misnia, and 
became the founders of the Albertine and Ernestine dynasties 
of modern Saxony.*" 

The electoral dignity was inherited by Ernest, who possess- 
ed the eastern portion of the county, on the Elbe and part of 
southwestern Thuringia — ^this was then called Electoral Saxony, 
or Kur Sachsen. He was succeeded by his son, Frederic the 
Wise, who founded, in 1502, the university of Wittenberg, 
where the great theologians, Luther and Melancthon, com- 
menced the Reformation of the Church in 1517. 

519. Cities and Historical Sites. — ^Wittenberg, on 
the right bank of the Elbe, was the capital of the Ascanian 
Dukes. From this city the duchy took its name of Saxe- 
Wittenberg. Dresden, south of Wittenberg, on the Elbe 
(247), became the residence of the Albertine Princes, while 
Weimar, on the Ilm, was chosen as capital by the Ernestini- 
ans. Wdrtburgf the celebrated castle near Eisenach, was the 
earlier residence of the Landgraves of Thuringia. It was 
from the towers of this fortress that Margaret of Hohenstau- 

"• The Albertine line still reigns in the present small kingdom ot 
Sftxony ; while the Ernestine branch has become subdivided into the 
firar 'sovere^n houses of Ba^f^Altenbur^, Cobur^GothOf Meiningen, 
And WHmaff 



fen, thei daughter of Frederic II. , descended in disgaise to es- 
cape from the dagger of her adulterous husband, Margrave Al- 
bert the Wicked, in 1271. While giving her children the part- 
ing embrace, the unhappy ladj, in her frantic despair, bit her 
little son, Frederic, in the cheek, and that chivalrous prince 
was afterwards called Frederic with the Bitten Cheek — Frier 
derich mit der gebissenen Wange, Lucau (Lucka), southwest 
of Leipzic, where this Frederic and his brother, Diezmann, in 
1298, totally defeated the usurper Adolph, of Nassau, who 
had purchased Thuringia, their inheritance, from their unna> 
tural father, Albert the Wicked. Leipzig^ on the Elster, was 
then already a thriving commercial city Here Diezmann, the 
younger brother of Frederic, was assassinated before the al- 
tar, in January, 1308, by Philip of Nassau, the imperial com- 
mander of Albert of Austria. The university of Leipzig was 
founded in' 1409, and became flourishing on the outbreak of 
the Hussite troubles in Bohemia, when thousands of German 
'students with their professors, abandoned the high school of 
Prague, and took their residence in Leipzig. Borna, south 
of Leipzig, where Frederic the Bitten destroyed the Austrian 
bands of King Albert I., in a chivalrous battle, January, 
1308, and unhorsed and slew with his own hand, the per- 
fidious Philip of Nassau, the murderer of his brother. Alten- 
burg^ a beautiful castle, south of Borna, where the Knight 
Kunz of Kaufungen, during the Brothers* feud, in 1453, at- 
tempted to kidnap Albert and Ernest, the two yotfng Saxon 
princes. The boys were hurried off into the Thuringer forest, 
but there rescued by a stout coal-heaver, to whom they made 
themselves known. Kunz, the robber, was beheaded in Alten- 
burg. Wettin, on the Saale, the residence of the earlier Sax- 
on princes. Eisleben, in the county of Mansfeld, was the 
birthplace of the great Reformer, Martin Luther, November 
10th, 1483. Freiberg, Schneeberg, and Annaherg, on the 
northern slope of the Erz- Gebirge^ were mining towns, whose 
Hch silver ores, discovered toward the middle of the fifteenth 
century, furnished large revenues to the Dukes of Saxony, yet 


the civil feuds and the extrayagance of the times, swallowed 
up all their treasure, and the people were not the less op- 
pressed by onerous tributes and taxes, the invention of 
that age. * 

520. VII. Electoeate and Palatinate op the Khine — 
Rhein-PfcUz — ^formed part of the ancient duchy of FranconU, 
which, like Souabia, was dismembered on the downfall of the 
Hohenstaufens (399). It embraced two different provinces, 
which were separated from each other by many secular and 
ecclesiastic states in Central Eranconia. I., the Palatinate 
on the Ehine, or Lower Palatinate— P/a/z am Rhein — 
was situated on both sides of that river, and bounded by 
Wurtemberg, Baden, Alsace, Lorraine, Treves, and Hesse. 
II., the Upper Palatinate, or Ober-Pfalz, on the east, was 
surrounded by Bohemia, Bavaria, and Niirnberg. The Counts 
Palatine had obtained, as far back as the eleventh century 
(399, IX.), the hereditary sovereignty and its dependent prin- 
cipalities, which they augmented with the county of ZweibrU' 
cken and the city of Heidelberg. Frederic II. gave the Pala- 
tinate to Louis of Bavaria, and it remained undivided with 
Bavaria until 1329, when the Emperor Louis TV. of Bavaria, 
in the treaty of Pavia, conferred it on the sons and relatives 
of his brother. The electoral dignity was attached to the 
Ehein Pfalz, whose Oount was invested with the judiciary 
power of the empire in case of absence of the Emperor. 
Though divided into four lines, the Palatinate was considered 
as a united state. These lines were, I., the Electorate on 
THE Rhine — Kur-Rhein, II., Sulzbach, or U^er Falati- 
note, established by Count John, whose son, Christopher, be- 
came King of the Calmarian Union, 1439-1448 (438, 444), 
when his lands fell back to the Electorate. IIL, Simmern, 
with the counties Veldenz and Spanheim^ on the Rhine, 

••^ The remaining Simmern line became united with Kur-Rhein un- 
der the unhappy Mector-Palatine Frederic V., in 1620, who, having 
been induced by the Protestant party, then in anns against Austria, 


nortli of the Electorate. Mossbach, on tlie Neckar, in Son&- 
bia, became extinct with Count Otho IL, and reyerted in 
1499 to the Electorate. 

521. Cities and Battle-fields in the Rhine-Province. 
-—Heidelberg, in a magnificent site on the Neckar, was the 
capital of the Electors. Crermersheim, on the Bhine, where 
King Bndolph of Habsburg expired, 30th Sept., 1291. At 
Crellheim, west of Worms, was fDught the fierce equestrian 
battle, July 2, 1293, in which Albert I. of Austria, with hiB 
lance, unhorsed and slew his rival, Adolph of Nassau, and thus 
conquered the German crown. In the Upper Palatinate — ^ 
Sulzbachy Leuchtenberg, and Amberg. Tratisnitz, a gloomy 
castle, where Frederic the Handsome of Austria was kept as 
a prisoner of war after the great battle at Amfingen, in Sept., 
1322; here, too, the noble-minded victor, Louis of Bavaria, 
visited and embraced his fallen enemy, and offered him to 
share the imperial dignity. HiUersried^ southeast of Trans- 
nitz, at the foot of the Bdhmer-Wald, the battle-field on which 
the Count Palatine John, in 1 433, gained i\iQ first victory over 
the Hussite fanatics of Bohemia. The Palatinate was one of 
the most fertile and best cultivated regions of Grermany, not- 
withstanding the ravages of war it suffered at different times. 
Such was the condition of the seven Electorates about 1453 : 
we shall now proceed to describe the Duchies. 

522. The German Empire comprised also one archduchy, 
that of Atistria^ and eighteen duchies : 1, Styria ; 2, Car- 
niola; 3, Carintkia; 4, Bavaria; 6, WUrtemberg ; 6, Lor- 
Gtieiders ; 11, CUves ; 12, Julich ; 13, Berg ; 14, Bruns- 

raine ; 7, Lua^emburg ; 8, Idmburg ; 9, Brabant ; 10, 
to accept the crown of Bohemia, was defeated by General Tilly, on 
the White Mount) near Prague, and expelled from his dominions. These, 
with the electoral dignity, were then, by Kmperor Ferdinand JL, 
awarded to Bayaria, with whom all the Upper Palatinate and part 
of the Bhenish pravince, remain at the present day. 


iriC'lAinelmrg ; 15, Hdlstein^ "With Stormarn; 16, Saxce- 
Lauenburg ; 17, Msckienburg ; and 18, FoTnerania, 


Frederic Barbarossa had raised the Marca-OrierUalis — Oes- 
terrich — ^into an Archdudby (399, VIII.), which remained in 
the possession of the house of Babenberg (396, IX.) until its 
extinction in 1246. During the disorders of the interregnum 
which followed on the death of Frederic II. of Hohenstaufen, 
King Ottocar Przemysl of Bohemia occupied Austria, Carin- 
thia, Camiola and Styria, but in his struggle to maintain his 
conquest against the newly-elected Emperor of Gkrmany, Ru- 
dolph of Habsburg, he lost his crown and his life in the battle 
at Stillfried in 1278, and Budolph invested his sons Albert 
and Budolph with the aovereignty of the conquered territories, 
which thenceforth remained the yery centre and strength of 
the Habsburg dominions.^ 

The eminent services rendered by Budolph I. for the in- 
ternal tranquillity and reorganization of the empire had gained 
him the confidence and esteem of princes and people, and the 
German States did not object to Ms laying the foundation of 
a vast hereditary power. Yet the fear of Austrian supremacy 

*" Rudolph of Habsburg, the ancestor of the Austrian dynasty 
(1218-1291), held that title from the castle and county of Habsburg — 
JIabichtslntrg, or Hawks Oastle-M>n the Aar, in ihe Aar«Gaa of the 
ancient duchy of Souabia. In 1264 he succeeded to the inheritance of 
his maternal uncle, the Count of Eyburg, which included the greater 
part of the Aar-Gau and portions of the upper lands in Burgundia 
Minor (Switzerland), Kyhurg^ JBaden, Lenzhurg, Zojingen, Griiningen, 
Freiburg, and Luzerne, the two latter of which afterwards became free 
Cantons under the Swiss Confederacy. Rudolph obtained besides the 
advocacy or protectorship of the Waldstddte, or Forest Cantons on the 
lake of Lucerne, which, together with the Zahringen estates and rights in 
Alsace, formed a considerable territory, though by no means equal to 
that of the great electoral princes of Germany. All the lands in Soua- 
bia and Burgundy were afterwards lost to the Habsburgers on the rise 
of the free-bom mountaineers against their tyrannical exactions. 



soon became uniyersal, and the Habsbnrg family was for more 
than a century — 1308-1438 — excluded from the succession, in 
spite of their strenuous exertions to recover their lost soyer- 
eignty. The Luxemburg (248, 396) and Wittelsbach (398, 
YI.) families occupied the imperial throne, and extended their 
dominion temporarily eyen oyer Bohemia, Hungary, and Bran- 
denburg ; yet Austrian politics, intrigues, and skilful marriage 
combinations prevailed at last, and with the active reign of 
Emperor Maximilian I. Austria obtained a permanent in- 
fluence, not only on the afiiurs of Germany, but on the entire 
political system of modem Europe, by the wonderful union of 
Germany, Burgundy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Italy, under 
the sceptre of the Habsburger Charles V.'^ 

Frederic III. reigned during an age of extraordinary 
events — ^when the European world was verging toward a tran- 
scendant change in social, intellectual, and commercial rela- 
tions. Yet, though he dared not draw his sword against the 
Ottoman power and save Constantinople, and he himself was 


Albert the Wise, 
Court of Hftbsbnrg tlMOi 

BuDOLPB, G. of H., LaDdgrave of 

Alaaoe, King (Emperor) of Germany. 


Albkrt L, 
Emperor, 129S-1808. 

JVtfdtfrlo the Handsome, Xeoj 
defoated at Amflngen, 1822. 

the Flower of Knighthood, Albert the Contracted, 
'atMoigarten,181&. tl858. 

Albert wWb the Cne, 
Archdnke of AuBtria, 

Albert, tl40i. 

Leopold the Brave, 

Duke of Souabla, 

slain at Sempach, 



King ofHangary,148T, 
Md of Bohemia, 1488, 
Emperor, 1488-1489. 


King of Hungary 

and Bohemia, 


Frederic, Ernest, Iron-heart, 

tl489. tl424 

» . / * > 

FxcnxRio IIL, with 
the Empty Pocket, 
W(dl|sang. 1440^1498. 

Bigismnnd, Coont of 
Tyrol, 1 1496. . 

Hazixilian L 

Philip the 


f " * » 

Ohaklm v. 


ao poor and penniless as scarcely to be able to protect himself 
against his own seditious Austrian subjects, he neyertkeless 
laid the profoundest plans for the future grandeur of his house, 
whose second founder he may be called, since he left their for* 
tunes incomparably more prosperous than they had been at 
his accession.**® 

524. The archduchy was then, as now, divided into, 1. Aus- 
tria above the Ens on the West, and II. Austria below the 
Ens on the East. Vienna (Wien), the capital, though still 
small in extent, was already a beautiful city, surrounded by 
admirable fortifications, and considered as the bulwark of 
Eastern Germany. Many splendid G-othic buildings adorned 
the inner city. The gigantic cathedral of Saint Stephen, one 
of the largest and loftiest churches of German architecture in 
the world, was erected in 1114, a standing memorial of the 
excellent taste, skilful workmanship, and wealth of the Aus- 
trian nation. It was then situated without the range of the 
city walls ; but Vienna increased rapidly, from the mercantile 
advantages of its situation on the Danube, and the liberal 
municipal laws and regulations granted to the citizens by Duke 
Albert with the Cue. A flourishing University was estab- 
lished there in 1365, and the lively and luxurious Viennese 
began early to adopt foreign fashions and habits, by the fre- 
qent intermarriages of their princes with French princesses, 
who soon transformed Vienna into the most jovial, sociable, 
and sensual city in Germany. The greart Hungarian King 
Matthias Corvinus, taking revenge on Frederic III. for his 

^' It was the timid and almost invisibld Frederic III. who adopted 
the proud device of Austria, A. E. O. I. IT., on his plate, books, and 
buildings, and left it to his sagacious successors to interpret the running 
vowels into: 

AtuMa "X? 8t T mper<ure f\ rbi TT niverso 

Om ^ rdreMi ^ at ^ esterreieh ^ tOerthan 

That is : Austria is to rule the whole world I " A bold assumption,** 
says Hallam, " for a man who was not safe in an inch of his do- 
minions 1 * 



632 mawm pekiob. — austru. 

brea^ of faith, attacked and took Vienna in 1 485, and re- 
sided there quite comfortably until his death in 1490, when 
the city was restored to Austria. At StUlfried, a village on 
the Marchfield, north of the Danube, the decisiye battle was 
fought between Rudolph of Habsburgand King Ottocar Prze- 
my si of Bohemia, August 26, 1278, in which the latter was 
defeated and killed, and Budolph secured the possession of 
the Austrian lands. CrtUtenstein, a beautiful castle in the 
Wiener Wald, southwest of Vienna, was the retreat of the 
unhappy Frederic the Handsome, who died there in 1330. 
Neicburg, Thdn, Molk^ with a magnificent Benedictine convent, 
and IdnZf were populous and commercial dties on the Danube; 
in the latter died Frederic III. in 1493. 

525. To Austria belonged the duchies of Sttria (Steyer- 
mark), Caeinthia (Kftrnthen), Garniola (Krain), and the 
Counties of Tyrol (Terioli) and Qokz (Gorizia). The former 
duchies had, according to the custom of the times, been given 
to the younger lines of the Habsburg House ; but they reverted 
to the Archducal crown during the fifteenth century. The 
county of Tyrol, situated among the highest Alps, on the fron- 
tiers of Lombardy, was inhabited by a poor l)ut brave and in- 
dustrious people of hunters and herdsmen, who through the 
storms of the middle ages had preserved their national inde- 
pendence, and forced the nobles possessing castles on the 
mountains to grant them their votes in the public assemblies 
and a liberal administration of justioe.^^* Inspritck (Bridge 
on the Inn), then a small village, belonged, together with other 
settlezfaents in the valley of the Inn, to the Counts of Andechs 
(396, XI.) Those of Meran, on the junction of the Adige 
and the Passayer were the most powerful nobles in TyroL 
The Countess Margaret Maultasch (with the large Mouth), 

^' The Tyrolians served as a model for the most ciyilized natioDB in 
Europe by their bravery, the purity of their morals, their honesty and 
piety, — ^and they still enjoy this honorable character at the present 


the heiresa of Tyrol, being vexy unsteady in her affections, 
gave her different husbands a good deal of trouble. After 
discarding her first husband, the Bohemian Prince John 
Henry, the tender lady married Louis, the Bavarian, Margrave 
of Brandenburg (515), who taking possession of Tyrol, as 
the estate of his wife, and carrying his arms into Garinthia 
and Gamiola, attempted to outflank Austria on its most ex- 
posed frontier. But Margaret, becoming soon tired of her 
bluff Bavarian, counteracted all his plans of aggrandizement, 
and transferred her rich inheritance to Budolph lY., Duke of 
Austria, in 1363. The Bavarian Dukes now flew to arms, 
and a civil war ensued ; but in the treaty of Schdrdingy in 
1369, they gave up their pretensions to the county for one 
hundred and sixteen thousand florins, and Tyrol remained 
thenceforth attached to Austria. It belonged, however, to the 
collateral lines until Duke Sigismund in 1489 ceded it to the 
Emperor Maximilian, who thus by the acquisition of Gorz 
with Gradisca, Millerbachf and the Pt^^er- Valley, united all 
the Austrian dominions directly under the crown in a. n. 

526. The duchy of Sttku is the most picturesque and 
romantic region of Germany ; its scenery presents a contin* 
uous alternation of lofty peaks, fearfdl precipices, flowery 
meadows, lovety valleys with rui^hing waterfalls, deep glassy 
lakes, castles, convents, and charming villages, inhabited by the 
stout, industrious and hospitable Steyermarhert, Oakimthu 
derives its wealth from its rich copper and iron mines. The 
Duchies were early peopled by the Slavic tribes of the jS/o* 
venzi and VendHi — Vendes — ^intermixed with the colonies of 
Avars, whom Charlemagne transported to Garinthia (178, 179), 
while in Styria the Germans, in course of time, superseded the 
Sclavonians. The principal cities were Gr^z, with a large for- 
tress on the river Mur, Elaoenfurt, Villach, and Latbach. 
Trieste was still the only Austrian port on the Mediter* 
ranean. MariazeUy in Styria, in a most romantic site, became 


a celebrated place of pilgrimage. Louis of Adjou, King of 
Hungary and Poland, built there the fine chnrch and convent, 
in which he deposited the image of the holy Virgin, by whose aid > 
he believed himself to have been saved in the nocturnal battle 
on Mount Hsemus, in 1362, in which the Polish and Hungarian 
army was defeated by the Ottoman Turks. Thousands of 
pilgrims from every part of the Austrian states still visit every 
year that beautiful spot. CiMey, near the Save, with a strong 
castle of Roman origin — ^the ancient Celeja — was the' resi- 
dence of the proud Oounts of Oilly (Cilley), who, as border- 
wardens, were intrusted with the defence of the frontiers 
against the incursions of the Hungarians, but often drew their 
swords against the Austrian Dukes themselves. The Counts 
of Gilly obtained large possessions in Sclavonia and Croatia^ 
and thus became feudatories of the Angevin Kings of Hun- 
gary, where their mortal hate against the noble family of the 
Hunyads caused the most fearful revolutions, and became the 
main cause of the downfaU of that country and the inauspicious 
success of the Ottoman arms on the Danube. 

627. IX. The duchy of Bavaeia (Bayem). This exten- 
sive principality, still more enlarged by the Palatinate on the 
Rhine*, parts of Franconia and the Nordgau, north of the 
Danube and bordering on Bohemia, had suffered the fate of 
Austria in becoming weakened, and having its development 
retarded by continual divisions in the Wittelsbach dynasty. 
The natural consequence of these endless partitions were civil 
feuds and open wars among the contending lines, or between 
the cities, clergy and nobles, who had almost the whole power 
of government in their hands. The Emperor Louis IV. of 
Upper Bavaria — 1313-1347 — sustained successfully the war 
with Austria, and the great victory of the Bavarians at Amp- 
fingen is the most glorious and interesting event in the annals 
of that nation. It was then the era of chivalry, poetry and 
art, which has been revived in the master-pieces of painting, 
sculpture and architecture now adorning Munich, the modem 


Athens of (xennaiiy. Louis, with all his faults, was an ablo 
and active monarch, a true Bavarian. He raised Munich to 
an imperial residence, revised the laws, encouraged agriculture 
and industry, by abolishing the serfdom of the peasantry and 
enlarging the privileges and municipal institutions of the towns. 
Yet he divided the Duchy among his sons, and thus /bwr sove- 
reign states sprung up in 1 349, which, toward the close of the 
Middle Ages, were reduced to two. These were— I. Bayern- 
Straubino, on the Danube, with the cities Straicbing and 
DeggeTidorf, II. Bayern-Landshut, on the east, bordering 
on Austria, and the Archiepiscbpal See of Salzburg^ with the 
capital Landshut on the Isar. Amfingen^ on the Inn, where 
on the 28th September, 1322, one of the most sanguinary 
battles of the Middle Ages was fought between the entire chi- 
valry- of Austria and Bavaria. The shock of some fifty thou- 
sand steel-clad horsemen, in serious tournament, was fearful ; 
the battle-field was already covered with heaps of slain, men 
and horses, still the fury of the combatants did not relax, 
when, toward sunset, the Bavarian rear-guard, commanded by 
the Burghgraf of Narnberg, with Austrian banners spread, 
wheeled full in the flank of the" astonished Frederic of Aus- 
tria, and completed the rout. Frederic, falling with his steed, 
was carried a prisoner to the Emperor Louis, the friebd and 
companion of his youth. The Austrians lost twenty thousand 
warriors, and the imperial crown remained with Bavaria."* 

^' Here again the Austrians were too slow*. Leopold with his 
Souabian chivalry were detained at the convent of Fiiratenfelde, esjoy- 
ing the strong wines of the monks, while the battle was at its height. 
His timely arrival would, no doubt, have turned the scale of for- 
tune. Yet the old Bavarian General Siegfried Schwepperman, who 
commanded in chie^ took advantage of tliis negligence to execute his 
stratagem. It is related that the victorious Bavarian army after the 
battle were without any provisions, having merely a small supply of 
eggs* which on being distributed among them, left but one for each 
man. The Emperor Louis on hearing this, exclaimed : "Well, give to 
every warrior his e^^, but to the brave Schwepperman give two ! " as 
A proof that to him alone was due the honor of the victory. 


III. Bayern Muenchen, weai of the formerf witk the nev 
capital Munich (MOnchen), on the Isar. Farstenfelde. west 
of Munich, where, on the Kaisawie9e^ or Emperor's Meadow, 
jLouis, the Bayarian, while hunting a bear, fell from his horse 
and expired on the spot, the 11th Oct.^ 1347. lY. Bayern 
Ingoldstadt, one part of which lay west of the fpnn^, wiUi 
Ingoldstadt and Nevburg^ on the Danube, and the other, south- 
east at the foot of the Alps, embracing the beautiful valley of 
the ZiUer- Thai. Cities were : Rattenburg and the fortress 
Knfstein, Hellenstedt, Giengen^ and KirMerg belonged 
likewise to Bayern Ingoldstadt 

628. X. The duchy of Wuertebibebg arose out of the dis- 
memberment of the Hohenstaufen duchy of Souabia, on the 
death of the young Conradino at Naples, 1268. Among the 
many small barons who then became independent, was the 
brave Souabian Knight, Ulrio with the Thumbs who, by per- 
severance and skill, united the most vakiable estates of central 
Souabia. Fortune smiled on his descendants, who soon got 
the better of the smaller proprietors, and by continual feuds 
against nobles and cities, enlarged their property. They were 
a haughty and ferocious race ; and Souabia presented, during 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the dismal scenes of 
war and devastation. Count Eberhard had for his motto, 
Grod^s friend, and every body^s enemy. At the diet at Spires, 
held by the Emperor Henry VII., of Luxemburg, on his ac- 
cession in 1306, Eberhard of Wfkrtemberg appeared in full 
armor, with a suite of two hundred horse. Without dismount- 
ing he proudly gave the declaration that he was nobody's vas- 
sal, and rode off again without saluting the Emperor. The 
insupportable arrogance of these Counts, and the public rob« 
beries they often permitted on the high roads against the tra- 
velling merchants, forced the citizens, with the assistance of 
the Swiss, to form the Souabian Alliance of thirty-four cities. 
The war broke out during the reign of Charles IV. of Bohemia. 
Tet, though the stout mountaineers of Switzerland defeated 


and slew Bojce Leopold of Austria, with all his glittering chi- 
yalrj, at Sempach, in 1386, the train-bands of armied burghers 
from the Sooabian cities were still unable to withstand the 
flower of the nobility in the open field, and Count Eberhard 
routed them with great slaughter at Doffingen, west of Stutt- 
gart. But those brave and persevering men did not lose cour- 
age ; they fortified their towns ; they broke many castles of 
the nobles ; they sought their refuge in the artillery, which 
they improved by new inventions, and the Ndmbergers be- 
came the best artillerymen in Germany. A general peace — 
Landfriede — ^was concluded in April, 1389, but the hostile 
relations between the free imperial cities and the nobility, con- 
tinued until the reign of Maximilian, at the close of the fif- 
teenth century. Stuttgart, the capital of the duchy, was 
built during this period, in the middle of a fruitful valley, 
surrounded by hills and vineyards, on the banks of the Nesen- 
bach. Heimsheim^ Weily and TuMngeny in the latter of 
which was erected the Souabian University, in 1477, aftejr the 
model of that of Bologna, in Italy. Oount Eberhard YI., dis- 
tinguished himself fevorably from the other princes of his war- 
tlike race ; he extended the rights of the cities ; called their de- 
puties together for consultation, and was indefatigable in pro- 
moting the happiness and welfetre of his people. He was 
highly esteemed by the Emperor Maximilian, who, at the diet 
at Worms, on the 21st July, 1495, conferred on him the title 
of Duke of Wurtemberg. The small county oi Mumpelgcurd^ 
on the frontiers of the Franohe-0omt6, souUi of Lorraine, be- 
longed to the duchy. 

529.. XI. The duchy of Lorraine still remained attached 
to the Empire. Yet the vicinity of France, and the pretensions 
of its intriguing Kings, afibrded opportunity for the Lorraine 
nobility to arrogate extensive privileges to themselves, whilst 
the influence of a higher civilization in France, and the chivalrous 
manners of the times, gradually alienated the Lorrainers from 
the mother country. The feudal relations continued, but the 


Dukes became intimately allied to France by marriage, and the 
acquisition of French territories, such as the duchy of Bar with 
lordships of Joinville and Bassiny^ which obliged them to fol- 
low the banner of the French Kings.*** We have already re- 
lated how Lorraine, by marriage, fell to Duke B.en6 of Anjou, 
in 1430 (503), the conquest of the duchy by Charles the 
Bash, of Burgundy, and its re-occupation by the younger 
Duke Br6n6, after the defeat and death of Charles, at Nancy 
(495). From that time began the insidious attempts of 
Louis XI. and his successors, to extend their posessions to- 
ward the Bhine, though they did not completely succeed until 
1766, when, after the death of Stanislaus, Lorraine was incor- 
porated with France, to which it has ever since remained at- 
tached. It was the case with Lorraine as with Alsace. The 
nobility took up French notions, while the mass of the people 
remained German, both in language and manners. The epis- 
copal cities, Metz, Toul, and Verdun, with their territories, 
were^ independent of the Dukes, and ranged directly under 
Germany. These relations caused the most violent feuds be- 
tween the Bishops and the Dukes, and the former appeared 
often in full armor at the head of their vassals, to fight the. 
battles of the Church. The cities, Nanct, Luneviliey Espi- 
nal, Remiremontj and Falkenberg, were kept in great subjec- 
tion, and they did not participate in those liberal institutions 
by which the cities of Lower Lorraine (the Netherlands) had 
become flourishing long before the close of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Duke John I. instituted, in 1380, a high tribunal for 

*^'Th]8 connection of the Dukes with ^ance, under the crown of 
which they held the above mentioned fiefs, inyolved them in the dis- 
putes, foreign and domestic, of that kingdom. Raoul, Duke of Lor- 
raine, fell in the battle of Gr^oi, in 1846, fighting with Philip of Y.alois, 
against the English, and John, his son and successor, was taken prison- 
er at the battle of Poitiers, in 1356. The same fate awaited that chi- 
valrous Prince at the battle of Auray, in Bretagne, in which Charles 
of Biois was defeated and slain by John of Montfort (460). The Duke 
John of Lorraine, was also present at the battle of Aosbecque, in which 
Charles YI worsted the Flemings, in 1882 (457). 


the states and regular diets — les grands jours — ^where depu- 
ties from the cities attended. 

530. XII.-XIY. The duchies Luxemburg (with Lih- 
burg), Brabant, and Guelder s, became incorporated with 
the states of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy (497), and 
passed, after the battle of Nancy, to Maximilian of Austria, 
with the hand of Mary of Burgundy, in 1484. The cities, 
Zutpherij Hardetvyk, and VenlOy belonged to the Hanseatic 
Confederation (403); they rose later to wealth and power 
than those of Brabant and Flanders, but they formed their 
own armed union for the protection of their privileges, and 
enjoyed an almost republican independence. 

631. XV. The duchy of Cleves (Kleve), on the Lower 
Rhine, between Guelders and Cologne, was a small county, 
which, during the reign of its distinguished Count Adolph I., 
— 1394-1448 — ^was raised to the dignity of a duchy, by the 
Emperor Wenceslaus, in 1417. Adolph was alike eminent 
as warrior, statesman, and savant ; he became the founder of 
several of the rather pedantic societies of those days of de- 
clining chivalry; such as the JPhols^ Fraternity , and the 
Knights of the Rose-ivreath and of the Horse-comb ; but the 
sense of justice of the Duke of Cleves is conunemorated 
by a fine sentence, expressive of his integrity in an era of 
deceit and corruption.'^ This, however, did not hinder him 
from being engaged in violent disputes and bloody feuds with 
the Archbishops of Cologne. 

532. XVL The duchy of Juelich-Berg formed, earlier, 
two counties, the former of which was situated between the 

•"Sein Nein war Nein gerechtig, 
Sein Ja war Ja vollmachtig, . 

Sein Mutid, eein Grund, eintrftchtig. 
The translation of which is : ** His No was as just as his Yes was pow- 
•rfnl, and his word and heart always in unison .*' 


Heuse and the Bhine, and the latter on thie eastern bank of 
that river, were separated by the ecelesiastical territory of 
the Elector and Archbishop of Cologne. Jhey were united 
by Connt William, whom the Emperor Wenceslaus, in 1389, 
raised to the ducal rank. Berg had already obtained the 
important county of Ravcnsherg, in Westphalia. On the 
extinction of the ducal dynasty, in 1524, with Duke William 
III., his daughter Mary brought the two duchies to her hus- 
band, John, Prince of Cloves. They belong, at present, to 
the King of Prussia. Cities were: Juelich, Kerpen, and 
Heinsburgj in Berg ; Dusseldorf on the Rhine, and Elberfdd 
on the Wipper. Aix-la-Chapelle (Achen), between Line- 
burg and Julich, was still considered as the imperial capital, 
and its territory was called the Realm of Achen, 

533. XVIL The Duchy of Brunswick-Lueneburg, on the 
western bank of the Elbe, consisted of the Allodial estates re- 
maining in possession of the Welfic House after the downfall 
of Henry the Lion, in 11 80 (398). The continual partitions in 
the Welfic dynasties of Brunswick and Laneburg, furnished 
their vassals and cities with means of resistance ; the latter, 
as members of the Hanseatic League, rose to a comparative 
independence, and the city of lAineburg became wealthy by 
her commerce and productive saltworks, which almost exclu- 
sively provided the North with that indispensable article. 

XYIII. The Duchy (formerly county) of Holstein and 
Stormarn, with the lordship of Pinnederg (belonging to the 
lateral line of the Counts of Schaumburg), had passed to the 
crown of Denmark, as a Gennan fief, on the accession of Count 
Christian I. of Oldenburg, in 1459. The DitmarskerSj on 
the western coast of Holstein, formed still an independent 
republic, under the supremacy of the arcbiepiscopal see of 
Bremen. Heide was their principal city. 

XIX. The Duchy of Saxs-Lausnbuko formed a small 


territory on the right bank of the Elbe, between the free 
imperial cities of Hamburg and Lttbeek, and the I>achj of 
Mecklenburg. The hostility of its dukes with the dispossessed 
Welfe beyond the river, and the preponderating power of the 
Hanseatic republics in .the neighborhood, enyeloped this small 
state in oontinual feuds, which obstructed its extension. 

534. XX. The Duchy of Mecklenburg, on the Baltic, 
bordered eastward on Fomerania, south on Brandenburg, and 
west on Holstein. After the defeat of King Waldemar II., 
in 1227, the Lords of Mecklenburg returned to the allegiance 
of the Empire. Among the many petty dynasties, those of 
Mecklenburg, Werle, and Rostock were the principal Count 
Albert inherited Schwerin, and obtained the ducal dignity 
from the Emperor Charles IT., in 1348. The duohy, never- 
theless, became split into the two dynasties^ of Stargard and 
Schwerin, until its provincial states afterwards met in as- 
sembly, in 1503, and demanded a joint administration and 
government. Mecklenburg resembles Denmark : it consists 
of extensive plains, abounding in forests and lakes ; Inany 
tracts are sandy and incult ; but the inhabitants are a stout, 
industrious race, who rear cattle, and horses of great strength 
and swiftness. Rostock and Wismar became important mem- 
bers of the Hans6 ; in the former a university was established 
IB 1418, the first attempt to introduce a higher education in 
Northern Germany. Schwerin^ on the lake, Mecklenburg^ 
Gustrow, Stargardy and Strelitz, in the interior, were the 
capitals of the different lines of Mecklenburg princes. 

535. XXI. The Duchy of Pomeeania, east of Mecklen- 
burg, extended along the shores of the Baltic, and was sepa- 
rated from Poland by the great border forest and Pomerellen 
(380). On the downfall of the Danish Monarchy (378), the 
Margraves of Brandenburg claimed the supremacy over the 
coast, and their devastating incursions continued until Bugislas 
X the Great united the separate principalities under his ducal 


sceptre, in 1479. This enlightened and able prince Becnred 
the internal tranqniUitj and prosperity of Pomerania by an 
energetic adminiatration, and by granting the states a liberal 
participation in the legislation. Thongh the soil is sandy 
and marshy, and the atmosphere hnmid and obscured by fogs, 
yet the southern missionaries, vho preached Christianity 
among the heathen Tendes, succeeded in cultivating the 
vine.*^ The natives were praised for their honest and straight- 
forward character, mixed, however, with some Pomeranian 
rudeness. The duchy was divided into the principalities of 
Wolgast^ Stettin^ and Rugen^ and the lordships Lattenberg 
and Butou, on the frontiers of Poland. Wolgast, situated 
on the strait that separates the continent from the island of 
Uiedom^ was the residence of the dukes, and the picturesque 
ruins of their ancient castle still rise above the old walls of 
the city. Strahund^ in the north, opposite to the island of 
Bfigen, with a spacious harbor, and surrounded by lakes and 
marshy defiles, was considered as one of the strongest places 
in Europe, and has victoriously stood many a siege. Stettin^ 
on the deep offing of the Oder, was, like Stralsund, a distin- 
guished member of the Confederacy of the Hans^, during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Greifstaalde, with the mag- 
nificent church of Saint Nicholas, and a university founded in 
1456, which spread light and learning through the North, when 
the great Bugislas, on his return from a pilgrimage to Jem* 
salem, brought the famous Petms Eavennas along with him 

*" Otho, Bishop of Bamberg, the Apostle of Pomerania, planted the 
vine in his convent gardens there, in 1128, and administered the native 
wine to his converts. At that period, laymen as well as ecclesiastics 
partook of the communion in both kinds. With Christianity, the vine 
was transplanted to the north, even so far as the DanUh Itlanda in the 
Baltic. No doubt the difficulty of obtaining wine in those remote re- 
gions otherwise thaivby commerce — often interrupted by war and piracy 
— gave rise to the custom of communicating in one kind, "Thus," says 
a German philosopher, " necessity brought about a sophism, by which 
the most solemn of all institutions founded by the Author of Chris- 
tionity was changed.^ 


from Italy. Under such a professor Greifswalde became the 
oracle throughout all Slavia, and students flocked together to 
study there the literature and philosophy of reviving antiquity. 
The island of Ruegen was ceded by Denmark in the year 
1825; and there German civilization extirpated, in less than 
a century, every trace of the language and superstitions of 
the ancient Yendes. 

536. The Principalities — Furstenthumer'— of Germany 
were two : Anhalt and Nassau. 

XXII. The Principality of Anhalt is situated on the an- 
cient Suevegau^ on the east of Mount Hartz and west of the 
Elbe. The Ascanian dynasty of Anhalt, one of the oldest in 
Germany, claimed Wittikind, the Saxon (174), for their 
founder.**' Bemhard, the son of Albert the Bear (396, III.), 
inherited the Ascanian lands, but remained much circumscrib- 
ed by the encroachments of the Welfic princes, until the dis- 
memberment of the duchy of Saxony in 1180, when part of 
the territory was annexed to the bishoprics of Magdeburg and 
Halberstadt. Several divisions took place, but the lines of 
AscHERSLEBEN (Ascauia), Bernburg and Zerbst were at last 
united in 1570 by Prince Joachim Ernest, the ancestor of the 
present ducal houses. Dessau, a beautiful city on the MuMa^ 
Asckerskben and Ballemtedtj were the ancient seats of the 

537. XXIII. The Principality of Nassau, on the eastern 
bank of the Khine, between Cologne and Mainz, took its name 
from the ancient castle of Nassau, on the river Lahn, the 

•*• Flattering genealogists have attempted to trace the origin of the 
Counts of Ascania from certain tribes in Asia Minor, who might have 
quitted the marshes of Ascania, in Bithynia, and settled in the ancient 
forests of Germany. The truth seems to be, that the origin of that 
family can be traced back as far as the eighth century, and that they 
wei'e related to the Counts of Ballenstedt, who lived in the eleventh 
century. They are at present divided into three ducal branches, those 
of Anhalt'Detsau, AnhdU-Bemburg, and Anhalt-KcRtken, 


asrly seat of its eomta. Tkej dciMwdcidl hnm tbe impemi 
d jiutfiy of the Saliaos (996), «iid maiqr iUnBtriiMis 8lftle8iiie& 
and wanion bave qi^mngfroaa tliaft Cuailj, tkoii|^ their tern- 
tory waa too small to hare anj yoXdial miaenee. It formed 
two lines, the Lauremturgian and the Gkddrian^ whose es- 
tates were diTided by the rirer Lahn. The Emperor AdoljA 
of Nassau— 1293-1298— belonged to the form^ ; bnt hk 
early fall in the battle of Gellheim (511) arrested theaggnm- 
disement of his race. His son John L, the foonder of the 
present Weilbnrg line, acquired the eoonty of Saarbruck, 
beyond the Bhine, and obtuned the princely dignity from 
Oharles IV., that imperial dispenser of titles and ceremo- 
nies.*^ WiSBAnsN, the capital, at the base of Monnt Tannos, 
encompassed by romantic and beautiful sceneiy, and adomeo 
with Boman ruins and medisoval castles, was built around the 
famous thermal springs which were already mudi frequented by 
the ancient conquerors of the world. Weiibmrg^ Lauremburg 
and NassaUf on the Lahn. Rudesheim^ on the Bhine, still 
better known on account of its delicious wines, the Bodes- 
heimer. Setters^ north of the Taunus, at the Selter-springs, 
whose strong mineral waters attracted pilgrims from far and 

538. XXIV. The Margrayiate of Baden, on the eastern 
bank of the Bhine, had earlier belonged to the noble &mily 
of Zahringen (396, YIII.) After its extinction, in 1218, 
the lands were divided among many inheritors, but the 
Margrave Bembard united them again, about the year 1430, 
and, though enveloped in feuds with prelates and nobles, he 
transmitted them augmented, with the castles of Hochberg^ 
Grafenstein and others, to his successor James, Duke of Baden, 
in 1453. Bastadt, on the Murg, was the capital of the Mar- 

^'' The family of Nassau- Orange, at present seated on the throne of 
Holland, descend from the more ancient Gheldrian (Othonian) line, and 
the sovereign dukes of WeiUmrff-Ifauau therefore acknowledge theur 
•eniority of rank. 


gncvei. Ba^aden, JF^eilntrg. Old-Breiscu^ on the Bhind, 
Durlach and l^z. At Sinsheiniy Margrave Charles I. was 
taken prisoner by the Ooont Palatine of the Rhine in a bloody 
battle in 1462. Sausen&urgy Rotdn and Badenweiler were 
later acquisitions of Christopher of Baden in 1503. 

539. XXV. The Landgraviate of Alsace — Ehass — on the 
-vrestem bank of the Bhine, belonged to the ancient duchy of 
Alemania (175, 250). It was divided into the Landgraviates 
of Sund (Sud)- Crau and Nord-gau^ the former was held by 
the Bishop of Strassburg, and the latter by the Counts of 
Habsburg (523). Duke Albert mortgaged Alsace, in 1455, 
to Charles the Rash of Burgundy, and it was the revolting 
cruelty and arrogance of his bailiff, Poter von Hagenbach, 
which caused the insurrection of the tormented Alsacers, the 
subsequent rupture with the Swiss, and the downfall of the 
Bnrgnndian supremacy. Strtissbwrg (71, XYI), the episcopal 
see, was a free town of the empire since 1236, important by its 
extensive commerce on the Rhine and Italy. Its magnificent 
cathedral was built by the architect, Erwin Steinbaoh, who 
raised the Q^lebrated steeple tower in 1277, but left the 
completion of the gigantic building to his descendants.'^ 
MiMhatisen was a free town under the protection of the Swiss. 

540. XXYI. The Landgraviato of Hesse belonged to the 
duchy of Franconia (249, 398), under its own counts, who 
were raised to the rank of Landgraves by the Emperor Adolph 
of Nassau in 1292. In Hesse arose those singular confrater- 
nities of the nobles against the free cities, which were called 
by the most absurd names : the Bmned Brotherhood^ th$ 
Company of the Star^ the Jjumj the Fish, the Red Sleeves, and 

'^ The Steinbacfas with their master-architects, masons, stone-cut- 
ters and other mechanics, formed 'a regular armed and well-organizd 
guild or corporation which excluded all competitors, and continued for 
several generations to build on the immense church ; it stands still un- 
finished, and seems dedicated to all time. 


the Turnips ; yet, in e^ite of their high crests and annor 
of proof, they were severely beaten by the well drilled bands 
of the republican citizens. Such a defeat of the nobility was 
that at ReiUlingeny where Ulrio of Wartemberg and a great 
number of counts and barons were slain. The reigning line of 
the Upper-Landgraviate resided in Cassel; while that of tho 
Lower occupied Marburg. All Hesse became united, a. d. 
1500, by William the Middle, and his son Philip the Grenerous, 
who, standing boldly forward in opposition to popery and 
Spanish despotism, fought the great battle of the intellectual 
and political independence of Germany. 

541. XXVII. The Burgraviate of NxTEENBERG, in the Nord- 
gau (392), was held by the Counts of Hohenzollem. The elder 
line possessed Sigmartngenj Vohringen^ and Heechingen (in 
1850 sold to Prussia), and remained in a certain dependency 
on the duchy of Wurtemberg. The younger line, on the con- 
trary, was enabled by inheritance, imperial favor, and laud- 
able economy, to form a sovereign principality, consisting of 
Baireuth (Culmbach) and Ansbach (Onolsbach), which by 
Burgrave Frederic 1 V. was united to Mark Brandenburg 
(517). His son Albert became Grand Master of the Teu* 
tonic Order, and the founder of the Prussian Power in 1525 

542. XXVIII. The number of the Counts, who with tiie 
title of princes, held their territories immediately from the 
empire, were thirty-nine or forty, the most important of whom 
were the following : In Saxony, the Counts of Oldenburg and 
Delmenhorst, since 1448 Kings of Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- 
way ; those of Hoya, Lippe, Teckelnburg, Bentthem, Schau 
ENBURG, and B.IETBERG : in Central Germany, the Counts of 
Waldeck, Wittgenstein, Blankenburg, Beuss, Schwar- 


LiMBURG (in Wtirtemberg), Loewenstein, Oettingen, Hohen- 
zollern, Waldburg, Fuerstenberg, Heiligberg, Epstein 


s&d BuEBiNGEN, Kanaxt and Solms ; on the Rhine, the Counts 
of Salm, Pfyr^t, Vaubemont, Sarwerd, Lichtbero, Saar- 
BRUECK, Sayn, Wied, Isenburg, Zuetphen, Holland (497), 
Flanders, Hainaut, and Namur. 

543. XXIX. The Church. — ^We have previously spoken 
of Ecclesiastical Electors (513), and, in our 9th chapter, about 
the division of the German Ecclesiastical Provinces toward 
the close of the thirteenth century (401). Few changes 
had taken place since that time, only Bohemia had, under 
Pope Clement VI., a.d. 1343, received an Episcopal See at 
Prague. The military order of the Knights Templars was 
condemned and dissolved by the Bull of Clement V., of 2d 
May, 1312. In Germany the knights had already been ac- 
quitted of the heinous crimes of which they were accused at 
the ecclesiastical tribunal of Mainz, July 1st, 1310. The 
unjustly calumniated Templars were allowed to justify them- 
selves after the manner of the Westphalian free courts — 
Fehm- Gerichte — ^which began to become much in use at that 
time. They appeared in full armor before the Archbishops of 
Mainz and Treves, affirmed their innocence, turned their backs 
on the tribunal, and went their way in peace. The Teictonic 
Order (379) having been defeated in Prussia, found, in 1425, 
a refuge at Mergentheim, in the Bishopric of Wiirzburg, in 
Franconia (453). 

544. XXX. The Free Imperial CrriES. — The number 
of the freie Meichstadte in Germany was ninety-five. I. The 
SoDABiAN cities, being situated in the interior, developed them- 
selves more slowly than those on the Baltic, the North Sea, 
and the Rhine (395,397). Augsbwrg and Vim were only de- 
fended by a stockade of palisades as late as the fourteenth 
century, but the universal degeneracy of the nobility, and the 
opportune invention of gunpowder and artillery, gave great ad- 
vantages to the citizens ; taking large bodies of Swiss pikemen 
in their pay, they were able to muster an army of 10,000 horse 


and 14,000 foot, and boldly to enconnter the mailed nobilitj 
in open wariare. Oonnt Eberhard of Wartfemburg, at the 
head of the chivalrous societies (528), made peace with the Sou- 
abian cities, at Ehingen^ on the Danube, west of Ulm, on 
April 9th, 1382, according to which the roads should be kept 
open and secure from freebooting knights— jRaz^^i^^er — and 
all people, high and low, be at peace and Christian loye with 
one another. Yet the encroachments of Leopold, Duke of 
Austria, his defeat and death at Sempach, in 1386, and an 
alliance of the cities with the victorious Swiss, soon caused the 
rupture with the nobility of Souabia. The great War of the 
Cities — der grosse Stddtekrieg — ^began in 1387, in which, after 
the desolation of the finest proyinces of the empire, the cities 
were defeated in several battles, but sustained the feud until 
the diet at Eger, in Bohemia, proclaimed a general peace in 
May, 1389 ; which, however, could only partially be maintain- 
ed by so weak and indolent a monarch as Wenceslaus the Bo- 
hemian. The Souabian League — ^a. d. 1382-1533 — embraced 
the following wealthy and commercial cities in Souabia, Fran- 
coma, and the Rhein-Pfalz : Augsburgj Numbergj and CT/w, 
as leaders; Esslingen, Giengeny Jbny^ Kaufbeuren, Kempten^ 
Landau, IdndaUj Nordlingen, RothtpeU, Reutlingen, Spires, 
Strassburg, Worms, and the federal cities of Switzerland. 

Augsburg was the queen of the Gkrman republics, and she 
exerted a permanent influence on the commercial and social 
development of the mother country. Her citizens were war- 
like, and repelled with success the attacks of the Dukes of 
Bavaria and the Raubritters. Though several prominent fam- 
ilies swayed her government, yet the guilds of the mechan- 
ics obtained their part in the administration, a. d. 1386, and 
all trades, the coarser manufactures, the arts and higher me- 
chanics, rose rapidly during the fifteenth century, and reached 
their height at the beginning of the sixteenth. The Augsburg 
bankers extended their operations to the East Indies; and 
the intimat€f relations of the city to Lombardy, Venice, and 
the Tuscan republics, nourished the taste of the wealthy 


AngsbBTgers £Dr literatiure) the fine arts, and all the ele 
gancies and eomforts of soutkern life. Niirnierg, Ulm^ 
Ratisbon, Sirassburgy SpireSy Worms, Brankforty and iltaj- 
la-GhapeUey followed in the wake of Augsburg ; yet none be- 
came so much the centre of the political and ecclesiastical 
transactions of the time as Constance (Costnitz), on the Bo- 
den Sea (176), during the quinquennial sitting of the cele- 
brated Council, from 1414 to 1418. The concourse at that 
eynod of distingiiished men from, every country of Europe, 
was immense ; while 4,000 prelates, and 2,500 professors and 
doctors of law, were preaching or disputing in the Gothic 
cathedrals, 10,000 princes, nobles, and knights, were lance- 
breaking and sword-slashing on the meadows of the Rhine. 
There, too, in the midst of a continual whirl of enjoyments, 
of boisterous banquets, pompous processions and tournaments, 
solemn oratories, pemtential flagellations, or wanton come- 
dies and pantomimes, exhibiting the mysteries of heayen and 
bell— the austere and virtuous reformers, Johan Huss, of 
Hussinecz, and Jerome, of Prague, were condemned and 
burnt at the stake — ^the schismatic Popes deposed, Martin Y. 
elected, and universal reforms in the government and disci- 
pline of the Ohureb discussed, adopted, but ultimately conta*a- 
vened by the sly intrigues of Pope Martin Y. and his Italian 
cardinals. Thus all Ghristendom had then its attention direct- 
ed toward Constance, as two centuries earlier on Jerusalem and 
the Holy Land. 

545. II. The Hanseatic Confederacy. — Hansa Teuto- 
nicorum — of the cities in Northern Germany obtained its 
full development during this period, and embraced eighty- 
five cities, the most important of which we have already men- 
tioned (403). The hardy merchants of Germany became the 
heroes of Ibe fifteenth century in quest of gold, as the crusad- 
ing pilgrims of the twelfth had been for relics of saints ; for 
the Hans6 towns, too, had their warriors and martyrs in a 
life of continual hardships and dangers. With the broad- 

650 filOtfrnt PG!&IOI>-*i{AK8£ATiC COX'fED£XlACr. 

Bword beneath their head, merchants and sailors reposed on 
their ships, or in their d^p6ts, always ready for combat ; and 
as their power and wealth rapidly increased, their success 
spurred them on to still more arduous undertakings. The 
final act of the Union was drawn up at Cologne, in 1364, 
and signed by all the members. The main object of the 
League, therein expressed, was to protect the confederated 
eities and their property firom foreign aggression ; to guard, 
extend, and monopolize their commerce; to manage the ad- 
ministration of justice within the limits of the Union ; to pre- 
vent quarrels and acts of injustice by confederate diets and 
courts of arbitration, and to maintain the ri^ts and immuni- 
ties received from the Emperor and the Princes. Farther, to 
furnish warriors and vessels, or in certain cases, money as a 
substitute. The League exercised a judicial power, and in< 
flicted the ban. Any city incurring such punishments was 
pronounced to be verhansed. The conquest and pillage of 
Yisbye, the important istaple of the Hans6, in Gothland, by 
King Waldemar IIL, in July, 1361, gave the signal for the 
war of the League against Denmark. A large Hanseatic 
fieet, consisting of war-galleys — coggen — and smal^r sailing 
vessels — sniggen or dchutes — appeared in the Sound, in May, 
1362.^* Copenhagen, with its castle Axelhuus, surrendered, 
and was pillaged, but King Waldemar soon defeated the mer* 
chant-warriors, and it was only in the year 1370, that the 
marshal of the realm, Sir Henning Podebusk, during the ab- 
sence of the King, ceded the western coastlands of Skaane, 

•*• The republicau warriors were already acquainted with the use 
of fire-arms. They mounted their galleys with ctdverins and homhardtty 
which kunched immense stones ; and it is a remarkable fact^ that the 
first cannon shot fired in the North was destined to eanse a great 
change in the political relations of the Scandinavian nations. Prince 
Christopher of Denmark, the only son of King Waldemar III., com- 
manding the Danish fleet in the naval battle with the Hanseatic 
Leaguers, perished by a stone ball shot from a bombard. Being the 
last Prince of the dynasty of Swend Estridson, the succession passed to 
the daughter of King Waldemar, the great Margaret. 


with the rich jierring €sherie8, to tiie Hans^, for the term of 
fifteen years.^® This proved a most important acquisition; 
the greedy republicans now established themselves on the low 
sandy shore, and divided the fisheries*^ Vitten — among the dif- 
ferent cities of the League. During the summer season; from 
St. James's Day to that of St. Martin, the sea-shore presented 
a scene of the highest animation and bustle ; it was a continual 
fair, where all the nations of the north, Scandinavians, Bus- 
sians, Finns, Germans, English, met and mingled in quest of 
profit or pleasure. On the north lay the settlements of the 
proud and taciturn merchants of Bremai and Campen ; south- 
ward followed those of the lively Yendes, the Lftbeckers, and 
the Hamburgers, who always held closely together. The fish 
ing colonies were fenced in with palisades, and every trade 
had its proper ^lace assigned for its stores and barracks; 
churches were built, and the crowded markets were filled with 
the choicest products o( the north and south. In every fishing 
locality the city bailiff and his men-at-arms strutted about 
with halbert and broadsword, to watch over the public peace, 
and settle disputes on the spot The Danish commanders of 
the neighboring castles of Skanoer and Faisterboe held juris- 
diction in criminal cases ; yet the influence of the Hans6 
towns was abeady so preponderating, that they obtained their 
own courts, until the resolute Queen Margaret compelled the 
grasping traders back within their proper limits, and, some 
years later, liberated Denmark from the yoke of her mercan* 
tile oppressors. Sweden and Norway fared still worse. The 
Hans^ deposed King Hakon, in Stockholm, 1363, and gave 
his crown to their own gossip, Albert of Mecklenburg (438)« 

^ The herring had, during the twelfth centary, most abundantly 
yigited the coast of Hugen, and the Yendes of Pomerania were akeady 
expert in salting it, and exporting the salted fish to the interior of Eu- 
rope. Later, however, the herring took its main direction toward 
the shores of Denmark. In 1164^ the Hollanders obtained extensive 
privileges from the King, and commenced their large herring fisheries 
and regular exports to England and France. 

546. l%e prowperity of the Hsnsettto League conttnued 
during the whole of the fifteenth oentnry, while Germany was 
cut up into political parties, and the wars between England 
and France threw the northern commerce into their hands. 
But the great reform, which was introdtioed in the constitation 
of the Germanic Empire by Maximilian I., toward the close 
of that era, and the extended powers which the soyereign 
I«inces thereby obtained in their states, soon worked in op- 
position to the democratic institutimis of the confederate 
Hans6 Towns. The maritime cities had already ceased to be 
the masters of the Baltic ;*^^ the German princes brought 
those of the interior under their inmiediate control, in order 
to secure their own part in the profit from their commerce. 
Oharles Y. separated the rich cities of his Netherlands from 
the League ; and, finally, the discovery of America, and the 
sea*passage around the Gape of Good Hope to Hindostan, 
produced a total rerolution in the commercial relations, by 
bringing other nations, Spaniards and Portuguese, on the 
world's scene. All these causes combined contributed to the 
gradual deeline and final dissolution of the Hanseatic League, 
yet its shadow still flitted on tiirough the sixteenth century, 
until the confederation was dissolved At last in l^e ultimate 
diet, held at Lobeck, a. d. 1630. 

547. Such was the geographical posttion of. Germany at 
the deatth of i^e Emperor Frederic III., in 1493. The im- 
portant changes in the constitution, introduced by his son and 
successor, Maximilian L, in the celebrated Biet of Warms^ 
in 1495, the subsequent institution of a High Tribunal of the 
Empire — ReichsKammer- Gericht — and the general division 

"^ Fierce dnsensions eould not fail to break out occasionally among 
those covetous republics themselves ; thns, while LUbeck and the Ven- 
dish towns blockaded the ports of Norway (403), Bremen would 
secretly send proylsions to the suffering country, which were paid witli 
enormous prices. Bremen was then declared in the ban*-^he became 
perhqfued^t^nd WM not reiortated in tiie League until tbe year 1858. 


of all the Germati Siates into eleren Oirdes-^irfdtie— com- 
muided by imperial coloneLs — Ereis-Obenten — ^belong to tiie 
modem era, and would form tho introdactioB to a Historical 
Gbc^^phy of the last three centuries, if we should be en- 
couraged to undertake a continaation of our present essay. 

VIII. — The Helvetun Confederacy of the Thirteen 
Cantons, a. d. 1500. 

648. Historical Remarks. — The history of the Swiss as 
an independent nation, begins with their rerolt against the 
Habsburg dynasty, in 1308. Helvetia — Die Schweitz — 
belonged earlier to the kingdom of Lesser Burgundy (182, 
246, 389, 396), only the northern parts, Basle on the west, and 
the Thargan on the east, formed portions of the Duchy of 
Alemannia, &r Sotiobia (250). Many noble families, such as 
the Counts of Kyburg^ Toggenburg^ Werdenberg^ AUing" 
hinuseHj Lmzburgj Savoy, and Habsburg, possessed castles 
and territoriee in that fertile and picturesque country. Tho 
Helvetians ranged themselves directly under the empire, and 
the vicariate— jSteAirw-PfligtCT — over Burgundia Minor, was 
for nearly a eentury — 1 127-1208 — ^wielded by the ducal house 
t>f Zahringen (396, VIII). 

Geneva (Janua); Lausanne (Lausonio), Sohthum (Salo- 
durum), Wihdiseh (Vindonissa), Zurich (Statio Tuncensis), 
and Basle (Basilia), were ancient cities. Freyburg, Berne, 
"and others, were buOt in the twelfth century by the Zah- 
ringers, and they rose quickly in wealth and population. 
Many Swiss nobles left for the crusades, and their lands came 
into the hands of the smaller proprietors or the cities. Thus 
ZOrich, Berne, Basle, Solothurn, and the districts of Tlri, 
Schwyz, and Unterwalden, on the Lake of Lucerne, gradually 
acquired the seignorial rights from the German emperors, 
and assumed the names of imperial cities or districts. Their 
commerce began already to extend across the Alps, and the 
gold and silk manufactures hi the Lombards and the Eastern 


mitioiui were wiih saooess imitated by the Swiss. The refine- 
ment which traffic and arts introduced among the Helvetian 
citiaens, contrasted in a remarkable manner with the rude 
simplicity of the herdsmen of the Alpine Highlands, and Hie 
warlike and quarrelsome habits of the nobility in the Low- 
lands. With the extinction of the Zdhringers, in 1218, the 
imperial vicariate of Bnrgondy passed to the Counts of Savoy 
and Habsbnrg. Count Rudolph, having inherited the estates 
of the Counts of Kyburg and many of the Alsatian possessions 
of the Zahringers, became the most powerful feudatory in the 
country. As Emperor of Germany, he often held his court 
among his beloved Schweitiers, whose privileges he respected 
and enlarged. But his son, Albert of Austria, who, on his 
accession to the imperial dignity, in 1298, was anxious to 
extend the power of Jiis house over all Switzerland and 
Souabia, and thus, by the union of Western and Eastern Ger- 
many under the Austrian banner, overawe the independent 
princes of the centre, proposed to the free-bom mountaineers 
that they should renounce their connection with the ^empire, 
and placing themselves as subjects under the wings of the 
Austrian Eagle, for ever become vassals of the House of 
Habsburg. On the refusal of the prudent Swiss, the emperor 
treated them with scorn, and the despotic rule of his bailiffs — 
Vogte — Hermann Gessler of Bruneck, and Beringer of Lan- 
denberg, with their mercenary bands, gave rise to that insur- 
rection in the for est-caaiona— die Waldstddte — of Uri, Schwya, 
and Unterwalden, in 1308, which is too well known to be here 
recorded in our geographical survey. Albert himself found 
bis death by private vengeance, while marching his troops 
against the insurgents. Nor were his sons and nephews more 
successful. The glorious battles at Morgarten, Sempachj and 
NdfeUy prostrated ihe Austrian power in Switzerland. The 
Habsburgi^n possessions were conquered with the halbert, and 
the Swiss of the different valleys and regions of old Burgundy 
united themselves successively into that brilliant alliance — 
Eidgenossemchafi — ^which, with astonishing perseverance and 


nlor, maintamed its independened against France, Burgundy, 
and Germany, dnring the fifteenth eentury, and stands con- 
flolidatedy terrible and feared, with its thirteen sovereign re- 
pnUics (oantons), in the midst of the most powerful and cov- 
etous monarchs at the beginning of Uie modem era. 

549. I.-III. The Helvetian Cantons and their Con- 
stitutions. — ScHWTZ, Cri, and IJNTERWAtDEN, On the east, 
south, and west, bordering on the beautiful lake of Lucerne, 
or of the four forest cantons — Vierwaldstddter-See — were 
the cradle of Helvetian liberty. The Walstftdter, descended 
from a tribe of Suethans or (joths (85), who durbg the 
earlier migrations of the Northmen, bad settled at the biise 
ef the Alps, where they for centuries formed free communi- 
ties, andunder the command of their Landammanj as supreme 
governor or judge, recognized the supremacy of the German 
empire. They constituted themselves free Republics in 1308, 
and maintained their independence in the battle of Morgarten, 

lY. LvcBRNE, on the northern shore of the Lake of the 
four Cantons, belonged formerly to the house of Habsburg; but 
* throwing off the yoke, the Lucemers in 1332 joined the Wald- 
et&dter as the fourth forest Canton of the Confederation. 

Y. ZuERicH, in a romantio site on the largest lake in Switz- 
erland, became the great emporium and market for Italian 
products and indsstry. The imperial bailiffs kept the roads 
over Saint Gothard free from robbers ; and, by the frequent 
communication with Italy, ideas of political and religious 
liberty followed in the track of commerce. Zttrich received 
and protected the first great reformer, Arnold of Brescia, 
in 1140-1144 (405), and having modified her aristocraticai 
government under her able mayor, Rudolph Brun^ she de- 
feated the Austrian dukes, and joined the Helvetian Confed- 
eracy in 1351. 

VL Glarus (Glaris), in the deep valley of the Lint, east 
4^ Schwyz and Uri, lies surrounded by the high chain of the 


Thur-Alps. No enemy erer intaded this secladed r^oa ; 
its frugal and indostriotts inhabitants — the GMarners — were 
governed bj the Abbess of the rich nunnery of Seckmgen^ 
under the vicariate of the Counts of Habsburg ; but slaying 
their despotic bailiff, Stadion, they joined the Swiss league 
together with ZOrich in 1351, and secured their independence 
by the terrible defeat of the Anstrians at Ndfshm 1338.^' 

YII. Zuo, situated on the lake of that name, north of 
Lucerne and Schwyz, was the smallest republic of Switzerland, 
embracing a territory of only fifteen squai^e leagues. It be- 
longed to the patrimonial estates of the Counts of LRtusburg 
and Kyhurg^ and passed with their oiher possessions to the 
house of Habsburg. But the city of Zog being besieged in 
1352, by the victorious Swiss, the Zugers tibrew open their 
gates, and joined the confederacy, as tiie seventh Canton. 
Their government was democratic. 

YIII. B^aNE, west of Lucerne and Unterwalden, and ex- 
tending south to the highest range of the Bemer Alps, was 
with its territory of 476 leagues the largest Canton in Switi- 
erland.^^ Its beautiful capital, situated on a peninsula 
formed by the river Aar, as it deacencb rapidly from tiie Lake 
of ThtMt^ was built in the year 1 190 by Cmio of Bubenberg, as' 
a stronghold of the free mountaiiroers against Uie eiMsroacb- 
meats of the neighboring nobility. Crowds of dissatisfied 

*^ Glaru9 differs from the other cities in Switee^rland; the Olamen 
have entirely preserved the manners and fashions c^ the middle ages. 
Their wooden houses with high front gables are .adorned with paintings 
in brilliant colors^ representing the eve^s of the times. Many inscrip- 
tions on the pnbHc bnildingsfrom the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
are of historical interest. The narrow and crooked streets are so much 
obscured by the lofty mountains* overhanging the city on every side» 
that the sun is visible in winter only four hours in the day. 

^' It is a common tradition, that the city received its name from a 
bear having been killed in the vicinity, by Duke Berthold IV. of Zahr^ 
ingen. The figure of the bear forms the city arms, and a number of 
those ugly animals are still kept in the dry moats of the city at the 
present day. 

bnghtfr and eitizenft from JBvery part of Switoerhmd and SdUft- 
Ua settled in Berne, and gave strmigth to the young repnblie^ 
After the signal defeat of the nobles at Laupen^ in 1 339, l^e 
warlike Berners joined the HeWetiaB League in 135^ as the 
eighth and last of the anoient Cantons, and succeeded by the 
sword or by purchase in ext^iding their dominion throughont 
the Aargau and the distant valleys of Mount Jura. They 
were a proud and haughty people,, and carried on many bitter 
and bloody feuds against the neighboring Freyburg. 

The Swiss had thus become formidaUe; all the efforts 
of Austria to stem the torrent were frustrated on the bat^ 
field of Sempach, and the aUianceDf the Cantons with the Soua- 
bian cities (^44), soon carried their rictorious arms into the 
heart of Germany. Seyen of the Cantons had a demoeralical 
form of goTcmme)Qt ; Berne alone was ruled^by an aristocracy, 
which often stood aloof, showing little sympathy with the otbeif 
Cantons ; but when the Alpine horns sounded the gathering 
against the Austrian or Burgundian despots, then all the stoui^ 
hearted Swiss fou^t and bled togetiber, and shared with 
brotherly couoord the spoils <rf victory. 

550. IX. Fretburg, and X. Solothubn (Sokure), were 
not admitted into the league until after the Burgundian war, 
148 L, The former Canton was aituated west of Berne ; it ex- 
tended south to Waadt—& Pay* de Foofl^—tben possessed by 
tjie Counts of Sawn/j and west to the lake of NewMtd. The 
city of Freyburg was built by the Bnke Berthold, of Zfthrisr 
gen, in 1 1 78, on the precipitous banks of the Sa'aae, as a bul- 
wark against the Bishop of . Lausanne and thfi^unnily Counts 
of Neuch^tel : Freyburg rose slowly, under coniiniial feuds 
between her French and G^ermanic population, or against her 
neighbor Berne. She remained Catholic at the time of the 
Reformation, and under the pernicious influence of the Jesuits, 
until the late disturbances in 1847. Her splendid cathedral 
has one of the hi^^est towers in the world, from which the 


view 18 of a beauty impossible to describe. Solothum, like- 
wise in a most charming sitnation on the Aar, was strongly 
fortified with its ancient walls and towers of Roman constrnc- 
tion. The Solothnmers were celebrated for their fidelity and 
industry ; they remained the faithful allies of Berne, and de- 
feated the Habsburgers, no less by generosity in 1318 than by 
the sword in 1382. Their most dangerous enemy was their 
own Bishop of Saint Ursus. 

XI. Basle (Basely B41e), bordering on the Franche-Comte 
and Baden, formed a bishopric, which possessed many lands on 
Mount Jura. The city, situated in a highly romantic site on 
the Rhine, became the largest and best-goyerned Canton in 
Switierland, its council being composed of knights, wealthy 
citizens, and members of the guilds, under the presidentship 
of the bishop. In Basle assembled in 1431-1443, the great 
ecdesiastioal council, which after the pacification of the Huss- 
ite troubles in Bohemia, attempted in vain to restrict the 
power of the Pope, and reform the manifold abuses of the 
Romish church ; the time was not yet ripe : what thousands 
of prelates and law-doctors during twelve years of violent de- 
bates and discussions were unable to perform, was, seventy-four 
years later, accomplished by the learning and eloquence of the 
Augustine monk of Wittenberg. 

XII. ScHAFHAUSEK, uorthcast on the Rhine, formed earlier 
the eounty of Nellenbnrgin Souabia. Its capital,^ near the 
celebrated waterfall of the Rhine, was small, its constitution 
aristo-demoeratic, and it was united with the Helvetic league 
in the year 1501, together with Basle. 

XIII. Afpenzel ( Abbatis Oella), on the east, belonged to 
the bishopric of Saint Oall; yet, after many bloody feuds 
with their haughty bishops, the brave Appenzelers broke their 
chains, and uniting with the Swiss, in 1513, completed the 

*** It WM originally called SchiffbaQBen, signifying a Bhelter for ves- 
8elf» from iti poution above the cfttaraet$ of tbe Rbine ; its port was 
frequented by river boat* as early as tbe eighth oeatary. 


number of the thirteen cantons composing the HelVetiaiv 
League as it existed until the time of the French BcTolutioH 
in 1789. 

551. The territories which the Swiss had conquered from 
the House of Habsburg, the Aargau, Thurgau, and others, 
were governed in community by the cantons as subject pro- 
vinces. Their AUies at the beginning of the sixteenth century 
were : — I. The cities of Muehlhausen, in Franche-Comt6, 
KoTHWYL. in Souabia, Biel and Neuchatel, on Mount Jura. 
II. The League of the Grisons. This confederacy of the 
inhabitants of the upper valley of the Ehine (the Engaddin) 
and others on the northern slope of the Lepontine and Rhd- 
tian Alps, dated its origin from the beginning of the Eftieenth 
century, when the poor but high-minded villagers, weary of 
the exactions and oppressions of their feudal lords, assembled 
in arms at Trons in the valley of the Rhine, and forced the 
Abbot of Disentis and the Counts of Werdenberg, Sax, and 
others to give their adhesion to the solemn GtRat League — 
Graus Bund — ^which was sworn beneath the maple tree in 
1424. GoiRE (Ghur) in Lower il^a^ta followed the example 
and formed 'a second league, called Gottes Hause — Casa 
Dei. A third alliance was entered into by the Eastern Rhae- 
tians in the valleys of Davos, Lugnez^ Savia, and the Lower 
Engaddin, in the year 1436, called the union of the Ten 
Jurisdictions, and all three, fighting nobly against the armies 
of the Emperor Maximilian I., in 1499, joined the Swiss 
confederacy, but were dot constituted as a canton (Graubtkn- 
den) until 1815. III. The seven districts of Upper Wallis 
— HatU Valais — generous and brave, took arms against their 
tyrants, the Counts of Raron and Gestdenhurg ; they de- 
molished their castles, vanquished the Bishop of Sion 
(Sitten), and placed themselves under the protection of BerneJ 
Only the Lower Wallis — Le Bos VaJais — with the bishopric 
of Martigny (Octodunum), on the Rhone, obeyed the Counts 
of Savoy, who likewise held th& province of Waadt — U Fays 


de Vaud — ^wiih Lauuinne, ChiUon, Moudony YverduHy wad 
the populooB and thriymg Geneve^ as fiefe of the G^rmaaio 
Empire (403). 

552. Cities, Castles, Battle-figlds, and otheb. His- 
torical Sites. — RtUli, a small elevated plain, overhanging 
tlie western shore of the Lake of Lucerne, where," on the night 
of November 8th, 1307, the three brave Waldstsldters, Werner 
Stauffacher, of Schwyz, Walter Furst, of Uri, and Arnold von 
ilelchthal, of Unterwalden, each with ten friends, met and 
took, with drawn swords, the solemn oath of delivering their 
country from the tyranny^ of the Habsburgian baili£fs. At 
BrunneJiy on the eastern shore of the lake opposite to Btltli, 
the federal pact between the Forest Cantons was ratified in 
November, 1315, after the battle of Morgarten. Teil*^ 
FlatCf a flat rock on the eastern shore of the Lak^ of Lucerne^ 
nearly opposite to RotlL Here Wilhelm Tell sprang ashore 
from the boat of Gessler, during the storm, and escaped 
through the mountains.*" At Akdarf, on the Beuss, south 
of the lake, are still seen the ruins of the Castle of Gessler, 
by him. hau^tily called the Zudngburg, or Castle of Litimi- 
dation ; a beautiful chapel, richly adorned with paintings and 
inscriptions, commemorates the spot where the father shot the 
apple from the head of his son in July, 1307.^* Tell was bora 
in the neighboring village of Burglen. At Kussnachty east 
of Lucerne, beneath Mount Ehigi, the traveller beholds the 
moss-grown towers and ruins of another castle of Gesslw, 
the bailifiP, and at a short distance toward the lake is the deep 

"* After the expulsion of tlie Habsburgera, the mountaineers of the 
Forest Cantons began to perform pilgrimages to this romantic spot on 
the lake, and in the year 1388«— eighty-one years after the events thd 
Canton of Uri caused the tasteful chapel'-the TelU Capell&^to be 
erected on the rock, where Tell leaped ashore. More than one hun* 
dred individuals, who had been personally acquainted with the her<\ 
were present at the ceremony. See Johannes yon MuUer's History of 
the Swiss Confederacy, Vol. I. 

•• Compare our § 295, p. 81 iS, note. 

mawm PSEfoiK^HesLVSTiAK cohvedxbaot 661 

ivoody gletr^Mohle^ Gasse^'-^wbete ihe xmenrng arrow of Tdl 
fiitrnek dowa the tyrant. Tkere^ too, a chapel, adctfned vitk 
paintings, portraits, and verses, records the event. Morgarten^ 
on the southeastern shore of the ^mall Lake of Aegcrt, on the 
frontiers of the Oantons of Schwyz and Zng, forms a defik 
between the Mount Sattel and the lake. There seven hundred 
jDien irijm the forest towns, commanded by the old Eudolph 
Beding, of Bifaer^g, defeated Duke Leopold of Austria and 
his helpless chivalry on the 16th November, 1315. Nearly 
the whole Austrian army perished beneath the halberts and 
clubs of the mountaipeers, and only the Duke, pale and trem- 
bling, was saved, by a flight across the hills to the plain of 
Winterthur. Einstdeln, in the canton of Sehwyz, at & short 
distance from Morgarten, was the cdebrated abbey of Bene- 
dictines, whose «acred fountain and miraculous image of the 
Yirgin Mary, gathered thousands of pilgrims from Switzerland, 
Grermany^ and France. Their gifts enriched the monks, and 
when the abbots of the convent, in their pride, attempted to 
drive the herdsmen of Schwyz from their pastures on the 
mountains, they caused the interference of the Habsbutgers, 
^l the bloodshed that followed, and thus indireistly the inde 
pendence of the cantons. 

553. SsofPAOH, a village on the eastern shore -of the small 
lake of that name, in the canton of Lucerne, became, on the 
9th of July, 1386, the battlefield on which Leopold II., Duke 
of Austria, wil& the flower of his chivalry, was defeated and 
fltkun by a small body of Swiss. It was here that Arnold of 
Winkelried opened the path of victory, by grasping the Aus- 
trian lances and burying them in his bosom. In the glade of 
the forest stands a beautiful chapel, with pictures representing 
the battle. Stanz, south of Sempach, the capital of Unter- 
walden, was the birthplace of Arnold of Winkelried, whose 
marble statue adorns the square of that pretty little town. 
Here, too, the piotis hermit, Olaus von der Flue, assembled 
the quarrelling republicans in a congress, 1481, and persuading 


them, by his earnest exhortations, to put a stop to their feuds, 
caused Solothum and Frejburg to be admitted into the 
league (551). 

Windischy at the confluence of the rivers Reuss, Limmat, 
and Aar, in the ancient county of Habsburg (the present can- 
ton of Aargau), near the Roman ruins of Yindonissa. There, on 
the banks of the Aar, in sight of his hereditary castle of 
Habdfurg (523), the Emperor Albert I. was ruthlessly slaugh- 
tered by his nephew, John of Souabia, and his companions, 
Rudolphus of Balm, and Walter of Esefaenbach, on the 1st 
of May, 1308. Queen Agnes of Hungary, the sister of the vic- 
tim, built on the spot the nunnery bi Kdnigsfdden, where she 
lived in retirement, and was buried.''^ Lenzburg^ a few miles 
south of Habsburg ; Kyburg, in the ancient county of that 
name, in Souabia (the present canton of Thurgau), Toggenr 
hurg^ east, on the river Thnr (in the canton of Saint Oall); 
Rapperswf/l, on the eastern shore of the ZCkrich, Werdenbergy 
the seat of the powerful Counts of that name, in the upper 
valley of the Rhine (Oanton of St Gall), were all splendid 
castles of the Swiss nobility during the Burgundian times, 
whose ruins are still visited with pleasure by the modem tra- 
veller. There, too, in the Oanton of Glarus, lies the pretty, 
small town of Nafels, with the bridge over the Linth, where, 
on the 9th of April, 1388, the Glamets destroyed the third 
Austrian army. While the infantry, surrounded and broken, 
perished miserably in the narrow valley, the knights spurred 
away to the Lake of Wallenstadt ; but, on their crowding the 
long wooden bridge, it broke, and they, with their heavy armor 

*^ That loving uster Agn«s showed her Ghrittian sympathy in aa 
extraordinary manner. In her pions fury she caused more than a 
thousand innocent beings, knights, yassale^ citizens, men, women, and 
children, from the castles and estates of the guilty noblemen, to be tor- 
tured, quartered, hanged or beheaded, with fiendish cruelty, and from 
their bloody spoils^ she built the convent for her nuns. This sainted 
Agnes was the daughter of King Rudolphus of Habsburg — ^the Jirtl 
AuBtrian I 


and horges, sank, never to rise again. This memorable day is 
still a national festival among the Glarners. 

Laupen, a small town on i^eSa^anej west of Bernie, be*- 
eame, on the 21st of -June, 1338, the Marathon of thd 
Bemers. On that glorious field the young and aspiring re- 
public was rescued by her experienced leader, Count Rudolph 
of Erlach, like Athens of yore, by her Miltiades, from the un* 
just aggression of the neighboring nobility and their numerous 
vassals. '^ All the landmarks between Oherwyl and Wyden 
were covered with heaps of slain warriors and horses, With 
weapons and armor ; eight crowned helmets and twenty-seven 
baronial standards were carried in triumph to the victorious 
city." Tet the' most remarkable scene of Helvetian bravery, 
and of the indomitable character of that people at tho height 
of its virtue, was Saint Jcuxhi^ on the river Birs, a few miles 
south of Basle. There, sixteen hundred Swiss, with halberts 
and huge broadswords, withstood an entire army of 30,000 
French and English adventurers, led on by the Dauphin (after- 
wards Louis XI.) and the most renowned generals of France. 
Ten thousand Frenchmen were slain around the indosure of 
the churchyard of Saint Jacobs, before Ihe artillery of the 
invaders succeeded in prostrating those devoted mountaineers 
who perished to a man. This terrific battle, at the modern 
Thermopylae of Helvetia, was fought on the 26th of August, 
1444; it quenched the desire of the French cavaliers to pene^ 
trate into the highly cultivated and happy valleys of the 
freemen ; their wild mercenary bands dispersed — and Switz- 
erland was saved.*** 

^The French knights were amased at the almost tnperhnman 
prowess and strength of the Swiss ; they said, " Qi«'m Uwf tempt, U* 
tCavaient vu ni trouvS aucunes gens de ai grand dS/enaef tU tant <nUr€tgeux 
et thnSrairea pour abandonner leurs vie9," It was on the battle-field of.tha 
Birs that the calculating Louis XL took up the idea of gaining over 
the Swiss to that alliance with France, which, duiing the following 
century, placed those terrible warriors at her disposal whenever sha 
had money to purchase them. 

064 jROHTB rBasoDk^^TaxumiAs oomvosaAof . 

At Granmmf on the wtstern dore of tli« Ifftke of Neaekft- 
tel, and at Morat (Murten), on tiie small lake of tbat name, 
the united oonfederates proatrated the armies of Charles 
the Bold of Burgundy, in 147d*-Hind finally at Dorn4xchy 
southwest of Basle, and in J&e defiles of Tyrolean frontiers 
they gained their last laurels against the forces of Maximilian 
I. and the Empire, in 1499, and the Swisft remained thenoe- 
foicth undisturbed in their mountains. 

554. The Swiss of the middle ages, like the Greeks of an- 
tiquity, knew not only how gloriouisly to ddTend th^ country, 
but conspicuously to preserve the memory of their f ore&thers^ 
deeds, by those graceful monuiomkts which every idiere con- 
secrate their battle-fields, and by the bnlUaiil trophies which 
adorn their arsenals, asnd command the admiration and ddight 
of the modem trayeller.^** Yet. th0 su^cesd of the Swiss in 
these wars, and the imipen&e booty tb^y carried home from 
them, did not fftil to produce a gradutd change in ^eir po- 
litics and morals. The sin^Uaity of their nianners, and their 
justice and moderation, gave way to luxury, corruption, and 
thirst for conquest. The p«^iod of the wUd lifcr^-^to tolie 

*• Almost every city in Switzerland, Lucerne, Berne, Morat» Basle^ 
has preserved in its arsenals numerous trophies from its mediaeval vic- 
tories over Aastrians and Burgundians. Yet; in none do these antiqui- 
ti«8 present, ho picturesque a&d iaipressire a show as in the Senate 
House of Solothiim. hk a Gothic haU^ riehly deoorated with banners 
and weapons of every dee^riptiony is aeea a group of thirte^ figwree in 
complete suits of armor, in a sitting posture, around the council table. 
The glittering steelmen represent the envoys of the thirteen Cantons ; 
while the mailclad president^ attended by his pages, is standing at the 
li%fld of the board, reading the decree of the confederates of 1511, for 
their marching into Italy, in suecor of the Duke of Milan. 
- The chamel house, near Morat, with its heaps of human bones from 
the defeat of Charles the Bold, was destroyed by the Prench revolu- 
tionary army, in 1^98, but a graceful column has lately been erected 
on the spot^ and the vaults of the city hall of Morat are sfill filled with 
a& eptire arsenal of Burgundiaii armor and artillery, from the battles 
of Oranson, Morat, and Nancy. 

EIGHTH Pinrinili- WgLTglli ■■■! I IT, 

Ld>en—ui Swiiaoiaiid begn amng ita veahkj wad mtm- 
icAted warriors. Fends aroM be^eea Ike dlfa«Bt camkimtL, 
deyaslAtiiig inenrsioiis were midcrtakca jm c M the Alps, where 
the valley of BdHnzona and tliebeantifal icgioiis ee the Lake 
of LuganOj w^re, by the Swiss, wiested fioM the Didce of 
Milan, until at last the severe cheek they soffieted at Mttng- 
nanOf in 1515, by Francis L, forced thoa to retuB behiad the 
bulwark of their Alps. Their severe diseipliiie and admirable 
tactics, however, had already prodnoed s complete chaiige in 
the military system of those times. The iim sqaaies oi the 
Swiss infiintry, bristUng with halbeita and spean, rqidled 
evety charge ot the diivaliy, and moved with'iapidifty and 
irresistible force against the shnrly served batteries and ill 
disciplined foot soldiers of their <q^oiieiit& The Emperor 
MaTJmilian L imitated the Swiss, in the fbimatiKA of his reg- 
idar re^ments of Lanzknet^U^ ot pikemen, and Charles Y., 
according to Maehiavelli, brou^t the military syston of the 
Swiss to perfection in his Spanish aimiesi Franet^, Milan, 
and Germany, now vied with <me another in taking Swiss mep- 
eenaries into thdr service; and those hardy nnnnitaineerB, 
who were so prond of their wdl-eaned Iflierty at home, shed 
their blood httrealler for the warring despots* abroad; nay, it 
has been asserted, ihat more than a milhon of Sweitaers have, 
during the last three centuries, sold their lives to France for 
a miserable pittance. 

IX. Kingdom op Hungary. 
555. Dynasties and Constitution. — The kingdom of the 
Magyars (314) attained its highest development toward the 
middle of the fourteenth century, when its great King, Louis 
of Anjou, uniting the crowns of Hungary and Poland, ruled 
as a sovereign over all the lands between the Adriatic and the 
Euxine, and extended the dominion of the Hungarian nation 
to its natural boundaries, the Carpathian range on the north, 
and Mount Balkan (Hsemus) on the south. During the reign 
of the ancient dynasty of Arpad, civilization had made but 
little progress among the wild and warlike Hungarians, partly 

666 noBTH PBKioD.-^HiniojaiT. 

on account of the roving kabits ei the Magyar nobles and the 
animoeitj of the native popidation against the foreign colonists, 
Knmani (315), Germans, and WaUachians, to whom the kings 
had assigned lands within the kingdom, — and partly, too, on 
account of the indefiniteness of the royal prerogative and the 
troubles whidi had their origin in the disputed succession to 
the crown among various claimants. Order was at last re- 
stored in 1222, when Andreas II. — 1205-1235 — ^in his Golden 
Bull — Bulla Aurea — ^laid the foundation of the later Hun- 
garian constitution. Yearly diets of the states met at SttM- 
fveissenbuTg, where in the presence of the King or the Count 
Palatine (314), they consulted about all the important affairs 
of the kingdom. The hereditary succession of the fiefs was 
proclaimed ; the revenues of the crown were restricted to the 
royal domains ; no foreigners were to obtun office or landed 
estate ; the nobility rendered knights' service only within the 
boundaries of the realm. The clergy lost part of their extra- 
vagant immunities, and slavery was abolished ; yet the re- 
markable clause was added to the compact, by which the nobil- 
ity and clergy were entitled to the right of armed resistance 
against the king if he should transgress the fundamental laws of 
the kingdom.**® Tranquillity being thus restored, and the at- 
tention of an active people directed to the fertility and advan- 

*** This right of the ^angarians of taking up arms agunst their 
king, which has lately been go much discussed and commented upon 
by Louis Kossuth in this country, forms the dosing lines of King An- 
dreas' concessions in the Golden Bull, with these words : Quod si vero 
No8 vel aiiquU tuceettorum noitrorum aliquo unquam tempore, huic dis- 
poMtHoiU noKtrat eontra4re wduerit ; liberam habeant hantm auctoritati^nne 
nata alieujtts infidelitatis tarn epiteopi guam alU Johboffumes (the noble 
castellans and court officers) ae nobilea regni, univerei et nnfftdi, pKB- 
9etUei et futuri posierique retUtendi et contradicendi Nos et nattrie tueces- 
toribtu in perpettuim facultatem I All the subsequent wars in Hungary 
and the insurrections against Austrian oppression in more modem 
times of the patriotic Rakoczy, Tekely, and Kossuth, have sprung from 
this priyilege of resisting the peryersion of the constitution, aword in 



tageoQB situation of their ooontry, Hungary became flonrishing 
in the reign of Kmg Bela lY., when the sadden invasion of 
the Mongol, hordes (385), the defeat of the Hungarians at 
Mifhi in 1241, and the flight of the king into Austria, caused 
the desolation of tiie whole northern and eastern parts of the 
kingdom, as far as the Danube and the hilly regions of Tran- 
sylvania. Fearful were the (cruelties of the Asiatic barbarians, 
who left nothing behind them but ruined cities and mouldering 
corpses, and it is only with shuddering that we read the Hun- 
garian chronicles of those times. Yet, on the hasty retreat of 
Batu Chan toward the Volga, Hungary began to recover from 
her wounds, and her decimated population became in part re- 
stored by the numerous colonies of Italians, Flemings, Saxons 
and other Germans, who, following the invitation of King 
Bela, were settled in the vaUeys of the Carpathian mountains 
uid the plains of Transylvania. The Arpad dynasty became 
extinct in a. n. 1301, and was succeeded by the Neapolitan 
branch of the House of Anjou,'*^ the most brilliant period 


OMfUt MttPta, the PreteBdor, 1 180B. 

nuuried to dementia of Habsbui^;, 1 1^& 

LBUB SoBcn, King of Hnngarr, 1806-1848, 
married to Catharine of Poland, 1 1881. 

Loins THB OsKAT, King of Hnngarjr, 

Naples, and Poland, 1842-1883, 
manied to JBUmMA of Bosnia, 1 188^ 

Andreas, King of Naplesi 
smothered by his wife, 
Queen €f4owtnHay at 
Anversa, 184& 

Habt, heiress of Hungary, 1 1893, 
married to SienmnrD of Luzemborg^ 
Emperor of Germany, 1 1487. 

EXJZABBTB, 1 1447, 

married first to Albskt II, f 1489, 
and secondly to Ladisulw Y., 1 1441 

ffedwiff, heiress of Poland, tl899, 
married to JoffeUon, of 

LiLDTBLAW Y., Kil^g of 

Hangaryand Poland, 

perished at Yarna, 1444. 

(married to Elizabeth of Hangaiy.) 

EuzABsrn, tl506, 
married to CaHmir at Poland, tl49S. 

JjADVslaw, YIL, King of Hangary 
and Bohemia, 1^0-1016. 

Ladislaw YI., 

(son of Albert,) 

King of Hungary, tl467. 

(BCattbias Gorvinns, King of 

Hungary, 1458-1490.) 


Qneen of Hungary, tl647, 

married to FKBDisrANn L 

of Habebuig, Emperor of Germany, 

who nnited Hungary with 

Austria, tlMl. 

Lotns II., Posthumue^ 

King of Httngarr, 1616-1028, 

perished at Mohacz. 

608 Bosm nanoD. — sbhoa'by. 

in HangariftQ hiBtoiy. The An^erin priooes of Himgarj dii- 
tingoiBhed themeelYes fayorablj above those of Naples by their 
saporior capacity and restless activity.; they maintained the 
royal dignity against the magnates and clergy, and were power- 
fully supported by the Romish Pope, their Kumanian auxil- 
iaries, and the many foreigners of talent and learning, whom 
they placed in important offices around the throne. The warn 
with the Venetian Republic in Dalmatia, and 1^ intimate re- 
lations of Hungary with Naples and France, prodnoed great 
changes in the ideas, manners, and social habits of the Magyars. 
French and Italian became tilie language spoken at court and 
among the nobility, who now began to abandon their Tarter 
usages. High schools were opened in Fosf kirchen (Peca) in 
1367, and King Sigismund eretcted the first university in 
Buda-Pesth, 1388.*** The produce of the mines in the Gaq>a- 
thian Mountains and Transylvania ^Eoriched <^e treasury ; the 
Court of Wissegrad vied with those of Paris and Naples in 
splendor and enjoyments, while the victorious armies exjteodr 
ed the frontiers of the kingdom. Louis the Great was worthy 
of his name ; he ruled his vast empire for forty years wilJi 
extraordinary energy and justice, and succeeded in uniting 
Magyars and Poles into a powerful nation, the bulwark of 
Europe in the EasL We shall here take -a review of the 

*** A nnmber of oonventual and parocbial schools had already b«en 
establifihed in Hungary daring the eleventh century. In the twelfth 
many youths» devoting themselves to the church, received their educa- 
tion in the university of Paris. The first attempt at a college — Siudivm 
General&^ia Hungary, was made in 1320, by King Ladislaw HI. at 
Vesprim, where the free arts, theology and jurisprudence were taught 
to- a numerous assembly of students from every part of the kingdom. 
The Latin language had already supplanted liie Tou^ native tongue 
of the Magyars, yet many precious specimens of the popular dialect 
of this period have been preserved, in national ballads, war-songs* Mag- 
yar translations of the Golden Bull of King Andrew II., and in transla- 
tions of the sacred Scriptures, made as early as 1882. The development 
of the Magyar literature itself does not* however, begin before the six- 
teenth century. 

feographj of Huogary and ita dependencies towairds the dose 
of the fourteenth ee&tury) immediately before the advantie of 
the Ottoman Turks on the Danube, and the deoline of the 
Magyario empire. 

556. Limits and Division. — ^A, The Kingdom op Hun- 
aAUY was bounded on the north and east by the Carpathian 
range— i^o^MZ^ — on the south by the Danube, and its tribu'- 
tftry, the Sjaye, and on the west by the mountains of Oaienr 
burgf and the rivers Lctfmtz^ Ldth^^ Ikmube, and Marchj' 
which separttted it from Austria and Moravia. It embraoed 
the two principal provinces of ike Magyar empire : — ^I. Mag- 
yAB.-ORSZA« — Mungaria Propria — ^with- the provinces of 
Sclavoma and Sffrmia; and II. IhiDELY-OsszAG — SUhen* 
burgen — the Seven Castles— or Transylvania. 

557. HuNGAaY Pkopsr, the i^pe of the Magyar race, 
had its natural division in I., Western (Lower) Hungary^ by 
the Danube, subdivided into the Ci^DantMan and Trans* 
Dantdian cirdeSy aAd in II,, JSasiem (Upper) Hungary^ 
which the river Th^ss separated into the ds-Tiibi^an vaA 
Trans- Tibiscan circles. These four circles contained fifty- 
three comitats — gespannsckaften (253, 314), the names of 
which are already funiliar to the historical student from tiie 
mekneholy events of tile late insurrection in 1848^ 1849. On 
the east and north of the Danube lay the counties of Pesth^ 
Zolthj BacSf Bodrogh, Neogradj Honthj Sohly Gran, Bars^ 
Thurocz^ LiptOy Arva, Trenicsin^ Neithra^ Eimtomy and JPo- 
Sony (Pressburg). On the south and west of that river, the 
counties of Filis (between Gran and Buda), Raaby Mosony 
(Wieselburg), iSq^ony (Oedenbfirg), Vasvar (Eisenburg), west 
of the dense and dreary forest of Bakony^ which extended 
south to Szalad, on the lake of Baiatony and east to Ves- 
prim ; farther, Szekes-Feijervar (Stublweissenburg), Somog* 
yvar (Sumegh), Tdna and Baranyvar^ in the swampy delta 
between the Danube and the Drave. 

670 maam fb&iod. — wmoAxr. 

558. The oomitats in the Tibisoan circles were : on ih» easi 
of the Theifls : MarmaraSy the border-country on the Eastern 
Carpathians, through the defiles of which the Mongol swarms 
had invaded Hungary in 1241 ; Ugosz, Szathmar^ SzcAolcz, 
the two large comitats of the Outer and Middle Szoinak^ ex- 
tending through the immense plains between the Theiss and 
the highlands of Transylvania ; Bihar , Kraszna, Bellies, Za- 
rand, on the river Koros ; Gsanard and Arad^ on the Maros; 
Toronial^ TemeSy and Kra^ssava, south on the Danube, in the 
*Banat of Temesvar. On the west of the Theiss were situated 
tiie comitats of Unghvary Beregh, Zemplin, in the island be- 
tween the Theiss and the Bodrog, where the sunny hiUs <^ 
Tokay were cultivated with vines in the times of King Louis 
of Anjou ; Aba- Ujvar^ SaroSf Barsod, Totnay ZipSy G^mor^ 
and Heves. 

559. The Solavonian and Strmian provinces — Horvath 
and TfOh-Orizag — between the rivers Save, Drave, and Da-- 
nube, formed the southwestern frontier counties of Hungary. 
They were divided into the comitats : Warasdifiy on the 
Brave, Zagord, belonging to the powerful Counts of Cilly 
(520), Zagrab, KHrdiy Verocze, Poschega^ Valko, and the jS^- 
mian peninstday between the Save and the Danube, with t^e 
important fortress of Semliny opposite to Belgrade, in Servian 
Syrmia was held by the distinguished family of the 

11. T&ANSTLVANiA (33, 314), the beautiful and fertile pro- 
vince, east of Hungary Proper, surrounded by mountains, and 
watered by the SzamoSy Marcs, and Aluta, became later an 
independent principality, under the sway of the Zapolyas, in 
opposition to Austria It was divided into the comitats, Bis- 
triz and the Saxon Noderlandy protecting the northeastern 
frontiers of Mount Krapak, toward the Bukowina, and, there- 
fore, granted to the warlike family of the Hunyads ; in the in- 
terior, Doboka and InnerSzolnoky on the Sssamos; Sb/os, 


Tkorda^ Kiikullo, Feijetvar (Weissenburg), JBhzsegj and 
Ilunyad,im the southwest, protecting the celebrated defiles 
of VolkaUy on the Sohyl, and of Vasag or the Iron-Gate, open- 
ing on the plains of Temesvar. The upper valley of the Ma- 
ros and the eastern frontiers were inhabited by the warlike 
Turco- Magyar tribe of the Szeklers (253), and divided into 
the districts of Maros, Udvar/idyj and Harom, Southern 
Transylvania, or the Saxon Country, was colonized by Oertiians, 
and contained the districts of the Weiniand, the hill-country 
between the Maros and Aluta, Fagaras and the Burzenlandy 
southeast on the Wallachian frontiers, which earlier had been 
intrusted to the protection of the Teutonic Knights. 

560. In no part of Europe do we find, during the middle 
ages, and even at the present day, so many nations ai different 
origin, language, and manners, living together under the same 
government, as in Hungary. Of the ten or twelve millions 
inhabiting the highlands and plains between the Carpathian 
Mountains and the Danube, four millions only were Magyars 
(253), the conquering and ruling nation which held the sway, 
but occupied only some parts of that vast territory. Their 
settlements lay mostly on the Danube, Theiss, and Maros, and' 
in the counties bordering on Germany. Different Sclavo- 
NiAN tribes, the Slotaaks^ Rvthemans or Malo-RussianSj and 
others, inhabited the mountainous re^ons of Siibar, Zips, 
and MarmaroSy along the southern slope of the Carpathians 
where they became blended with Bhenish and other German 
colonists, who, as industrious and intelligent miners, explored 
the rich ores of the mining districts of Sckemnitz^ KemnitZy 
and Neu-Sohl, On the sandy plain between the Theiss and 
Danube, were seen the straggling tents of forty thousand Ku- 
MANIC families, whom King Bela lY. had established there, 
contrary to the desire of his Magyar subjects.'*' Their dis- 

*" On the approach of the Mongols, the King was forced to impri- 
0on their chie( KatfaeD-Chon, together with his noblea» and when th« 
blaze of homing village* and towns announced the rapid mardi of the 


triot was divided into Naoy-Kunszag — Great Sjumania^^ 
on the east of the Theiss, and Kis-Kunszag — Lesser Kutna- 
nitty westward, between that river and the Danube. South of, 

Tartars upon Pesth, the frightened multitude stormed the royal palace 
and slaughtered the Kuman hostages, unjustly suspecting them of hav- 
ing betrayed the mountain passes to the invaders. The enraged 
horde then, in all earnest^ went over to the Mongols, and committed 
sach atrodouB crOelties on the Hungarian families whidi fell into 
their hands, that the Magyar nation nevei* afterwards would forgive 
their descendants, though they remained in the country, protected by 
the Anjou Kings^ and forming their faithful body guard. 

** The peaceful existence of a German State in the midst of Sclavo- 
nic, Wallachian, uid Hungarian countries, is an interesting historical 
phenomenon. Herman, a German chief, is said to have founded these 
colonies, and built Hennanstadt^ about a. n. 1000^ Mora certain, how- 
ever, is, that King Geisa U., in 1143, invited a number of German &m* 
ilies from Franeonia* Westphalia, and Thuringia, then sjoffering from 
the violent fenda of the Welfis andWalblingers (897), to settle down in 
the incult woodlands of JSlcuk JSwiffaiy, or Transylvania (314), and 
with their German broadswords defend their new home from the Tar- 
tar cavalry hovering on the eastern frontiers. The Magyars called the 
new-oomers Szaszokt (Hospites TeutomciX and th« Arpadian Kings 
granted them certain immumties and priTilcges^ by which that qaiet^ 
laborioua people was enabled to forp their own municipal and eccle- 
siastical government They cleared the forest> and, assisted by the 
straggling Petchenegues and Wallachians, who, as herdsmen, tended 
their cattle and sheep, they soon became comfortable and wealthy. 
No feudal burdens called them away from the plough ; nor did they 
soffev any hsredUary nobiUtytotpnxig up among them; tho^ those in? 
telligent baekwoodsmrai have preserved their democratic liberty W 
the present day. In their mountain-girt and secluded valleys they en- 
joyed the blessings of civil and religious liberty, still more strength- 
ened by the austerest morals and brotherly union ; yet often disturb- 
ed by the sweeping incursions of the Turkish cavalry, who scoured the 
open plains of Hungary, and planted their cresoent-banners in the 
aubarbs of Vienna But the Spahia found the stout Germans prepared 
for defeooe. The Saxon ploughed hia field witli the sword at his belt 
The churchyard of his village was a turretted fortress, from which the 
watchman sounded the alarm, and the first glimpse of the turban on 
tiie. distant mountain tops, waa the signal for the frighted fiimilies» with 
tibeir cattle and provisions* to hurry toward the Houae of God— ^o<tM- 


ihe Kumani, in the Bacs Country, on the Lower Duinbe, 
dwelt the nomadic Jaztges (33, 45, 90), who served as 
mounted archers in the Hnngarian armies, while the conntrj 
nortii was occupied by the Haydukes, or Freebooters, a Bui- 
garo-Serrian tribe, well known in modem military history 
as the best light infantry of the Austrian armies in the 
eighteenth century. Horvaths (Groats), Bulgars and Raitzi 
(Servians), the fiercest of the Danubian 8clavi, inhabited the 
provinces on the Save, and rendered, during the fifteenth cen- 
tury, important services to the kingdom in the wars with the 
Ottoman Turks. 

561. Still more divided among heterogeneous tribes was 
the Hill-Country. Numerous Saxon and Dutch colonies had, 
since the thirteenth century, transformed the woodland val< 
leys of the MaroSf Kockd^ and AhUa, into a flourish- 
ing garden, where, embosomed among vineyards and or- 
chards, arose the German cities of Hermanstadt (Szeben), 
MiMenbach and Sronstadt,^ The latter city, situated 
at tibe northern base of the Wallachian Mountains, in the 
Bunenland (559), was granted to the Knights of the 
Teutonic Order, on tiieir return from Palestine. But their 
arrogant bearing and ambitious pretensions caused King 
Andrew II. to expel them, sword in hand, in 1224. Only 
the Knights Hospitallers of Saint John in Jerusalem (340), 
succeeded in obtaining a firm footing in Hungary, where those 
gallant monk-warriors contributed powerfully to the defence 
of the Danube lines against thtii Ottoman Turks. Another 
tribe, differing from the rest, were the Szbklers, about whom 
we have spoken above (559). The adjacent valleys were 
occupied by the Wallachian shepherds — the Rumani — 

Aawr— which the brave Oermami had <^ten defended with sticcesfl. Yet^ 
the misery inflieted by the Turks in later times, by their miion with the 
insurgent Zapoly an Princee of TnuuylYania, ia remembered to the pre- 
sent day, and the Hungarian m<^er stiU huahes her restiesa child 
with the threat of "The Tartar is eoming''-— 7%ofi jinnek a Tmridrok 


descendants of the Roman or Daco-Latin population of ancient 
Dacia (33), who still speak a corrupt dialect of the Latin 
language.*" Among the many nationalities of mediseyal 
Hungary, we meet with the Gypsies^ — ZinganioT Zigeuner^ 
that roaming Hindoo tribe, which made its first appearance on 
the Carpathian Mountains about the middle of the fif ie^ith 
century. Having been driven from their home on the hanks 
of the Indus, in Scinde and Guzxerate, by the irruption of the 
Mongols, they fled westward, and numerous bands of them 
settled down in Hungary, as smiths or horse-dealers, and 
rendered themselves useful in Transylvania, by washing and 
digging for gold in the beds of the rivers. More obnoxious 
than the Gypsies became* the Jews, who, having obtained 
some privileges by King Bela 11. , in ihe course of time 
contrived to bring the commerce and currency of the country 
within their control, and the greatest monarch of Hungary, 
Louis of Anjou, found it therefore expedient. to expel them 
from the kingdom in 1352. The proud Magyars, occupied 
with military exercises, feuds, and intrigues, treated the 
foreign settlers with arrogance and contempt, but the prudent 
Angevin kings cherished their industry, lightened their 
burdens, 'and thus preserved the existence of those rival 
nationalities, which have afforded the Austrian princes the 
means to control and bridle the Hungarians, and -counteract 
all their strenuous efforts to restore the independence of the 
«rown of Saint Stephen. 

662. Cities and Historical Sites in Hungary. — Wisse- 
QRAD — Castrum Alburn^ or Blendenburg, on its elevated and 
romantic site, overhanging the Danube, north of Buda, became 
the residence of the Kings of the Arpadian and Angevin 
dynasties. There the awful tragedy took place, on April 17, 
1330, in which the old nobleman, Felician of Zaach, attempted 

"^ See interesting details on the manners and language of the Ra- 
mani of Wallachia, bj Bey. Dr. Walsh, in his travels through the Prln* 
cipaiities. London, 1880. (We qaote from memory.) 

EiaHTH PEEIOD. — Him<JART. 676 

to revenge on the royal ^family the mortal injury which his 
beautiful and innocent daughter Clara had sufibred from the 
wild passions of King Casimir of Poland.*®* There too the 
young King Sigismund was kept a prisoner by the Hungarian 
people until he had guaranteed them the enjoyment of their 
(barter and liberties. Buda, with Pesth, on the opposite 
eastern bank of the Danube, was the later capital and largest 
city in Hungary, On the square of Saint GeorgCy the weak 
and worthless; King LadislawY., instigated by the treacheroits 
oounta of Cilly, ordered the execution of the eldest son of 
John Hunyad in 1456, which caused his own destruction, and 
raised the younger brother Matthias Oorvinus to the Hunga- 
rian thronei In Fdjervar (StuhlMireissenburg), southwest of 
Buda, yith its splendid cathedral, the Hungariim kings Were 
crowned and buried. On the plain of Mohi^ in the comitat 
of Toma, near the junction of the riyer Hemad and the 
Theiss,. was fought the great battle between Batu-Chan, the 
Mongol (38f5), and the Hungarians, in which the latter, out- 
flanked and oyerwbelmed by the Mongol myriads, suffered a 
total defeat in 124L At Rozgony, on the rirer Tarcza, in 
the Zips, Charles Robert, by the gallantry of the Ejiights 
Hospitallers, on the 15th June, 1312, vanquished and slew 
the Count of Trentcsin, and, forcing his rebellious faction to 
submission, secured the Hungarian crown to the Anjou 
dynasty. Ung- Vary in the Carpathian ridge, was the first 
city conquered by the Magyars, in 855, and from which they 
are supposed to have been called Hungarians (Ungars). 
Mokacs, on the western bank of the Danube, south of Buda, 
became the fatal battle-field on which the last King of Hon* 
gary, Louis II. Posthumus, perished with his small but 
devoted army, against Sultan Suleyman II., on the 29th of 
August, 1526, and Hungary ceased to be an independent 

^ See the accoant of tiiia event in John Paget' s Hungary ana 
IVansykfama^ toL i, page 199. The ruina of the old castle preserve 
still to this day the popular appellation of Wif^egrddi-Cldrck^ in con^^ 
memoratioo of the unhappy ms^cUo, 


empire. Munkaes, Komom^ Warcudin, Temesvar^ and 
SemHnj in Syrmia, were for oentnries the bulwarks of the 
kingdom. Kolasvar (Klausenlmrg), on the Szamos, in Tran* 
Bjlyania, was the birthplace of Matthias Corvinus. Karls- 
hurgy on the Maros, south of the former, ihe residenee of the 
gr^t John Hunjad. In the Cathedral of Saint Michael, the 
tombs of the Hunyad family are still revered by the. unhappy 
Magyar people, so sensitiye to its former glory.^^ Vasag 
(the Iron-gate), on the border of the Banat, Volkany Veres- 
Torony (Red Tower), Tondurg^ and, Oitaschy were defiles 
in the Carpathian Mountains, opening on the plains of Walla- 
chia and Moldayia, which were fortified by towers, and intrust- 
ed to the vigilance of the Scekl^r Borderers. Influential 
families among the Magyar magnates were the Coui^ts of 
Trentcsin, in the north, the Bathoryy Nadasdj Erdody^ 
Bereny,£fodervary Kanisa, Battyan^ Orszag, and SzHagyi^ 
Kapoly^ on the Lake of Balatan, and the Fcdffy^ in the 
comitat of Bacs. None, however, became so distinguished as 
the powerful Hvnyadi, possessing immense estates in Tran- 
sylvania, the Banat of Temesvar, and Syrmia. In the west 
we meet with the Counts of Zapolya and the Styrian Counts 
of Cilly (526, 559), who exercised the most pernicious influence 
on Hungarian politics, and by their hate against the Hunyadi 
caused endless disorders in the kingdom. 

563. B. Defendbkoies of the Huhoai^ian Emfxre in 


DOM OF Galicia, (uow Lodomcria and Bukovina), north and 
northeast of the Carpathian range, was early conquered by the 

■" The Ml figures of the a&cient heroet, though much injured hy 
time or the WAnton instilts 4}f the Anstriaiu^ sUE decorate the coven of 
the sarcophagi The marble statue of John of Hunyad is represented 
OS dothed in a flowing mantle, heneath which is seen the tight fionga- 
rian costume of the time. Other figures are dressed in armor, "bat 
with their waists more ridiculously pinched in," says Paget^ " than 
even a Paris milliner would venture on." 

EiGsm PERIOD. — mmoARY. 677 


Arpadian kings— 1185^1220— but the Mi^yar dominion be- 
yond the mountains could only be maintained by force of 
arms, dnd the nominal pretensions were therefore ceded to 
Poland, in 1423. The conn^ was divided into the three 
principalities of Belz, Przemyslj and Salicz. The inhabit- 
ants were Buthenians or Russnialcs (303, 451), a rough but 
industrious race, who professed the Greek religion, and occu- 
pied theOarpathianyaEeys &r into Hungury. Their principal 
cities were Przemyd and Jaroslaw. Leopolis (Lemberg) was 
the residence of the princes of Halicz. Seventy Greek 
churches and convents denoted the piety of the citizens. 
Many Greek merchants were settled there, and the unhappy 
fugitives from Constantinople, in 1453, found a hospitaUe 
reception among thdr kind-hearted oo-religiomsts in Galicia. 

II. The kingdom of Caoatia and Dalvaha, south of 
the Save, and extending along the shores of the Adriatic to 
the Gulf of CoHaro^ was concpered by King Ealmany in 
1102 (260). The Hungarians pursued their success; all 
Dalmatia — ^with the exception of Uie islands off the coast, 
early occupied by the Venetians, — the kingdoms of Bama, 
Bosnia, and Western Se&via, were subdued between the 
years 1127 and 1138. The sly Venetians, however, profiting 
by the xntemal feuds among the Arpadian Princes, recovered 
Ihe sea-coast, but were finally expelled during the brilliant 
campaigns of Louis the Great, in 1356*1357, and thenceforth 
Croatia was permanently united with the Hungarian crown. 
The possession of llie Dalmatian coast proved troublesome to 
the Hungarian kings, because they neglected the ports and 
naval establishments, though they continued in such intimate 
relations to Naples ; and the native Dalmatians, as a ilea- 
fsring people, preferred the Venetian Bepublicans to the 
Hungarian Hussars. The revolution broke out in 1419 ; the 
Magyars were driven out of the country, and the banner of 
Saint Mark floated again along the sunny coast. 

A republican constitution was then introduced into the 
cities, under the protection of a Venetian proweditore ; but 


the warlike Dalmatianis of Poglins, the Moblaohs or Sea- 
Wallachs of the lAtorale^ or co&st-diBtrict, aad the roying 
Haidukes (Robfoer-captains) on the table-lands of the Dina- 
rian Alps, maintained their independence. They were always 
in arms, and lived by depredations on sea and land. The 
Hungarian kings, in order to flatter and conciliate the Groats, 
ennobled their chiefs, and formed numerous counties, such as 
those of Zengh, Carbavia, Lika^ Grodnischj Zrintfy nay, the 
entire district of TurqpoHoj on the beautiM plain of Turoi 
consisting of thirty-three villages, was ennobled by King Belo 
IV. All the inhabitants ranked with the Magyar aristocracy 
and sent special deputies to the Hungarian diets. Belog&ad 
or Zatu-Vecchia fras the ancient residence of the Croatian 
kings. SebenicOf with a splendid cathedral, profited by its 
excellent harbor to become a thriving comniiercial city. Zara 
( Jadera), on the coast, the most unruly of cities, became 
the eye-sore of Venice on aitcount of the repeated rebellions 
of its citizens, and the immense sacrifices of men and money 
which its reduction cost the Bepublic. The Dalmatians 
were a handisome and intelligent people, whose principal in- 
dustry consisted in ship-building; they plied the Adriatic 
as &r as the Archipelago and Constantinople with hundreds 
of caravels and quick sailing barks ; Dalmatia itself is one of 
the most fertile and picturesque regions on the shores of the 

564, III. The Bepublio of Bagusa (139, 369) having 
placed itself under the protection of Hungary, — 1358-1526 
-^may be ranked among the Sckvonian States, during this 
period dependent on the Magyar empire. This small but 
highly intelligent people deserve the more our attention, 
because it was the only one of all the Slavic States that had 
adopted a republican form of government, which it succeeded 

■* Fop a defcription of Dalmatia and MmUe Negro irith many his- 
torioal detuLs, see the eloquent work of Sir Gardener Wil^nson. 
London, 1846. Vola. I, IL 


in maintaining by bravery and shrewd policy between powerful 
neighbors until it was swept away by the storms of the Na- 
poleonic wars.*** Its territory extended over a surface of 102 
square miles, and consisted of a narrow and rocky tract on the 
coast, rnnning out into the projecting peninsula of ScMion- 
ceMo, and of the small islands Meleda^ Cazza, and Lagosta, 
with a population of 70,000 inhabitants, of a mixed Slavo- 
Italian origin. Ragusa soon became a flourishing and 
important city ; its government was directed by a Senate and 
two Councils, at the head of which a Rettorey or president, 
held the executive power. Treacherous Venice attempted 
repeatedly to subvert the independence of her rival, but 
prudent Ragusa placed itself under the protection first of the 
Byzantine empire, and, on its decline, under that of King 
Louis of Hungary, while its brave mariners, beating off th« 
Venetians, hoisted their flag in every port of the Mediter- 

565. IV. The Kingdom of Baha (Bosnia) was bounded by 
the Save on ihe north, on the west the Unna separated it fjcom 
Oroatia, and on the east the Drin from Servia. Southward it fol- 
lowed the course of the Dinarian Alps j but touched the Adriatic 
coast on the river Narenta. This mountainous region was well 
watered by the rapid rivers Bosna, Verbas, Pliva, Sanniza, 
and Bama ; its valleys were fertile, and the scenery of sur- 
passing beauty. Its rich gold and iron mines in the Alps 
were worked by the ancient Romans, but neglected by the 
indolent Bosniaks (Bosnians), the most barbarous of all the 
Sclavonians on the Danube* Rama"® was early divided into 

'^ The French General Lauriston took possessioQ of the nentral 
Republic in 1806. RaguM was besieged and taken by the Austrian* 
in 1814, and forms at present a circle in the government of Dalmatic 
Of all the Italian Republics of the Middle Age8» only the small San 
Marinot on Mount Apennines has surrived. 

"* Bosnia obtained its earlier name of Bama from a mountain 
torrent of that name discharging itself into the Narenta, and that of 
Bomiia from the principal riTcr Bosna, originating in the Dinarian 
Alpe^ and running northward into the Sare. 


the proTinoefl: UuorOf SalOj Varasch^ Kraktma^ Orach 
(Suitowa), and Fodrima, with the prinoipalities of Gzesna- 
GORA (Montenero) and Z^nta, on the firontiers of Albania, 
and the two duohies of Bama, in the Alps, and San Saba, or 
Herzegataina, west of the mountains on the Narenta and the 
rocky coast of the Adriatic. The principal cities were: 
Jaicza (the Oval Oity) and Banjaluka, both on the Yerbas, 
and ancient capitals of the Kings of Rama. Tratonick and 
Sarajevo, on the Bosna, strong and populous cities in the 
mountains. Mostar and lAvno impregnable fortresses in the 
passes of the Herzegowina. Rama formed earlier a part of the 
kingdom of Servia, and was governM by Vcivods, until 
Twartko threw off the yoke in 1375, and calling in the Hun- 
garians, obtained the royal title &om King Louis, as a reward 
for his duplicity. The influence in Bosnia of so actire a 
monarch as Louis of Anjou, became soon all-powerful, prind- 
pally on account of the yiolent religious disturbances in that 
country, and the crusade preached by the Pope against the 
Bosnian heretics — ^ihe PcUerins ^" — ^w^se conyersion by fire 
and sword was intrusted to the King of Hungary. Swarms 
of Franciscan and Dominican Monks accompamed the invading 
army in 1352, and exerted -themselves with an excessive zeal 
in the conversion of the heretics, but with no success; they 
only served the political views of the Magyar Kings, whose 
yoke under Sigismund became so insupportable that the Bos* 
nians, in 1415, called the Ottoman Sultan to their relief. The 
victorious arms of the great Matthias Oorvinus once more 

'^^ These Paterini — ^Eathars or Eetsers — seem to haye followed the 
Unitarian doctrines of the unhappy PatUieians, wboin the Greek Em- 
peror John Tzimisces had transported from Armenia to Mount Hsemus^ 
in Thrace (266). They formed a nxmierous sect in Bosnia, whose 
inhabitants belonged to the Oreek Chnroh, and they were by the 
Latins called Bogomiles^ beeanse they were aocnstomed frequently to 
inyoke the diyine mercy in the Sclayonian tongue. Boo, in that lan- 
guage, signifies Chd, and lacyi is equiyalent to the Greek imperatiye 
4K4iiirw, th<>w merey I Therefore Bog-miiyi or BogomHes. 


reconquered Bosnia, in 14712, and pheed a yaaeal king ont&e 
throne; but the OsmanliB under Snleyman II., prostrated the 
Hongariani at Mohaos, in 1526, and took permanent posses- 
si<m of all the lands south of the Danube. 

566. y. Ths Eingdok of Bascia (Servia), the ancient 
Moesia Superior (34, 368), extended along the southern bank 
of the Saye and the Danube, ^m the 2>rtn, on the west, to 
the THmok on the east. The high range of Mount Scardus 
(Schardagh) formed its natural boundary on the south. 
Lower chains stretch northward, through the country which 
is watered by the broad and rapid Morava and its tributaries, 
the Ibar, Topliosa, and others. Servia, or Serblia, was 
divided into the Banat of Hbuhcfu (Longofneria)^ on the 
Danube, conquered by King Stephen II. of Hungary in 1 128; 
the principality of Branitzowa; and eight voivodats : 1, 
Ressawa; 2, Temnitz; 3, Czernagora; 4, Stariwla; 5, 
Metqja ; 6, Kossaufa ; 7, Schtspa ; and 8, Nis^atffa. The 
counties of ZEirrA on the lake of Scutari, and Podrima, in 
Bascia Proper, were afterwards wrested from Serbia by the 
Krals of Bosnia. Krtjschevacz (Turk. Aladja Hissar), on 
the western Morava, was after Scodra (35) the residence of 
the Servian kings. Their sepulchral vaults were sit^ated in 
Frocupia (Kralowa) or royal town), southwest of the former, 
BranUzowa^ a fortress on the Danube, idiieh gallantly with- 
stood the Byzantine Greeks. Still more celebrated was 
Belgrade Belograd, Alba GfracUf near the ruins of the 
ancient Singedunum (34), on the southern bank of the Da- 
nube, opposite to Semlin, in Syrmia. This strcmgly fortified 
city became the bulwark, not only of Hungary, but of aU 
Christendom, against the terrible invasions of the Ottomans 
during the fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. King Salomon 
of Hungary had conquered it from the Byzantines in 1073, 
daring the troubles of Constantinople preceding the accession 
of Alexius Comnenus (324), who re-took it from the Hun- 
garians. Belgrade was then alternately in the possession of 


the Bolgaiians and SwvianSy and from the latter, S^smund 
brought it back to Hungary. John Hunyad defended the 
<»ty yictoriottsly against the Turks in 1442, and when Mo- 
hammed II., <^ter the capture of Constantinople, appeared 
before Belgrade with 200,000 Turks, the Magyar hero and 
the brave Franoisoan monk Capistran defeated them in three 
pitched battles beneath the walls— July 14, 21, 22, 1456 — ^and 
forced the furious Sultan to raise the siege with a loss of more 
than 60,000 men. Nor did the Ottomans obtain possession of 
the eity until the great invasion of Suleyman II. in 1521.*^* 
Smederawo (Semendria),on the junction of the Morava with the 
Danube, was a city likewise illustrious by brilliant sieges and 
battles during the Turkish wars. At Kossoway on the banks 
of the Schitnitoza, was fought the bloody batde between 
Servians and Turks oU llie 15th of June, 1389, which ter- 

■" Belgrade became stronger after every siege. The city consisted 
of four different parts: 1, the AeropolU, or fortress, situated on a 
towering rock, in the centre of the whole, commanding the Danube 
from its high walls and massy towers. Its triple moats were filled with 
water, immense outworks defended the approach ; the interior of the 
fortress^ with its bomb-proof casemates, deep cisterns, and subter- 
raneous passages, was the residence of the commander-in-chief of the 
Danubian frontiers, and later of the Turkish Pasha of Servia. A broad 
esplanade separates thecasUe from 2, fbe Water Town^ the finest quarter 
of the city, likewise carefully fortified toward the Daaube ; and 8, the 
oity of the Bascians westward, on the Save, protected by palisades 
and batteries. The extensive suburb Palankti, with its bazaars, on the 
south and east of the fortress, formed the fourth quarter of Belgrade^ 
t)ie number of whose inhabitants was then larger than at the present 
day — 80,000 souls. Several small islands lie before Belgrade, the 
larger of wliich, that of the Cfypnet, was fortified, and belonged to the 
defensive system of the town. The flames, bombardments, and other 
havoo of war have left little of the medieval city of Belgrade. All 
the fortifications were lately in a dilapidated state ; the edifices of the 
castle were fast mouldering away, and nothing met the eye of the tra> 
veller but filth and Turkish squalidness and misery. At the present 
moment, however, great repairs no doubt are going on, and Belgrade 
may yet become the palladium of Ottoman heroism, as it formerly had 
been that of the Magyars. 


minated in the total defeat of the former, and the down&ll of 
their kingdom. Their last King Lazar Brankowitch was 
eaptured by the Turks; but Sultan Murad L, while crossing 
the battle-field, was cut down by a noble Servian, Milosoh 
Kobilawitch,^ who rose suddenly among the slain. The 
infuriated Ottomans then slaughtered the Servian king and 
prisoners, and spread bloodshed and devastation all over the 
country."* Half a century later-*— in 1448 — John Hunyad 
and Murad II. met in arms on the same field, and the Chris- 
tians, in spite of the heroic bravery b^ the Hungarians, were 
again outflanked and defeated, after a fearful slaughter of 
three days — October 18-20. Hunyad escaped from the field, 
but fell into the hands of the treacherous Krai of Servia. 

567. Stepfaeir Boistlaw had, in 1040, thrown off the Byzan* 
tine yoke (324). Able and active chiefs succeeded him on the 
throne, the most celebrated of whom was Stephen Duschan — 
1336-1356. Stephen not only repelled all the attacks of the 
Byzantines, but carried his arma into the heart of Epirus, to 
Joannina, and took the title of Czar ; nay, he granted his 
^people one of the most humane and enlightened codes of the 
Middle Ages, breathing a noble and benevolent spirit, and 
securing llie peace and prosj^ty of his beautiful but unhappy 
country. The Servian statutes — Zakon y Ustaw — ^bndled the 
arrogance of the nobles — KncBses-^^aad protected the peas- 
antry and settlors — posadntks. Clergy, voivods, and nobles, 
sat in the diets and took part in the legislation. A body of 
German troops strength^ied the national army, which was 

*'* The extensive heath on whioh this important battle was fought 
wag called the Plain of Merles, in Sclavonian Kouowo-polje, aod in 
Magyar Jtigo-niatew, West of the oity stands the Mausoleum erected 
there foy the Turks to the memory of their Sultan. Lamps are burn- 
ing day and night within the tyrbS, or sepulchral chamber, and a num- 
ber of Derwishes perform their religious service. Yet the Christian 
martyr has likewise his monument^ a large stone being placed on the 
grave of Milosch, and his countrymen still invoke there the retribution 
>f the Almighty. 


formed by the nobles, as yassals Qf ^e crown. Eyen a mili- 
tary order of Saint Stephen was established, and the kingdom 
divided into eight yoivodats, which were assigned to the 
most powerful of the Boyards. This proved a dangerous 
practice ; the turbulent chieftains aspired at independence, and 
thus prepared the dissolution of the Servian State. Louis 
the Great, in several successful campaigns, in 1359-1361, 
brought Servia under the supremacy of Hungary, and Lazar 
Braokowitch was obliged to renounce the royal title of Krai 
and as knass or vassal render homage to the Hungarian king. 
While the successors of Stej^en Duschan were engaged in 
civil feuds with their rebellious voivods, the Ottomans crossed 
the mountains. After the fall of Lazar Brankowitdi, at 
Kossowa, in 1389, the whole southern province fell into the 
possession of the Sultans; only in the north* the Brankowitch 
family, by their vacillating fimd treacherous policy between 
Hungary and the Sultan, still maintained their dominion, 
until the year 1459, when Mohammed made all Servia a 
Turkish province, under the name of Serf-Eyaleti. We have 
already touched on the spirited character of the Servian 
nation (196, 324, 368); tlie brilliant period of their histcnj 
still lives in the hearts of tiieir descendants, and is the theme 
of a thousand legends and songs, which paint the events and 
charact^s of the times with truth and fancy in a highly 
poetical and beautiful language.^^ 

568. YI. The Kingdom of BiTLOAau, eastward of Ser- 
via, followed the southern bank of the Danube from the Timok 
to the Black Sea, and Mount Haomus separated it on the south 
from the Byzantine province of Thrace. The flowery plains 

"* Th« .popular poetry of the SeryianB has attracted the attention 
of the learned in Europe, and many Bnoeeaafol translations haye been 
published by Dr. Bowring, Emanuel Geibel, the German poet^ and others. 
See the delightful work of Talvi : Bistorieal Vieto of the Zanguoffe and 
lAteraJture of the Slavie I^oUqm, edited by Professor Edward Robinsoo. 
• New-York, 1860. 8vo. 


and wood*cliML hiUa of Bulgaria, and tke opposite {tfoyinces 
^ of Wallachia and Moldavia, were, during the Middle Ages, 
jttst as at this present day, the high-road and battle-field of 
all the barbarians who migrated from Central Asia into 
Europe. There the light Sarmatian oavalry fought against 
the heavy Roman legions, and the Huns pursued the seat* 
tered Qoths (89). The Avars, Kumani, and Peteheneges, estab- 
lished their ephemeral empires on the northern banks of the 
river ; the Bulgarians alone retained their possessions on the 
soutii, after th^ most sanguinary wars with the Byzantine 
emperors. There the Ottoman Turks displayed their victorious 
orescent, and the white eagle of Poland fled before them. But 
for the last century the Mohammedan victors have been 
threatened by powerful Russia, whose armies at this very 
moment are advancing on the banks of the Danube, and 
%hting the battle of life and death with the Turks. The 
issue is yet doubtful, but it may result in the permanent oe- 
eupation of the principalities, and the final destruction of the 
Turkish dominion in Europe. Bulgaria is a fertile, plain 
country, highly favored by nature ; its climate is milder than 
that of the more mountainous Servia, its bottom-lands on the 
Danube less marshy than those of Wallachia, and its rich pas- 
tures in the plains and on ihe slopes of Mount Hsdmus are 
covered with flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, aod those 
small but strong and lively Bulgarian horses, which are so 
much i4>prectated in Turkey. The ancient Bulgarian king- 
dom had been destroyed by the Emperor Basil II. in 1018 
(3!24) ; but the Bulgarians chafed under the iron rod of By* 
zantium, and they broke forth into open rebellion, under 
their Wallachian leaders, Peter and Asan, in 1186. Aided 
by the Kumanio hordes, their King Johamtza vanquished 
and captured King Baldwin of Constantinople and his 
crusaders in 1207, and, uniting' with the Greek Emperor 
of Nicea, in Asia Minor, the Bulgarians formed a powerful 
kingdom north of Mount H»mus. Yet the nation remained 
savage ; their princes followed one another on the throne by 

686 mOHTH PERIOD. — ^BULGAltlA. 

oontinnal refrolutions. Yanqukhed and decimated by the 
Mongols, the Bulgarians were easily overpowered by the 
Hungarians, and King Louis, taking Widdin in 1365, main- 
tained his supremacy, until the invasion of the Ottomans, and 
the battle of Kossofva^ in 1389, carried the victorious Sultan 
to the banks of the Danube. Bulgaria fell an easy prey to 
the conqueror ; all the later attempts of the Emperor Sigis- 
mund in 1396, and the Polacco-Hungarian King Ladblaw YL, 
in 1444, to recover that important country, were frustrated 
by the invincible prowess of the Janissaries, and Bulgaria 
became a Turkish province, under the name of Bulgar-'llL 

569. Cities and Historical Sites in Bulgaria. — TeR- 
NOWA (367), on the Jantra, the ancient capital of the Bulga- 
rian kings. SUistria (IMstra), Ji^Uchin^ TuMska^ and Kos- 
tendghe, on the banks of the Danube, and in the narrow pe- 
ninsula — the Dobrudshe — ^formed by that river and the Black 
Sea. NicopoliSy westward on the Danube, became, on the 26th 
September, 1 396, the battle-field where the Emperor Sigismund 
and his splendid crusading army, by the foolhardiness of the 
French and Burgundian knights, were vanquished by Sultan 
Bajazet Ilderim, (Thunderbolt) and hundreds of noble Chris- 
tian prisoners slaughtered in cold blood by the Turks, after the 
conflict was over.*^* Ktmobiiza, on the south of Sofi4, in the 
defiles of Mount Hsdmus, where, on the 24th December, 1443, 
the great John Hunyad, after one of the most brilliant cam- 
paigns in the annals of Hungary, defeated the Turkish army 
of Kar4 Bei, and reoccupied the Danubian provinces, north of 

"* It was at NicopoliB that Sultan Bajaset^ having ordered the cap- 
tive prinoes and knights to pass before him in review, after the bat- 
tle, was struck with the dark and scowling look of the young Count of 
Neveri (496), the son of the Duke of Burgundy, and, after gazing stead 
fastly (HI him, turned to his Pashas and said: **Here is one whom toe 
must send home^ far if he gets hack to his own countr^y he will be the 
means of causing great troubles there, and keep the Oiaours busy among 
ihemmhee^ A true }Hrognostication of Sultan Thunderbolt I 


the monntaiiiB. Varna^ in a strong position on the Blaek Sea, 
at the month of the lake of Devna^ became, next year, in 1 444, 
the bulwark of the Turkish empire, and l^e sepulchre of the 
last crusading army of the west. In the environs of the city, 
on the swampy banks of the lake, was fought, on Noyember 
10th, that terrific battle between King Ladislaw YL and the 
old Sultan Murad (Amurad) II., which, by the treachery of 
Prince George of Servia, terminated with the death of the 
Hungarian King, and the total prostration of the Christian 
army. Only John Hunyad and his Hungarian light horse 
succeeded in cutting their passage through the Turkish masses, 
but all the contested provinces on the Danube were lost, and 
the formidable Mohammed II. was thus enabled, nine years 
later, by the conquest of Constantinople, to consolidate the 
Ottoman empire in Europe, and render it the terror of all 

570. VII. The Principalities op Wallachia and Mol- 
davia, north of the Danube, and west of the Carpathian 
Mountains, had, in the fourteenth c^tury, a more extensive 
frontier than at the present day. Moldavia, embracmg the 
hilly province of Boukowina, on the north, ran all alpng the 
western bank of the Dniester, thus inclosing the present Bes- 
sarabia and the northern branch of the Danubian Delta. The 
Pruth, the Berlad) and the Sereth^ joining the Moldawa and 
Bistrizta, descend from the Carpathian valleys, and fertilize the 
rich plains through which they flow. The Sereth formed the 
frontier line between Moldavia and Wallachia. . The latter 
principality, which is situated on the Danube and the souths 
western bend of the Carpatiiians, receives the Aluta from 
Transylvania and a great number of smaller rivers, which all 
discharge into the Danube. The original inhabitants of 
these magnificent countries were Daco-Romans, mixed with 
Goths and other German tribes, who, though subdued by 
Huns, Avars, Petchenc^s, Kumans, and other Tartar tribes, 
preserved most wonderfully their language and nationality, 


ttkd, throwing off the yoke of tlieir conqnerora, formed an 
independent state under Radnl the Black, toward the close 
of the thirteenth century. The. Wallachian Princes were 
called Voivods; the nobles, Boyards; the constitution was 
Sclayonio; the power of the Prince, despotic; and Prinoe 
Dragosh, a monster of iniquity, obtained the appeUation of 
Brakul — the But€keT--<m account of his unheard-of cruelty 
and bloodthirstiness. The crimes and disorders they occa- 
sioned facilitated the conquest of Wallachia by the Hunr 
garian kings. Yet the wise and generous Stephen, Yoiybd 
of Moldavia — 1458-1504 — ^maintained his independence, both 
against the Turks and Magyars, and it was not until the final 
oyerihrow of the latter, in the battle of Mohacs (562), in 
1526, that the Sultans d^nitively obtained possession of 
the two principalities, which they thenceforth governed by 
SbspodarSj chosen among the servile GonstantinopoUtan 
Princes — the Fhanariots — ^who crowded around the throne 
of their Osmanlis tyrants. The principal cities of Wallachia 
were : Buku&esoht (Bukarest), the capital and residence of 
the Hospodar, Tergounschtf Rimmkf on the Aluta, JTrq^eufo, 
and Saint George (Ojurgewo) and Breyla^ on the Danube; 
In Moldavia, which enjoyed a greater independence und^ 
Turkey, was Jaschy — Jazsky — ( Yassy) — ^Uie capital, near the 
river Pruth. Chozimy north on the Dniester, became a strong 
border fortress against the Poles, while Aleferniany at the 
mouth of that river, protected the coast lands against the ad- 
vancing Busjdans. The slopes of the Carpathian ridge were 
then highly cultivated by industrious Saxon isnd Armenian 
colonists. Picturesque churches and convents arose on every 
hill, and populous viQage^i, embosomed among vineyards and 
groves of frui^trees, embellished the valleys.^* But the rnth* 

"• " I Bdver sav,** eays John Paget^ "two countries of their extent 
(Wallachia and Moldavia) bo ricli in prodacUona^ ao fruitfal in re- 
sonrees ; the land is of the richest quality ; the greater part of it^ an 
idlttvial plain, with, a climate - the most favorable for prodnclion. 
Yeib with all these advantages, I never saw a coontiy so thinly popn- 


less scimitar of the Turks, the despotic goveminettt of :tl^ 
petty Greek Princes, their continual change by the suspicious 
Sultans, have, for centuries, rendered abortive the exuberant 
bounties of nature, and the exertions of the good-natured and 
industrious people of the WaMcLchs. 

571. EccLESiASTioAL DiviBioN OP HuNGARY. — ^With the 
eztm[ision of Christianity in the eleventh century, a new eccle- 
siastical division of the Hungarian territories became neces- 
aary, and thus we find the kin^om of Hungary proper, tow- 
ard the middle of the thirteenth century — 125&— divided into 
two provinces : I., Provincia Strigoniensis, with the archi- 
^iscopal see at GbnAN, on the Danube (253), and the Suf- 
fragan bishoprics of AgHa (Erlau), NUria (Nei1a*a), Quinque 
EcdesuB (Pecs or Fftnfkirohen), JafuHtm (Baab), Ve^prim 
and Vacen (Waczow or Waitzen), thus embracing all the north- 
em, central, and western comitats, between the Carpathians, 
the Theiss, the Drave, and the Austrian frontiers,— ^and II., 
Ppovincia Colocensis, with the archiepiscopal see at Colog- 
ZA, on the Lower Danube, and the suffragan bishoprics of 
Magnum Varadium (Bellarad or Great Wardein), Morisena 
(Modrusch or Ozaaad), on the Lower Maros, Alba Transyl- 
vanuz (Karlsbui^), and Agrcmi (Zagrab), in the Sclavonian 
province of Croatia, comprising Transylvania, Kumania, the 
Banat, the Bacs, the country between tiie Save and Drave, 
and extending its influence far into Bosnia, where we find the 
mention of a Latin episcopacy at Varch JBosna, on the river 
of that name. The arohbiriiop of Gran, as the primate of the 
Church, enjoyed the title of Cardinaiis Legattis Apostolicus, 
and immense revenues. The convents were numerous, princi- 
pally in the northern and western counties, and along the Da- 
nube. Several councils were held at Gran, Ofen, Posony, and 

Iftted^ nor a population so exoenively poor aad miMrable I Years of 
monopoly, oppression, and insecurity, have completed the ruin of the 
WaUaahs." — T^aveU in Bungoty amd TirwMylvimia. London, 1839, vol. 
£L, page 407. 

690 EIGHTH PSaUOD. — ^HimOA&T. 

Udward, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
Balmatia was divided into the four small archiepiscopal pro- 
vinces of Bagusa, Spalatro, Jabera (Zara), and AirnsARrs 
(Antivari), on the coast of Albania, with a number of suffirs- 
gan churches too insignificant to^be mentioned here.*^^ Servia 
and Bulgaria, belonging to the Greek chnrch of Constanti- 
nople^ had patriarchal sees at Ipse, on the Drinus, and at 
Ternowa, while the principalities of Wallachia — Ungaro- 
f>lachia — and Moldavia — Moldovlachia — ^ranged «nder the 
Latin province of Leopolis (Lelnberg), or under die {jfreek 
patriarchate of Halicz. 

572. Sach was the extent of the Hungarian Empire 
during the vigorous reign of Louis the Oreat; the Magyars 
advanced rapidly in the career of civilization ; the arms of 
John Hunyad repelled the Ottomans, and his still more suc- 
cessful son, Matthias Corvinns, who, by the vote of the whole 
nation, had been raised to the throne in 1467, carried Hun- 
gary to the height of her power and prosperity. He was, both 
in peace and war, the most active and enlightened monarch 
of his age. Tiorks, Austrians, and Poles were defeated; he 
maintained his sovereignty over Bohemia, made Yienna his 
capital, and turned his attention as well to the commercial 
and industrial development of his empire as to its intellectual 
progress. By the extension of the Buda, and the 
magnificent library, the largest in Europe, which he there 
opened for the benefit of the public, be conferred upon his 
nation its first claims to literary distinction. He brought 
order into the administration of the realm ; his fertile mind cre- 
ated new resources for the prosecution of his vast projects ; he 
enforced the vigorous execution of the tribunals, and repressed 
with a strong hand the arrogance of the magnates and . the 

"^See for farth«T details, the Mcdetiastictd Geography, by Beye- 
rend John Elieser Wiltsch, Berlin, 1846, toL II,. page 265, and the ao- 
<iompanying Atlea 8aeer, a valuable guide for the thorough study of 
the Church History of the middle ages. 


intrigaes of the hierarehj, by his Tigiknce and his high sense 
of justice, supported by the warm affection of the whole Mag- 
yar nation. His father had instituted a general conscription 
of the twentieth man — ^the Hussars — ^who later formed a standi 
ing division of the Hungarian army. Matthias organized a for- 
midable artillery, and the Black Legion of Bohemian cuiras- 
siers, which became a match for the janissaries and the most 
redoubtable body of troops in Europe. Yet all the bright 
creations of his genius went to ruin, through the incapacity 
of his successors; and, though Hungary stood one of the 
most aspiring powers at the close of the middle ages, she 
was the first state of the modern era that suddenly sank, 
through civil dissensions and foreign aggression, and pre- 
sented a warning example of the instability of monarchies, 
which, however well they may be organized, are dependent on 
the chance-talent of a single family. 


X. Kingdom op Portugax and Algarve. 

573. Historical Bemarks. — ^No European nation pos- 
sesses a more brilliant history than the Portuguese during 
the latter period of the middle ages, from the beginning of 
the thirteenth century to the middle of the sixteenth. From 
their small devastated territory, between the rivers Minho 
and Douro, the Portuguese, under a succession of warlike and 
active kings, intelligent statesmen, and daring navigators, not 
only drove the Moors from the western shores of the Penin- 
sula so early as a.d. 1250, and beating back the attacks of 
their proud Castilian neighbors, formed their independent 
and powerful monarchy ; but they soon followed up their 
victorious career against the Arabs, by the successful inva- 
sion of the opposite shores of Africa. To t^e possession of 
Ceuta, Tangier, and a number of cities and fortresses on the 
African continent — Algarh daquem do ?war— they boldly 


steered their eoorse thrcnigli the wsres of the trnknown At- 
lantic, and discovering and colonising the beantifdl islands 
of Madeira, the Azores, Porto Santo, and those of Cape 
y erd, thej donbled the promontory of Good Hope, and, hj the 
conquest of the East Indian coasts and islands, laid the 
foundation of that astonishing colonial empire which raised 
Portugal, within half a century, to the highest pitch of wealth, 
prosperity, and glory, — ^the wonder and admiration of all 

574. Moorish Possessions in ths Western Hispanic 
Peninsula, a.d. 1139. — While the Almoravid Princes of 
Spain (334) were still repellLng the fanatic Almohad here- 
tics in Morocco, and uniting all their forces against the Oas: 
tilian and Aragonese kings in the north, they neglected 
their western provinces on the Douro and Tajo. Goui^ 
Henry (Henrique) of Portugal (316), had made Gruimaraes, 
near the Douro, his capital, and, crossing that river, had oc- 
cupied Coimbraf Soure^ and Miranda^ on the Mondego. 
His son, the brilliant Alfonso Henriquez — 1128-1185 — se- 
cured the advance of the Portuguese on the T|go by the con- 
quest of Oi^em^ Almoural^ and the erection of l^e strong 
castles of Leyria and Tkaniary when a revolution of the 
Spanish Moors in tbe southern provinces against the Lamtu- 
nite or Almoravid Emirs from Africa (334) facilitated the 
invasions of the Christian knights. The vast extent pf terri- 
tory soulh of the Tejo (Tagus), which at the present day is 
divided into the two provinces of Alem-Tejo and Algarve, 
formed, at the close of the eleventh century, the states of the 
powerful Beni Alaftas, emirs of Badajoz (334), who likewise 
ruled over parts of the Spanish Estremadura and Sevilla. 
The whole region was, on account of its position, called Al- 
garbf or the Country towards Evening. On the conquest of 
the wild Chiefs of Lamtuna (the Almoravids, from AfHca),*^^ 

*" See the ioteresting details . in the Sutoria de JPortugal pot Jjh 
polUo Eercvlano. Lisboa» 1846, Vol. I. 

about 1 1 10, this populous and flourishing region was diyided 
into three proYinces, governed by African Walis. 

575. I. Al FaohaR) in the south, bordered by the At- 
lantic Ocean, the Sierra de Monchiquc, and the river Ouadi- 
ana, or the present province, Algarve, with the cities and castles :, 
Mn Rosin (Santa Maria de Faro), Mirthola (Mertola), on 
the Guadiana, CJielb (Silves), on the river Silves, in the inte- 
rior, Oksanoba (Estoi), at its mouth, on the seashore, Tabira: 
(Tavira), Hisnrd'KKMr (Villa Beal), on the Guadiana, and 
Kenisord-Gorad, on the Oape of Saint Yincent The north- 
em slope of the ridge of Monchique was called OHENCHi&y 
with the celebrated city of Orik (Auriquium, Ourique), on 
the Oorbes Biver, the scene of ^the ^eat victory of Alfonso 
Henriquez^ in 1139. 

576. II. Al Kass'e-Ibn-Abu-Danis, north of the former, 
embracing the present Alemtejo, with the important cities and 
fortresses At-Kass^r (Alcacer do Sal), on the east of Setu- 
val, Kaniharo/^Seyf (Alc4ntara)^ on the Tejo, Tahorah 
(Evora), Marida (Merida), Kasseres (Caceres), Zalaca (316), 
Curia (Coria), Bdch (Yelves, Elvas), Badiha (Beja), Bathr 
alius (Badajoz, the strong city of the Beni-Alaftars"^ on the, 

' GuadiaQa), and Chericha (Xeres de los Caballeros), south of 

577. III. BiSLATHA, north of the Tejo, with the populous 
and commercial Ashbuna (Lizbona, Lisboa, Lissabon), at 
the mouth of that river, Kantarim or Chantareyn (Santa- 
rem), in an almost impregnable position on the Upper Tagus, 
and ZinHras or Chintra (Gintra), in tho beautiful Sierra de 
Cintra, north of Lisbon, all three considered as the bulwarks 
of the Saracen dominions in Portugal. The border districts, 
north of the Tejo, remained long a dreary wilderness and the 
battle-ground between the hostile nations, until they were, 
later, granted to the Knights' Templars, who, by their inde- 


fiktigable exertions, soon peopled and cultiTated that fertile 
region, under the protection of their castles of Score, Leyriay 
and Thomar. These Moorish provinces had attained a high 
degree of prosperity by agricnltore and commerce, when 
Goont Alfonso Henriquex, at the head of his crusading army, 
boldly crossing the Tagns, in 1139, under frightful devasta- 
lions, penetrated into Al-Kass'r, and, by his talents and 
heroic bravery, on the 25th of July, guned the brilliant 
battle, on the plains of Ourique, against the countless host 
of Africans, which secured the development and extension of 
the Portuguese monarchy. The victorious and enthusiastic 
army hailed their chie^ King — Rei de Portugal-^on the 
battle-field, and the national assembly, or Cortes, of Lamego, 
in 1 143, not only confirmed the constitution of the new king- 
dom, but declared nobles — Fidalgos — all the warriors who 
had couched their lances on the field of Ourique.*^* San- 

*'*11ie early Portagnese chronicles are fall of wonders, which haye 
talcen a strong hold on the imagination of that romantic and superstl- 
tioufl people. Alfonso, they relate^ wearied with exertion^ fell asleep^ 
and beheld, in a dream, a yenerable old man. In the mormng; a 
hermit^ like the form he had seen in the nighty came to the Christian 
camp, and entreated the Count to yiut him, on the following eyening, 
in his celL While the Count repaired thither, he beheld a RhiniTig 
figure, which appeared in the east^ approached, and edipyed the splen- 
dor of the starry heayens. " I am the Lord Jesus," said the apparition, 
"thy arms, Alfonso, are blessed. I set thee as a king oyer thy people. 
For sixteen generations my fay or shall not depart from thy house ; a!hd, 
eyen further than this it shall descend." Alfonso, inflamed by t^e 
power of his imagination, infused his own confidence among his war- 
riors, and rode boldly into the battle. From the death, or flight, of 
the fiye Moorish Kings (Emirs)^ Portugal placed the fiye azure shields 
<m her 'escutcheon. 

ApU pinia no hranco eteudo u/ano. 

Que ngora etta victoria certifiea, 

Oineo etettdos (tzues enelareeidoSy 

Em signal detfat cineo Reia venddos. 
See the splendid yerses of Luis de Camoens, in his Luaiadf describ- 
ing the battle of Otmqve, Canto IH., Estanciaa 42r-54. The hermitage 
built near the spot was transformed into a church by King Sebastian. 


tarem (the Scalabis of the Bomans, the sanctuary of Santa 
Irene), fell) by a nightly Biurprise, in U45. Lisbon—- ^j^ 
J^uckUrof is/am^-had the same fate, in 1147, after an ob- 
stinate defence of five months ; nor could Alfonso Henriqnez 
have attempted so great an undertaking with the scanty 
means of Portugal, if he had not beea powerfully assisted by 
a fleet of Flemish and ScandiniaTian crusaders, who had 
landed on the coast, while sailing to the Mediterranean and 
the Holy Land. Another northern crusiiding army stormed 
and took the important Akaser do Sal, in 1 158; B^'a (Givitas 
Pace, Begia) was surprised four years later, and EvorOy the 
capital of Alemtejo, in its strong and magnificent position <ni 
ihe mountains^ was captured, in U66, by an ingenious strata- 
gem of the outlawed robber captain, Gerardo Giraldes, called 
Sem^Favor (the Fearless), who waa pardoned, and rewarded 
by the generous Alfonso with the defence of this important 
fortress. Thus, on the wings of victory, the Portuguese 
drove their implacable enemies toward the southern extremi- 
ties of the Peninsula ; SLing Sancho II. conquered MourUy 
Serpa, and Jurumenhay on the eastam bank c^ the Guadiana,, 
in 1229, and, gallantly si^parted by the knights of the other 
orders, he successively took Mertda^ in 1239, and Ayamonte 
and Taviray in Algarve, in 1244 ; yet the glory of having . 
entirely delivered the soil of Portugal from the Moslem 
invaders belonged to his brother, Alfonso III., who, in 
1249-52, completed the conquest of Algarve, by the surren- 
der of FarOy SUves, I/mlCj Aliacury and Porches, and main- 
tained successfully hi& acquisitions on tiie Guadiana against 
the pretensions of the Bangs of Castile.*^ 

'"•Alfonso X. el Sabio, King of Gastile^ claimed the sovereignty 
over Algarve and the border castles of the Guadiana, and required the 
Portuguese King both to pay a tribute and furnish fifty Portuguese 
knights — langas — ^to join the Oastilian banner. But, when Alfonso III 
of Portugal, had married his daughter Britis (Beatrix), and the young 
Portuguese Infante Diniz, in 1267, went to his grandfather's court at 
Sevilla to be dubbed knight^ the old Castilian King became so pleased 


578. Constitution and Inte&nal Govei^nhbnt. — ^The 
northern provinces of Portugal had rapidlj improyed under 
the fostering care of Dom Sancho I. — O Paplador — ^and, after 
the expulsion of the Moors^ peace and prosperity were extended 
to the still more fertile, but dreadfully devastated, region of 
Alemtejo and Algarve, under the active monarehs Dom Alfonso 
III. — O Restaurador — and his great son, Dom Diniz {Dionj- 
sius) — O Juite — ^who, by his solicitude for the happiness of his 
people, earned the noble cognomen of father of his country — ; 
O Pai da Fatria. Dinu opposed with a strong hand the 
encroachments of the clergy, who, under hb predecessors, so 
often had disturbed .the public peace by the arrogant inter- 
cessions and exccmimunications of the BomUh popes. His 
prudent policy had the most beneficent influence on Portu- 
guese manufiictnres, commerce, agriculture, and navigation. 
Numberless towns and boroughs were built, ai^d &vored with 
privileges—Zoroes,— rwhich plaqed their cithsens by the side of 
the feudal nolnlity and the clergy, as the third estate of the 
realm. Diniz was indefatigable; he visited himself every 
iisiriet^-'Comarca — of the country, and sat as judge in the 
tribunals. He founded the University of Lisbon, which af- 
terwards was removed to Goimbra. He reopened, in 1290, 
the long neglected gold mines of Adi^a, near Almada ; pro-, 
tected the merchants by commercial laws in 1293, and built 
the first Portuguese fleet in the wharfs of Lisboa, the oomr 
mand of which was given to Manoel Pezagno, and ol&er dis- 
tinguished Genoese mariners. Splendid cathedrals and mon- 
a9teries already rose in every part of the young kingdom, 
and the ancient warlike manners of the Portuguese b^an to 

with the talents and amiable qualities of his grandson, that he> in spite 
of the opposition of the proud Castilian nobility, resigned the full 
sovereignty of Algarve to his son-in-law, Alfonso m, who,.in that year, 
took the title of King of Portugal and Algarve, and added the seven 
golden castles of Algarve to the ^ve azure shields of Portugal in the 
royal escutcheon of that kingdom. See Henry Sch&fer*s History of 
Portugal, Hambui'g, 18«6, Vol. L, pp. 215-16, and Durham, VoL IIJ., 
page 166. 

immn PERIOP. — VOKTUQAL. 697 

wear ofL Tk0 Ricos Hm^ens formed the first ckss of the old 
nobility, the Infangdes Ahe next ; the third was composed 
of the Cavalleir&s and Escudeiros-FidcdgoSy knights and 
squires, who all rendered military service as the vasRals of 
the king. Different from these^ and not enjoying the rank of 
nobles, were the GavaUdros villdes — Caballarii Yilani--ror 
mounted and light«armed landholders, while the poorer far- 
mers, peasants, and. the mechanics of the cities — Fedes-^- 
formed. the in&ntry, Byery borough — villa — was fortified 
or protected by a neighboring tower, and when the wardens 
— Audayas — gave the signal, '^ Mouros na t^ra : moradores 
as armas! " all the inhabitants, nobles and conunoners, hur- 
ried from the fields to form their well-organized bands for the^ 
protection of their homes ; nay, they were obliged to attend the 
gatherin^i — appdlidos — {ovAjB^ossados — and even more dis- 
tant expeditions with the king, for every Portugnese was a war- 
rior during the infancy of the kingd<mi. The large and fortified 
manorST— jSSofore»^— of the high nobility, and the feudal estates 
of the knights-^ Cdi^t» and Hanras — ^were exempted from 
all taxes and tributes, and ^oyed, like the vast possessions 
of the clergy, their own feudal jurisdiction. The king's 
lands-^-^^iz; da coroa^-^wexe therefore very circumscribed, 
principally in^ the northern provinces, which, during the first 
conquest, had been mosUy distributed among the military 
companions of the Counts of Poirtugal. The royal governor 
— O.Alvasir — ^resided in the government buildings — Falado 
—opposite to which stood Ihe city hall — ConcUirim or ForqZ 
— ^the centre of the popular assemblies and the court of jus- 
tice ; the officers of the palace were appointed hj the king ; 
those of the community and the tribunals were chosen by the 
commons themselves. From the times of Dom Pedro I. an 
improved system of administration was introduced ; the powers 
of the royal officers — Carregidores and Ouvidores — and of 
the ecclesiastical judges were restricted, while those of the 
town judges — Juizes ordenJieiros-'^a.nd the municipal officials 
— Almotacels — ^were enlarged, and a regular police attended 
to public order and the security of the roads. 


579. Immense tracts in the tKmthem provinoes be- 
longed likewise to die five military orders of Portugal, the 
Knights' Templars, their rivals the Knights' Hospitallers, and 
those of Aviz, Santiago, and the Wing of Saint MiohaeL 
The noble-minded Dom Dinis protected the unhappy Tem- 
plars daring the persecution which, in the years 1307-1314, 
destroyed their order in the other parts of Enr<^)e. The 
Portag«ese king, convinced of the innocence, of the calmn* 
niated knights, reorganized their order, under the name (^ 
that of Christ, and restored to them their confiscated estates. 
They held the castles of Fombalj Ega^ Redinhaj Cardiga^ 
ThomaTj Soure^ Nabdo, Manha-Velha^ Monsanto^ and Z^ 
zere^ and had splendid order houses in Lisbon, Eyora, and 
Santarem. The Order of Christ, like that df Santiago, elected 
their own Portuguese grandmaster, and the latter became thus 
released fi*om their subjection to the order in Spain. The 
Hospitallers had their seat in Lsqa^ near Porto, and possessed 
many estates and churches in the north. The castle of Aviz 
(Avys), in Alemtejo,'was the residence of the order of that 
name, to whose care the fortresses on the Spanish border were 
intrusted. The Knights of Aviz obtained great celebrity for 
their valor ; they followed the :^e of the Cistercian monks, 
but were permitted to marry once, and to change their vow 
of chastity into that of conjugal fidelity. The extravagant 
concessions and privileges awarded to the nobility, clergy, 
and military orders caused continual disputes with the crown; 
yet all the attempts of the kings of the Burgundiah dynasty 
to restrain the turbulence of the feudatories, and to reclaim 
the squandered estates, proved unsuccessful until Dom Jo&o 
I.,^^ after the battle of Alj%Adrrota^ mounted the throne, in 


— ^Dom Joao Z, GrandmaiBter of Aviz, fion of Dom Pedro L and The- 
resa Lourengo, King of Portugal^ 1385-1438. Duarte Z, 1438-1488. 
Alfonso r. 1488-1481, Joao 11^ 1481-1495. Manoel the Great, 1495- 
1521, Jo&o III, 1521-1667. 8eha*tian, 166'7-l57a JBenrique, 1578- 


1385, and, strong by the affection of the nation and by bis 
brilliant conquests in Africa, restored the royal dignity. 
Dom Jo&o II., a prince alike prudent and courageous, ordered 
all who bad received grants, whether of possessions or digni- 
ties, from his predecessors, to produce the necessary instru- 
ments, for the purpose of showing the tenure by which they 
were held, and wherever the title was defective tibe claim was 
at once dismissed. He subjected tlie feudal io the royal tri* 
bnnals, and thus transferred his people from the jurisdiction 
of local tyrants to the magistrates dependent on the crown. 
This death-blow dealt at the independence of the nobility, 
caused that order to conspire against the throne^ and to enter 
into treacherous connections with Castile. But the execution 
of the powerful Duke of Bragan^a, on the scaffold, at Evora, 
in 1483, the death of the Duke of Yiseu by the hand of Joko 
himself, and the exile, of the rest, secured the internal tran- 
quillity of Portugal ; its aristocracy was broken for ever ; the 
state of the commons rose, and the wealth streaming in from 
the East Indian commerce inspired the nation with that love 
of freedom and glory which carried its banner victoriously to . 
its conquests and colonies in the four quarters of the world. 

580. Provinces, Cities, and Historical Sites, about 
A. n. 1450. — ^A. Being de Portugal was divided into 
five provinces: I. Entre-Douro-e-Minho, with the cities 
Guimardes, the ancient capital, P^to (Oporto) on the Minho, 
Vianay Braga, and Barcellos, IL Tras-os-Montes, east 
of the former, with iraganga^ thci principal seat of the dukes 
of that name. It was within its walls that Dom Pedro, the 
son of Dom Alfonso lY., in 1325, secretly married the beau- 
tiful Ignez de Castro. Chaves, on the Tamega, was already 
celebrated for its mineral waters. Miranda do Douro and 
Monforte were fortresses against Galicia; while Castello- 
Rodrigo, Finhel, and Almeida, in the district of Biba do Coa, 
protected the eastern provinces. III. Beira, extending from 
the Douro to tb^ Ifondego ou the west, but reached, on th^ ^ 


Boaiheasi, to the VuikB of the Tejo. Vtseu tnd Lamega were 
ancient cities ; in the ktter aseembled the Oortes in 1 143 and 
1181. Mon^temor^ on the Mondego, was frequently the resi- 
dence of the kings. Coimbra, upon a magnificent site on that 
rirer, hecame, in 1308, the seat of the only university in 
Sortngal. It was there, in the convent of Santa Clara^ where, 
in 1354, the innocent Ignei de Castro, by order of Dom Al- 
fonso lY., was torn from the arms of her children, and fell 
beneath the daggers of the Marshal Alvaro Goncales, Pedro 
Coelho, and other nobles, daring the absence of her hosband, 
Dom Pedro, who afterwards, as King of Portugal, inflicted 
the most horrible punishment on the murderers, which they 
had so well deserved.** 

581. lY. EsTREMADURA, extending along the sea coast 
from the Mondego, in the north, southward to the bay of 
Odemira, on the borders of Algarve. This was the most im- 
portant and populous province of the reahn. Lisboa had a 
Mohammedan population long after the conquest of Alfonso 
Henriquez, in 1147. In its delightful position at the mouth 
of the Tejo, it became the centre of Portuguese industry and 
commerce, and the permanent residence of the Court in 
the reign of King Fernando, o GenZiL In the royal palace 
Dom Jo&o, the grand-master of Aviz, stabbed the Count of 
Ourem, the unworthy favorite of Queen Leonor, in 1383, and 
opened his path to the throne. Historically important places 

*" The eharming banks of the Mondego were for years the scene of 
the domestie happiness of Ignez and Dom P«dro, yrhOy in this quiet 
retreat, Ux away from the turmoil and intrigues of the oourt^ lived 
only for their i^eotion and their, children, so beautilully described in 
those noble verses of Camoens^ which we cannot omit here to recall to 
the memory of the reader : 

<* Estsraa, Undit Ignez, poeta em soeego, 
De tecM aimos oolhoide doee fruto ; 
HeqneUe eogano da alma, ledo^ e oego, 
Que a fortnna, nao 4eiza dm«r muto," dea 

— LvnavAS, Gait. tr. 

mawm period. — tovltv^ajl. 701 

in the environs af Lisbon irere Santarenii on the Upper Tejo, 
an earlier residence of the Kings, Aimaday opposite to Lis- 
bon, Jbrres Vedras and Torres NovaSj strong castles on the 
&rra Estrelha^ protecting Lisbon and the yalle j of the Tejo, 
on l^e north. ResteHo (afterwards Bethlehem or Belem), at 
the mouth of that river, with a magnificent cathedral of onr 
Saviour J whence Yasco de Gama departed, July 8th, 1597, to 
discoyer the sea passage to the East Indies.^ Aletiqiierj 
OeiaraSy Cirara^ and Mafira^yreitQ celebrated for their splendid 
monasteries, palaces, and the romantic scenery of Serra da 
Ointra. Jj^fria, on the Lis, one of the oldest and strongest, 
<»ties in PcHrtugal, around whose walls the Moorish wars had 
raged for coituries. At the haiiilet of Aljvbarrote^ souljiwest 
of Leyria, was fought the important battle, on July 29th, 
1385, in which 2,500 Portuguese heroes, led on by Dom Jo&o, 
the grand-master of Ayiz and the constable Nunho Alyares 
Pereira totally routed • and defeated King Juan II. and his 
30,000 Castilians. In commemoration of the battle, the most 
glorious in the annals of Portugal, Joko L built the Domin- 
ican conyent of BatcUha^ a noble Normano-<}othic pile, as a 
burial plaee for himself and his successors. At another 
splendid monastery, the Oistercian abbey of Akoba^^ west of 
Batalha, were the tombs of the princes of the earlier Burgun- 
dian dynasty. There, in the subterraneui sepuldiral vault, 
stood the sarcophagus of Dom Pedro I. and his fair and fond 
Ignes de Oastro, who could not even find repose in the 

188 «* Parttmo-Bos aasl do aaneto Templo 
Qa&naspraiasdomar.eBt&aasentado ' 
Qne o nome tern a terra, para exempio 
Dondfl Deos fol «m came do mundo dado.** 

•— LvBiADAS, Can. iy.* 87. 
^The marauding French soldiery, which, in 1811, burned the con- 
vent^ dragged her body from its resting-place, and so skilfully had it 
been embalmed, that the beautiful face of the Queen, to the astonish- 
ment of the robbers, was stUl in. perfeiet ]>fe86rTation ; nay, her hair 
had even grown remarkably Binee her interment 


Alverca^ on the riynlet il^arroMra, near Lisbon, was the 
soene of ihe disgraoefol battle, May 20th, 1449, in which the 
faithfol bands of the Infante Dom Pedro, the victim of slander 
and enyy, were attacked by King Alfonso V., and the inno- 
cent infante routed and slain with all his knights. South of 
the Tejo lay Setuvaly on the coast, already a commercial town, 
and Sinis^ the birthplace of Yasco de Oama. Y. Entre 
TEJo-E-GuiLDUNA, or Akm-lbfi^ between Estremadura and 
the Spanish frontiers, was on the north, bounded by the Tejo, 
and south by the high ridge of Monchique, which separated it 
from Algarve. The prineq>al cities were the aboye-mentioned 
Alcacer do Salj Evora^ Befa, Ourique, and Crato^ of melan- 
choly memory from the civil war of 1440. Important border 
castles were, AJbuquerque^ AlegreU, YdveSj and on the east 
of the Guadiana, Olivenza^ MeUo, Maurdo and Serpa^ often 
bravely defended by the Portuguese. 

582. B. Beino no Algabve comprised not only the 
southern province of that name, hut the entire conquered ter- 
ritory in Africa, beyond the strait of Gibraltar, and was, 
therefore, divided into I., AxaABVE d'alem mar, or this side 
of the Seay and IL, Algarve aquem mar, or beyond the Sea, 
In the former lay the cities LagoSy Stives, Tavira^ Faro^ and 
Louie, the last possessions of the Moors in Portugal. Alcou- 
tim, Castro'Ma/rim, and ViUa-Real, were border castles on 
the Guadiana, which there formed the frontier line toward 
Andalusia, in Spain. Sagres, on Cape Saint Yincent (the 
ancient Promontorium Sacrum), became the residence of the 
Infante Dom Henrique— O Navegador — where, in full view of 
the boundless Atlantic, that learned and enterprising prince 
built his villa, TerqarNabal (or Tercena-Naval, afterwards 
called VUla do Infante), and directed all the maritime expe- 
ditions of the Portuguese for the exploration of the coast of 
Africa, and the colonization of the western islands of Porto 
Santo, Madeira and the Azores, which, by his exertions were 
then discovered in the ocean. Algarve, in its sunny position. 


between the Serra de Monchique and the seS) was the most 
fertile and beautiful proyinoe of the realm ; its climate and 
productions were African ; its ports crowded with ships, and its 
dties with nobles and youthful warriors, who there mustered 
and prepared for the crusading expeditions to the African 
coast. The inhabitants were long a mixture of Christians 
MoorS) and Jews, living peaceably together, until the ruthless 
hand of the inquisition, in the sixteenth century, transformed 
that happy region into a wilderness. Algarve beyond the Sea ex- 
tended firom the cape of CetUa (the ancient Abyla), on the east, 
westward to that of Espartel^ and Tan along the shores of the 
Atlantic for the distance of twenty-five Spanish leagues, or 
one degree -of lon^tude, to the large Moorish city, Alcazar -at' 
Kebir^ wluch, however, remained in the possession of the 
Moors. In the interior, the Portuguese territory crossed the 
western ridge of JDjebal Hahat (Atlas Minor), embracing the 
Moorish provinces of Hahat and Azgar^ with the cities and 
castles of Ceutctj Almina, Alcazar-es-Seghir, Tangier, and 

583. The African conquests of the Portuguese began in 
1415 (the year of the battle of Agincourt), with the surprise 
and capture of Ceuta, and they terminated, after a long period 
of heroism and glory, with the death of King Sebastian, and 
the total defeat of his Portuguese army, on the battle field of 
Alcazar-el-Kebir, in 1578. CetUa (123, 214), on its low, 
sandy promontory, was, at the time of the conquest, a weU 
built, populous, and wealthy city, under the sway of the Emir 
Zal4 Ben Zal4, a tributary of the Sing of Morocco, It was the , 
great emporium of Mauritanian commerce, with splendid bazaars 

"^ In the medueval maps of Knisd and Anzart too great an exten. 
gion has been given to the Portuguese conquests in Africa toward the 
dose of the fifteenth century. They never possessed Tetuan and Terga 
east of Ceuta, and it was not until the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
tury that tiiey occupied Antrfa^ Azamor^ Mazagan^ Atafi, Azadir, and 
some other straggling cities on the southern coast, which, therefore 
belong to the maps of modem HiBtorical Geography. 


snd manafiu^tarM of iron, a3k, and leather, in aetire oommii- 
nioation not only with the Moon of Granada, bnt with the 
Italian porta and the Mamlnke Sultans of Egypt. In the pos- 
session of the Portognese, it. became the stronghold and great 
military dep6t of their armies during the following centuriefi, 
and its garrison repelled gallantly all the attacks of the 
Kings of Morocco and Fes. Before Tangier (65, 123) the 
Portuguese suffered the melancholy defeat of 1438, in which 
the pious Infante Dom Ferdinando — O Frincipe Constante — 
was surrendered as hostage to the Moors for the restitution of 
Ceuta. This city, however, was not restored, and the prince 
died in captivity. AJcckzar-es-Seghir fell in 1460, and when 
Dom Alfonso V., — O Africano—ia 1471, aftw the bloody con- 
quest of Arsdlla and Tangier, occupied the whole northern ter- 
ritory, he took the proud title of Rei de Partt^al e das Ai- 
gdrves daqtiem e d^akm mar en Africa. 

584. NoBiuTT. — ^The most powerful feudatories in Portii^ 
were the Dukes of Braganga and Ooimbra ; the former family 
possessed the greater part of the northern proTinees, with 
Bragan^a Viseu, Villa- Vigosa in Alemtejo, Odemira in Jls- 
tremadura, and Taro in Algarye; fifty cities and castles, 
with their territories, forests and pastures, obeyed the proud 
dukes, who rode to war at the head of 3000 lances and 10,000 
archers.^ Other influential families north of the Tejo were 
the Menezes of Yiana, Baroellos, Tarouoa, and Villa-Real on 
the Douro, the county of Ericeira in Estremadura, and Louie 
in Algarve ; the CaMros from Castile, brothers of Ignez de 
Castro, who held large possessions in Tras-os-Montes, the 

"* The ancestor of this distiagoished family was Alfonso, the son 
of Dom Jo&o, L and Dona Ignez Pires^ who haying be«i declared legiti- 
mate in 1401, obtained the Duchy of Bragan^% and the highest rank 
among the P-oi'tnguese nobles. After the most astonishing Ticissitudei^ 
the Dukes of Bragan^ a mounted the throne of Portugal in 1640, and 
the late queen, Dona Maria da 01oria> was a direct descendant of that 


•cnmtiefl of Monsanto, Arayolos, and Oasoaea, on tho promon- 
tory, near Lisbon ; the Fereinis on th$ Miuho and in Alem- 
tejo; the SUvas^ Cautimhos^ S&iAsai, Acunhas^ Mellos^ 
Noronhotf AtaydeSy VasamcdloSy AlmaydaSy Azevedos^ and 
others, mostly situated north of the Tejo. 

585. The Soclesustical Division of Portugal. — ^I. 
Provincia Olysiponensis, with the ^rchiepiscopal See in 
Lisbon, erected in 1390 or 1409, and the suffira^ns of 
GuardaKkdi Partalegre. To the Patrjarohat^ of Lisbon 
belonged Lcyria and LamegOj Ceuta in Africa, Angra of 
Terceira, and JPkihchal of Madeira. 

II. Provincia Braccharensis, with the See in Bracara 
(Braga), and the suffragans of Porto Miranda^ ViseUj and 
Coim^a, and III. Provincia Eborensts, with the See in 
EvoRA, and the soffiragan biahoprics of Slvas and Faro (the 
earlier ones of Beja, Lagos, and Silves having been snp- 

586. PoRTirotTissE Discoveries and Colonies in the 
ATLANTio.-^The brilliant career of the Portuguese in naviga- 
iion and commerce began with the accidental discovery of 
Porto Santo, in 1418, by the Cavaliers Gonsalea Zarco, and 
Trist&o Yaz Tezeira, whom a storm had driven off the 
African coast Madeira was> colonized in 1 420 by Pereslarello, 
who built JPhinchal, and the extraordinary fertility of that 
beautiful island, where Don Henrique cultivated the sugar- 
cane from Sicily and the vine from Cyprus, encouraged the 
Prince to new undertakings. While the Spaniards^ occupied 
the Canaries, the Portuguese held the Cape Verde Islands^ 
In 1446, and the Agares in 1451. They settled on the coast 
of Guinea in 1463, ten years later in Congo, and the bold 
Bartholomeo Dias discovered the southern promontory, Cabo 
Tbrmentosoy for which name Dom Jo4o IL, full of hope, 
aubs^tuted that of Boa E^peran^a. Yet it was not tmtU 
1497) after the discovery of the Western Continent by Colum- 


bos, tbat the great Yasco de €fama boldly steered bis eonrse 
iluroQgh the Indian Oeean to the shores of Malabar y and thus 
opened the path for that Portugaesq heroism and glory in tbe 
East which form one of the most astonishing pages in Modem 


noNB. — The long period of Spanish history from a. p. 1200 to 
1479, embraces the almost incessant wars on the Peninsula, 
between the Christian and Mohammedan kingdoms, or the 
oiTil feuds within these states themselves. The Bupremacy of 
the Christian arms was decided in 1212, in the plains of 
Tolosa; there the Almohad dynasty was defeated and lost its 
fiurest proyinces. Castile and Leon, haying become united for 
the last time under the sceptre of Don Fernando III., El 
Santo, in 1230 (3 16), rose in power and extent, One conquest 
followed another. Vbeda fell in 1234 ; the populous Cordova^ 
with its glittering mosques and Saracen magnifioence, in 1236 ; 
Muroia bowed to the Christian sway in 1243, and the wiu> 
like Aragonese princes were thus cut i>ff -from farther exten- 
sion on ihe Peninsula. Atjana, Jaen, Carmona^ and the 
important Sevilla, opened their gates to the sainted Fernando, 
whose son, Alfonso X., reduced El Sabio, Hudva, Xeres de 
la Frontera, Cadiz, Medina- Sidonia, and Nubia, at the 
mouth of the Ouadalquiyir. This was the last possession of 
the Almohad princes ; they fled to Africa in 1256, and the 
greater part of Andalusia became incorporated in the Cas- 
tilian kingdom. Only Granada, protected by its natural 
position, and strengthened by the myriads of fleeing Saracens, 
who from eyery conquered proyin^e sought refuge within its 
mountains, still withstood the shock and maintained its inde- 
pendence, under the energetic and enUghtened goyemment 
of the Alhamarid dynasty, for more than two centuries, until 
its final oyerthrow in 1492. 


Alfonso X. did not proseoote the war; he tumedr his 
attention to the internal affairs of the reahn, Spain was still 
far behind the other European countries in civilization ; her 
institutions developed themselves but slowly under the clash 
of arms ; nay, they were even stopped by the fierce civil 
dissensions ^Hbich at that period broke out between the kings 
and their proud nobility, who, being in part allied to the 
royi^ funily, continued to increase in influence and preten- 
sions. These disturbances were principally produced by the 
Priiuses of la Ctrda^ who being lezcluded from the throne, 
found support in Aragpn and among the nobles of the north, 
and returned sword in hand. Yet still mOre desolating was 
the civil war between Don Pedro EL Cruet and his brotiber 
Don Henrique of Trastamara, about the middle of the four- 
teenth century, because it brought armies of Fr^ch and 
English adventurers into the heart of Oastile. Nor did 
brighter days begin to dawn on ^e accession of the l^rasta- 
mara dynasty in 1368. The royal authority was undermined 
by the frequent regenqies during the mmority of the Kings, 
:and by the pernicious influence of worthless favorites, when 
they at last came of age.^ The reigns of Juan II. and 
Henrique lY. were turbulent, and it was only the auspicious 
union of Fernando and Isabella, in 1469, which saved Castile 
from anarchy, and restored the Spanish monaxchy.^ 

** From A, D. 1168 to 1406, six regencies held the reins of gorerii* 
ment» which mainly contributed to strengthen the influence of the 
leading families ; the nobility obtained dangerous privileges ; not only 
the exemption itom all taxes and contributions, but the nobles arrogated 
to themselves the right of renouncing their allegiance to the King — 
^ fiaturalizane — and of calling another to the throne. The insecurity 
of the open country, continually exposed to the in<mrsion8 of the Arabs, 
forced the cultivators to place themselves tinder the protection 4>( the 
barons, and thus arose the JBehetria^ or townships under patronage, 
which suffered severely from the encroachments of their patrons until 
this institution was abolished in 1454. 

*• See the interesting introduction to Prescott's Mttory of Ferdi" 
nand and IsaheUa,' 


588. Division of PROTmcBs, Coukt^ ahd €k>vBRifKEiiT.—- 
The kingdoms of Oaslile and Leon were, according to the 
decree of the Gortea held ai Alcaic de Henirea in 1349, 
divided into — I. The Kingdom of Leon, wiih GaUda and 
the capital cities of Leonj Jbroy Zamara^ and -So/amamas. 
The western Sierra de Onadarrama and the river Pisnerga 
formed the border line. IL The Kingdom of 0a8tii.e — 
Costilla la Viefa — ^with the principality of the AUuriaSy the 
duchies of Viscayay Guiputcoa^ Aleuxiy and the province of 
BMQa^ on the Ebro, running along the Tajo and the Sierra de 
Guadarrama, and embracing Siguenza and ihe county ^ 
Medina de la Cerda^ on the firontiers of An^on. The 
principal cities wtire Burgos^ Soriaj Segovia^ Apila, and 
Valladolid. ILL The EIinodom of Toledo— ^tfterwards 
Casilla 7Vi«et;a-— extending south of the Tajo to tiie Sierra 
Morena, and embracing the southern part of Estremaduraj 
La Mdnchaj and the county of JMblinay on the frontiers of 
Aragon, with the capitals, IbbdOy Madridy Guadalajaaray 
Alcald de HendreSf Cttenza^ Badajoz^ and Merida. lY. 
The Kingdom of Andalusia— Tiin<ia/a<c»a — south of the 
Sierra Morena, extending to the Straits of Gibraltar and the 
Sierra de Granada, comprised the kingdoms of JSevilla, Car- 
davay Jaen, and Murciaj with the duchies of Medina Sidonia 
and Arjonay the counties of Nieblay Osuncty Baena and Aroos^ 
and the marquisates of Cadiz and Ayamonte. 

589. Burgos and Toledo were the usual residences of the 
Castilian Kings so long as Leon formed a separate state. 
After the final consolidation of the two kingdoms, the capital 
of the monarchy was Sevilla; though Toledoy Madridy VaMa- 
dolidy and other places, were frequently honored by the abode 
of royalty. The Oastilian Oourt — ctma or ooAor^e— 'preserv- 
ed long the simplicity of Visigoth manners. Its chief officer 
was still the major domus (118); the armigery or shield- 
bearer, held the next rank ; then followed the asconomicuSy or 
steward, the capellaniy or chaplains ; the notaHiy or seereta- 


ries, the cubicularii^ or chamberlains, and the cellarii, or yic- 
toallers. The eoartiers were the cont^Ues—condeB — ^to whom 
the government of the proTinces was assigned. Within their 
respectlTe jurisdictions the counts were termed ilustrissimos ; 
they held courts like their liege lord, the king ; they appmnt- 
ed magistrates in the subordinate towns, and in war they com- 
manded the troops, raised in their province. After the con- 
quest of Andalusia, the governors of the provinces were term* 
ed addantadoSy while those of the cities were known as aleal' 
deSj those of the fortresses as eastellanoSy and those of the bo- 
rougha as vitticos. The alferez ma^(M: bore the high sword 
of justice, and led on the troops during the absence of the 
King. Don Juan L created the cande^tabilef or constable, as 
general in chief of the army, while the almiranies, or admi- 
rals, having their residence in Seyilla, held the command of 
the fieet and the naval establishments* The great body of the 
nobler was divided into two classes : to the first belonged the 
ricos hombresj otprocereSy who held seignorial jurisdictions or 
high offices, and from the time of Don Juan II., were called 
grandeSy or grandees of Oastile,*-and the cpndeSy or counts, 
likewise ^eat feudatories of the crown, who exercised a local 
jurisdiction. During the fourteenth century, the honorary titles 
of marquis and duke were introduced, such as the Marquis of 
Oadiz, and the Duke of Infantado. The second class consist- 
ed of the cabdUeroBy or knights, military vassals of noble birth, 
who served on horseback, while the minor proprietors— j^ec^ 
.70$ — ^were not considered as nobles, and formed the mass of 
the infantry, like the cavalleiros viUdos in Portugal (578). 
The warfare with the Moors required light-armed troops, and 
we find them in the Spanish gifieteSy or H^t-horse, who rode 
in short stirrups in the Saracen manner, and the almugavareSy 
or border wardens (258), an effiei'ent light infantry, fighting 
with spear, cutlass^ and mace, in the incessant forays — c^mu- 
gaverias — on the Moorish frontiers. The commanders and 
guides of these troops, called cUmocadenes and adalideSy enjoy- 
ed distinction on account of their important service ; they were 


ftlways officers of trust, as^he safety of the Castilian armj de- 
pended on their yigilanoe and integrity. 

590. National Diets and DisriNdmsHED Families. — In 
the national assemblies — cortes — ^the third estate, or the com- 
mons, formed a constituent part, as early as 1 169. They ex- 
ercised an important inflnence ; their assent was indispensable 
to taxation, and they had a controlling power over the expen- 
ditnre. At the convocation of the states at Burgos, in 1 188, 
deputies were present from the following forty-three places : — 
TbledOy Cuenza^ Huete^ Chtadalajara^ Coca^ Cttellar, Por- 
tilioj PedrazGy HitUy Salamanca^ Uzeda, BuitragOy Madrid^ 
Escalofuij Maqueda, TcUavera, Flasendaj Trujillo, Avila^ 
Segovia, ArevalOj Sahagun, Cta, FuerUeJDuena, Sepulve- 
dttj Af/UoHj MaderuelOj San JSstevan, Ostna, Corcena, Ati- 
enza, Siguenza, Medina del Campo^ Olmedo, Palenciay 
LogroflOj Calakorraj Amedo, JbrdesiHaSy Simancas, Tonrt- 
lobatofij Montalegre, JF^iente-Segura, Medinacelif Berlanga^ 
Almazan, Soria^ and VaMadolid^-'W)m& of which were simple 
boroughs or villages, while several towns, and even large cities, 
were omitted. During the disorders of the civil wars, in 1S15, 
one hundred cities associated in a Holy Brotherhood — Santa 
Hertnandad — for mutual protection. They increased in 
strength and wealth ; their privileges— ;/Merd« — were enlarged 
by Don Henrique of Trastamara, ajid they attained the height 
*of municipal liberty and glory toward the close of the four- 
teenth century. But Oastile had no general nAd definitive 
constitution ; no regtdarUy in the representation of the cities, 
which, moreover, like the republics of Italy, were distracted 
by rivalry and petty contentions. Their influence soon began 
to decline. In the oortes of Ocafla^ held in 1422, tieeltfe cities 
only were represented, and later, the privilege of being sum- 
moned to send deputies to the cortes was eonfined to the fol- 
lowing eighteen towns: Burgos^ Toledo, Leon, Sevilla, Cor- 
dova, Murciaj Jaen, Zamora, Segovia, Avila, Salamanca, 

SiaBIH PSBI0D.-^0A8TaJB ASn LBOH. 711 

CuenzUj Ibro, VaUadoUd, iSc^ia, MadridyGuadalq^'ara^ and 

The mosi influential families daring this period were the 
CastroSy in Galicia; the Haras , powerful and turbulent feuda- 
tories, in y iscaya ; the ZufligaSf Osanos^ Almanzas^ and Fi- 
tnenteles, in Leon ; theEnriqueceSyToledoSy JPachecos de AcufUty 
VekbscoSy MendozaSy 4ind principally the LaraSy in Old Castile ; 
the Albuquerques de la Cuevay FartocarreroSy and SUvaSy in 
New Castile; the valiant Cr2«09naM««,(later Dukes of Medina- 
Sidonia), and their rivals, the Ponces de Leony in the kingdom 
of Sevilla ; the AquilareSy in Cordova ; and the Fajardos in 
Murcia. Of these, the Laraa, possessing the whole territory 
between the Asturian mountains and the Sierra de Oca, near 
Burgos, were frequently in arms against their sovereign, while 
the Castros sou^t every opportunity to renounce their allegi- 
ance, and unite their arms with the Moorish Kings of 

591. Cities AND Histo&ical Sctbs. — In Andalusia: Cor- 
dova, the ^pital of the Caliphs, the terror and admiration of 
Europe from 755 to 1234, when it was conquered by Don 
Femuido the Saint, and its 300,000 inhabitants di^ersed. 
Its splendid libraries, bazaars, and mosques were destroyed by 
the crusading Christians, and of %11 the Asiatic grandeur of 
that civiMzed empire, there was only left the great mosque of 
Abderraman, the masterwork of Saracenic architecture. Yet 
even this incomparable monument was partly defaced by its 
translbrmation into a Christian cathedral, when hundreds of 
its elegant columns were broken down, in order to give place 
to some chapels of saints. Cordova was then also cele- 
brated for its manufieustures of oordobany or cordwain leather, 

*" See the diBsertation on the medisBYal laws and institutions of the 
Spanish states, and the history of the progress and decline of the Cas- 
tilian cities, in Danham*s History of Spain and Portugal, YoL IV., pages 
48-152, of the New-York edition. 

712 anMBTS fb&ioii.— oasthjb aevs ubom. 

whidiy sinoe the ezfralnon of the Azabs, lias eoniititatad one 
of their principal export articles from Morocco. Sevili^ (£Ks- 
palis, ArabiO) Ishbili&), in its fertile plain on the banks of the 
Gnadalquyir, was then a magnifioent capital, ademed with all 
the charms of nature, and the embellishments of Sarae^io ar- 
chitecture, and became later the frequent reridence of the Gas- 
tilian Kings. In its Moorish palace^-a/ca2;ar — ^took place, in 
1358, the awful assassination of Don • Fadrique, the graad 
master of Calatrava, bj order of his unnatural brother, Don 
Pedro the Cruel, of Castile. In Xeres de la F^ontera^ on Uie 
Guadalete, the tyrant imprisoned his lovelj and innocent 
queen, Blanche of Bourbon; and, abandoned there to &e 
brut^d gbvemor, Juan Perei de Bobledo, the unhappj 
princess perished bj poison or steel in 1361 ;-«-one of <he 
most horrible events in Spanish history 1 Scdvalierraj Xeres 
de Badajoz, and Araoena were important fortresses on the west- 
em frontiers, towards the Guadiaaa. Fahs, a small port in the 
principalitj of Niebla, became celebrated as the point of de- 
parture of Christopher Columbus, August 3d, 1492, for the 
disoorery of the New World. At Alacabj on the plains north 
of Tolosa — las navas de 7U(t»a— on the soutiiem slope of the 
Sierra Morena, was fou^t the most sanguinary battle of me* 
disBval Spain, July I6II1, 1212, in which Mohammed Ahn 
Abdallah, of Morocco, was defeated hy Alfonso IX. of Cas 
tile, and Pedro II. of Aragon, with the slaughter pf 160,000 
Arabs, who perished on the battle-field. Yet the final conquest 
of Western Andalusia was not secured until 1340^ when Al- 
fonso XL of Castile, and Alfonso lY. of Portugal, with their 
united armies, vanquished the King of Granada, and his myri- 
ads of African auziliuries, on the river Salado (Wady-Celito), 
west of Tarifa, and after the important conquest of Algesiras, in 
1342, confined the Mohammedans within the narrow bound- 
aries of the kingdom of Granada. Algeziras (Al-Dshesira, 
that is/the Island), situated on a hill, in a strong and advan 
tageous position, on the coast of the Strait, was then one of 
the most important cities of the Moors ; but it suffered terribly 


during its prolonged sioge, a^d the plough passed oyer ita 
splendid streets.^ Tarifa, on the southernmost cape of Spain, 
and the still stronger Djebal-Tarik (Grilnraltar) became cele- 
brated by the heroical defence of the G^uzmans 

592. In the two Oastiles, Falencia was the earliest seat of 
learning, its university, established by Fernando d Santo 
in 1239, was, in.l404, remoyed to Salamanca. Valladolid, 
the frequent residence of the Oastilian Kings, received anoth- 
er university, richly endowed by Alfonso XI., in 1346.> Dti- 
enaSj on the Pisuerga, south of Palencia, was the usual resi- 
dence of Queen Isabella, who was bom at Madrigal^ April 
22d, 1451. Burgos, the ^oomy old capital of the Counts of 
Gastile (256), became, in 1361, the scene of the revolting cruel- 
ties of Don Pedro I., and of the execution of the ambitious 
Alvaro de Luna, in 1453. On the plain between Najera and 
Navarrete, in the Bioja, near the Ebro, was fought the Moody 
battle between the hostile brothers^ in which Bon Enrique de 
Trastamara and his Frendi eavi^iers were routed by the su- 
perior tactics of the Black Prince, and the impetuous yalor of 
Bon Pedro the Cruel, on the 3d of April, 136a The whole 
Gastilian army was cut to pfeoes, Bertrand du Guesclin and 
his Frenchmen were made prisoners, and Bon Pedro return- 
ed triumphantly at the head of his English auxiliaries. But 
his atrocious cruelties soon prepared his £&11. At Montid, a 
strong fortress on the northern slope of Sierra Morena, over- 
looking the dreary plains of La Mancha, the great contest b^- 

'"^At the siege of Algeziras, the Arabs from Morocco employed 
gunpowder and cannon, which tiieir historians call naphta and thu»- 
der tubes, and they describe wifb exi^eration the effect of the balls. 
The earliest appearance of artillery in Europe was at the siege of Ali- 
cante, in 1881, where, according to the Aragonian chronicler, Zurita» 
the Saracens terrified the Christian garrison of the city by the pelot<u 
de hierro que se lanzahtm con fue^ Annales de la corona de Aragon 
—lib. Vn, cap. 16. Edward UL brought up four small cannon at the 
battle of Creey, in 1846» which spread fright and disorder among the 
French cavalry. 


twetfn the brothers was decided, in 1368. So astonishing was 
the course of events, that the fftte of the Oastilian kingdom 
was here intrusted to Moorish and French auxiliaries. Don 
Pedro, with his 36,000 Arabs, was defeated by Enrique de 
Trastamara and his 600 French lances. The tyrant fled to 
the fortress of Montiel, but, attempting secretly to escape dur- 
ing night, he was taken prisoner, and fell beneath the dagger 
of his brother, in the tent of Bertrand de Ouesclin. This fra- 
tricide raised the Trastamara dynasty on the Castilian throne. 
TorOy TordesillaSj and T^mara, on the Duero, Ataquines, 
BaltaflaSj OlmedOf Los Toros de Chdsando, AlgorrabUas^ 
on the Tajo, and AUmera and Vaherde^ on the Guadiaoa, 
were all places of historical interest during tiie intestine trou- 
bles of the fifteenth century, and the early reign of Fernando 
and Isabella. 

593. The Scclssustioai*. Division of Leon and Cas- 
tile. — ^The Oastilian Church was divided into fiye provinces, 
which pertained to the Archbishop of Toledo, as the Primate 
of Spain.^' L Peovinoia Toi.etana, extending from the 
northern shores of the Biscay Sea, south, through the centre 
of Spain, to the Mediterranean. The see of the primate was 
in ancient Toledo, on the Tajp, and the suffragan bishoprics 
were: Cordova^ Jaxn^ Mnrcia^-Concha (Cu^iza), Segtma^ 
Siguenza (Segontia), Osma (Oxsima), Valladolid (Yaile 
Oletum), Leon, and Oviedo. II. Peovinoia Cohpostellana, 
embracing Ghdicia and Estaremadura, on the frontiers of Por- 

"'The primateship of the see of Toledo over all the proyinces of 
the Spanish Peninsula was confirmed by the Pope Honorius III. in his 
three celebrated letters, from 1216-1227, though the Bishop of Bracara; 
in Portugal, those of Ooinpostela and Burgos, aud, later, that of Seyilla^ 
obstinately refused to recognize the supremacy, and caused great 
troubles in the church. Yet, at the Council of Peiiafie], in 1802, the 
Toletan Archbishop for the first time appears as the Primal HUpani- 
arum ae Hegni Oattelloe CaneeilariuB, a dignity which was confirmed in 
the later coundk of 1824» 185fi, and UlS. See Wiltteh, YoL 11^ 
page 186. 


tagal, had its patiiarolual see m Sanctt Jacobi de Oompos- 
TSLLA (255, 377), and the snffingans MmdanedOj Lugo, Tuy, 
Orense,: Astarga, Zafnora^ Salamcmca^ Ciudad RodrigOj 
Avila, Flacencia, CariafBadaJoZj and Idanha- Velha, in the 
lEingdom of Portugal. III. Provingia Burgensis, com* 
pfrised the ^neient county of Burgos (256), the Aaturian 
4Mmstlands, the Yaseongadas, and the Kingdom of NaYarra. 
Burgos, on a branch of the Pisuerga, was the metropolitan 
see, under which ranged the sufiragans of FcUenda^ tSatuti 
Andrea (Santander), Cctktharra for Biscaja and Bioja, and 
PampUuna for^Nayarra. lY. Provingia Sevillana was 
established by Fernando el Santo, after his brilliant conquest 
of Andabieia. Sevilla was already an arohiepiscopal see, in 
1267; and received, later, the bishoprics of Cadiz, Aigezirca, 
and Malaga; and, las^y, Y. Provinoia Granabensis, erect- 
ed by Fernando and Isabella, in 1492, after the final expulsion 
of the Moors, with Illiberi (Granada) for its see, and the an- 
nexed bishoprics of Otiodix and Almeria. 

XII. Kingdom OF Aragon* 

594. Oonqttests and Other AcQTnsiTioNS. — ^Ari^n and 
Oatalonia had, by theix" union in 1150, become a powerful 
kingdom (318), which, though of narrow limits, when com- 
pared with Castile, distinguished itself among all the contem- 
poraneous states of Europe by its well-balanced constitution, 
by the energy and prudent moderation of its kings, and the 
dauntless bravery and commercial activity of' its citizens, who 
vied with the maritime republics of Italy in the traf&c and 
navigation of ^e Mediterranean. The crown of Aragon had 
obtained the counties of Roussillan and Fallars (479), in 
1172, and Don Jayme I. conquered the Balearic islands and 
the kingdom of Valencia, from the Moors, in 1229-45. Yet 
the feudal possessions of Aragon in France (318) became 
alienated during this period of constant warfare against the 
Mohammedans in the south, and Jayme renounced, in the 


treaty of Corbeily in 1258, Ms pretonfliovis to Razez, Ouom- 
0oime, and Bcune smaller territories north of the Pyrenees, 
in lien of the entire independence of the Cataloman proymees 
from the feudal supremacy of France (184, 229). Rausnihnj 
OmelaSf Carlatj and MmtpeUierj remained, however, still 
attached to Aragon.^ The political relations to Castile 
rendered it likewise necessary, in the treaty of Cant^iUoy 1305, 
to cede to that power the conquests of Northern Murcia, 
Alicante, Orihuela, and Ehshe ; yet Aragon had already been 
brilliantly indemnified by the acquisition of the kingdom of 
Sicily, in 1282 (423), the conquest of the isles of Gerbe$ 
and KarchiSy on the eastern coast of Tunis, and the still more 
important islands of Sardinia and Corsica^ which, after 
many hard-fought naval battles, were wrested from the re- 
publics of Pisa and Gknoa, in the course of the fourteenth 
century. Even the duchy of Athens^ in Greece, became, in 
1311, an appanage of the Mouse of Aragon, whose kings 
thenceforth retained the title of Bnkes of Athens and Neo- 
patras.*** To this long series of conquests was added that of 
the kingdom of Naples, by Don Alonso Y., in 1442, and, 
last of all, the union with Castile, in 1479. ^ 

595. • Constitution and Goveknmsnt. — ^The political in- 
stitutions of Aragon, though bearing a general resemblanoe 
to those of the other states in the Spanish Peninsula, differed, 
however, in many essential points, having developed them- 

^See the adjoined Map, No. 5, JSwrope during the Orufodes, and for 
details, Sismondi's HUtory of the Preneh, Bmzelles edition, 1886, 
VoL v., page 286. 

**The army of Catalan and Aragonese adventurers in the Levant 
baring defeated and alain Walter de Brtenne, the Duke of Athena, in 
the battle on the Cephissus, in Boeotia (S56X occupied the country, and 
offered their allegiance to their native sovereign, the King of Aragon. 
Athens remained for nearly a century — 1811-1386 — ^under tiie dominion 
of Aragonese princes or their bailiffs. See the eloquent and interesting 
work, Sepedicum de las Caialcmea y Aroffoneus contra (Shriegoe.y Tureoe, 
por Don Jnan de Moneada» Barcelona, 1620, eap. T.yir, 


Selves under pectdiar eireamstances, wbioh gaye them an 
or^nal character. In the Astarian mountains of Leon vai 
OyiedO) the Christians had never entirely lost their indepen- 
dence (255, 256)^ and the ancient Yisigothic constitution 
remained there, as well as later in Castile, the basis for the 
internal organization of the slowly extending Christian king- 
doms ; while, on the contrary, in the eastern regious of the 
Pyrenees, the last remnant of the Yisigothic sway had disap- 
peared during the invasion of the Arabs across those moun- 
tains into the heart of France, and a new order of things had 
later begun with the Frankish dominion of Charlemagne (184^ 
229). The mountaineers of Aragon and Catalonia, on ihrow* 
ing off their allegiance to the sinking Carloyingian empire, 
found themselves attached by the powerful Mohammedan 
dynasties of Zari^za and Valencia, and it was only by the 
mostfuthfol union of the nobility and com^ions, and the most 
austere observance of feudal allegiance, that those small and 
weak states, under able and nigral princes could reconquer 
their territories, and, by incessant warfare, build up the Ara- 
gonian empire, which, among all the stater of the middle ages, 
was the only one realizing the idea of a well organized realm.^ 
^ The royal power was, in all in^rtant matters of administra- 
tion And polities, circumscribed by the Cortes of ^e realm, 
in their four chambers-^-^a^ros — consisting of the clergy, the 
high nobility — los ricos h<m^es^^the knights-^^/bs infanzoiies 
and cabalkros-'-^nd the cities and communes — las universi- 
dades, Catalonia and Valencia had government and laws dis- 
tinct from Aragon, and their Cortes consisted only of three 
estates — ^prelates, nobles, and commons,7— all no less tenacious 
of their privileges than those of Axagon* The cities, fortified 
in slarong positions,- and defended by an industrious and war' 

*^Se6 the full exposition of this interesting subject in tb^ ffiitorp 
of Aragon during the Middle Ages, by Dr. Ernst A. Smith, Leipzig* 
1828, pages 8^9-453. The sources for the constitutional history of 
Aragon flow more abundantly than those of Castile or PortngaL Smith 
numbers more than sixty origkial works on Aragcm during this period. 

718 BIOaiH nftlOD.-— ABAGON. 

like pqivktion, rose earlier to indepradence and mmimpal 
gOTenunmt than in Germany or France, on aoconnt of th^ 
importance as bulwarks against the Arabs. Their extencdye 
immunities were more clearly -defined and better protected 
tiian in Castile, and ihey enjoyed a hi^er consideration from 
their kings.*^ The number of deputies sent to the Cortes from 
the cities is not exactly known: Zaragosa, the capital, was 
sometimes represented by fifteen members, and the Cortes 
assembled at LeridOy in 1214, were attended by ten deputies 
from every principal tntj and borough in the realm, such as 
JSuesca^ Jaea, CalaUtyud^ Daroca, Tarrazonay on the Oas- 
tilian frontiers, and others. 

696. An important officer of state was the great justictsr 
-<e^ yio^tcia— whose authority was supreme in jttdicial 
matters, and who pronounced on the validity of all royal edicts 
and ordinances. Suits against the crown and tiie officials of 
government were likewise brought before his tribunal. The 
jusHcia placed in this delicate position, keeping the king in 
constant surveillance, was uniformly supported by the states, 
and was thus enabled to carry the original design of that 
institution into effect-— to check the usurpations of the throne, 
as well as to control the arrogance of the nobles, and the 

** Alonso iy« having granted estates to foreign eavaUers after Us 
marriage with Eleanor of Castile, and otherwise infringed the priyil^es 
of the estates, the citizens of Valencia rose in arms i^aiust him, in 
18S2, and besieged the palace. And ^vrhen their leader, Guillen de Vi- 
natea, at the head of the magistrates and jurados, spoke in a menacing 
tone to the king and qneen, in the presence of the conrt, Eleanor in her 
rage exclaimed: "My brother, the King of Castile, instead of yielding^ 
would ha^e eat off the head of every one of those rebels who dared to 
speak thus." But Alonso answered her with dignity: "Queen, you 
baye to lesm that our people is free, and not subject like that ci 
Castile ; our vassals esteem us as their lord, and we them as loyal 
liegemen and companions." In the limosin dialect :-:-" M nottre popU 
•if ranch e no ei axi $ub/ftffat com ea lo poble de 0a9t%lla» Car e/« Umm 
a no$ com a Mviyor, n^ a eU com a 6orw vauaU eompanyom,** 


tnrbulenoe of the people. Under a eonstitiEtioii so admirably 
adapted to tbe stem and practical sense of the nation, Aragon 
became a flourishing kingdom; it excelled in various manufac- 
tures; a brisk navigation was carried on upon the Ebro, and the 
export of woollen and cotton stuffs enriched the abstemious 
Aragonese, while the bold and enterprising Catalan traded in 
Syria, Egypt, Greece, Barbary, France, and England. The 
Catalan fleets swept the Mediterranean, and the inyentire 
genius and daring valor of a Boger de Loria and other 
admirals inspired the nation with a heroism which secured 
them their vast maritime passessions.'^ 

All the Aragonese kings distinguished themselves by chiv- 
alrous acquirements and military talents-Hsome by their poet- 
ical genius, and others by the liberal support and encourage- 
ment they awarded to the Limosin and Catalan troubadours^ 
and other literary characters, who flocked to their court. Peter 
Bogiers, Mosen Jordi, Jayme Boig, Fel»*er, and Ausias 
March sang in praise of the dark-eyed ladies of Aragon and 
the gallant deeds of the Catalans on sea and land ; nay, the 
accomplished and unhappy Prince Carlos de Yiana wrote 
valuable chronicles of his times. Thus poetry and literature 
softened the warlike manners of the nobles, while the splendor 
of the royal court and the influence and wealth of the Barce- 
lonese citizens presented a pleasant picture of the mediaeval 
prosperity of the Aragonese empire. 

597. Provinces, Cities, and ^istqiucal Sites. — I. The 

*" "Wlieii th& Count of Foix, in 1286, endeavored to persuade the 
Catalan admiral, Roger de Loria» to ednsent to a tmc^ and attempted 
to intimidate him by saying, ** that France could arm three hundred 
galleys :" "Let her do it^" exclaimed Loria; "I will sweep the sea with 
my hundred, and no ship without leave from the King of Aragon shall, 
i>ass ; no, nor shall a fish dare to raise its head above the water, unless 
I can see that it bears the arms of Aragon on its tail I '' The Catalans 
had Consuls in Alexandria, Tunis, Constantinople, and Damascus, so 
early as the thirteenth century, and they supplied the Low Countries 
and the North with the rich products of the Levant. 


kingdom of Angon, with tho duohies of Alhcuraein (a fief of 
the powerfol Laras in Castile), the connty of Babdgorza in 
the Pyrenees, and the baronies of Castro^ Ay^be, Urrea^ 
Luna, HijoTy and others. Zaragoza, on the Ebro, i^he loyal 
oity whose oitisens enjoyed the rank of Hidalgos, was the 
residence of the ooiurt. /oca, Huesca^ and Alharrcbdn^ 
retained long a mixed population of Saracens and ChristianSy 
who yied with one another in mannfactures and industrious 
enterprises. Teruely JDaroca, Monreal, Jbrellas, and Salvor 
tierray as strong and well-guarded fortresses, protected the 
bordmti towards Castile and Navarra. At Manzan^ on the 
riyer Cinca, Fraga, and Calatayudy were held important 
diets, seonring the liberties of the land, and extending the 
power of the justiciary of the realm. Near Epila^ west of 
Zan^zft, was fought the battle between Don Pedro lY. and 
the confederate nobles in 1348, in which the latter were routed 
and obliged to renounce the dangerous privilege of armed 
opposition to the crown. 

II. The principality of Cathalitkta (Catalnfia), with the 
duchy of GirofiOy the counties of TJrgd, PaUars, Besalu, 
AfttpurdaHf Barcelona^ Uery^ the viscounties of Cardona 
and Castelbo, and the baronies of Moncada, FradeSf Aytona^ 
Osana, and others. Bab.gelona, in its picturesque and strong 
position on the sea, and defended by its towering castle of 
Monjuichj became the centre of the Catalonian trade and 
industry, and the first among the commercial cities of the 
Mediterranean, which obtained a written code of maritime 
laws — el consulado del mar — that formed the basis for the 
mercantile jurisprudence of Europe during the Middle Ages. 
The precipitous Moi%8errat (the peaked or serrated mountain), 
with its splendid Benedictine Convent, was early the peaceful 
abode of numerous hermits, Tortosaj on the Ebro, became 
celebrated by the }ieroical defence of its wometi, who, arming 
and relieving their exhausted husbands, repelled the Moorish 
invaders in 1149. At Lerida, on the Segre, Don Juan 11. 


traadioroiudy ImpriBoned his bob, the inniMeiit Qarlos de 
Tiana, wbo in 1461 perighed, the Tietim of a maligoaiikt step- 
mother. El Coi de Fanizart, GUrona, Chtahich, and HgU* 
eras, in the Pyrenees, became in 1285 the eoene of the heroical 
resistanee of Don Pedro III. and his Almugavares against the 
immense invading armj of Philippe III. of France, while 
]3>ogeT de Loria, with his Catalan galleys, on the prouiontory 
of Ba^is, oaptared and destroyed his proii^ armada. 

&98. in. The kingdom of Valencia, extending along 
the sea ooast, and embracing part of Morcia, contained the 
duehies of JB^eerioa (Jerica), Segorbe, and Gandia, with the 
flourishing eities of Valencia, Casteiton, Dema, Alicante, 
AkabUku, Elche, and Orihtida, all celebrated battle-fields in 
tiie Moorish wars. Nuestra Seflara de Montesa, west^ on the 
frontiers of Mureia,- beeame in 1317 the ^idowment of a now 
order of military monks, which rose in Aragon on the ruins 
of that of the Knights Templars, after their condemnation 
at the oonnoil in Vienna, uid deq^erate but yain resist- 
ance in their castles in Aragon. The commanders and 
brothers of the Oastilian Order of Caktoara obtained all their 
riefa estates, and beeaiue thenceforth the border^wardens against 
the Moors of Granada. 

IV. The kingdom of Maxxokca (Mayorea), comprising 
tho Balearic islands, the counties of Roussillon^ Cerdaka^ 
CoHhre, and Cof^ns, in the Pyrenees, together witii the 
lordships ei Yohifpir and MontpeUier, formed during the 
thirteenth century a separate state, under a lateral line of th9 
Aragonian dynasty.^ At the diet oi Barcelona, August 

vn Don jA-noB I., el Conquistador, Kiqg of Aragon 1 1270.' 

Dor P$aro IIL, Jayms I., 

King of Aragon, King of Mallorca, 

ia«-l28? • 1268-1802. 

Ifazried to Oonatanoe^ 

ftfHohenBtanfen. Sancbo, King 



' Kttried to OoDBtance of Aragon. 



21, 1262y Don Jayme I. gave the Balearic ialands and ^ba 
Jftejkch fiefii in Langaedoc and Provenee to his jonnger son, 
Don Jayme, whose successors, after a reign of fifby-two 
years, were expelled by Don Pedro lY. of Aragon, in 1344. 
Jayme IL, the last king of Mallorea, attempting in Tain the 
defence of Ronssillon, fled to Ayignon, where he sold to 
Philippe YI. his only remaining possessions in Prorence, 
Mtmtpelliery and LatUs, for . 120,000 dollars. HaTix^ 
gathered an army in 1349, he landed on Mallorea, but he feU 
in battle against the Aragonose, and the islands remained 
united with the crown of Aragon.- Paima^ the capital, 
became the principal mart for the Eastern commerce of the 
Catalans. In its beantifiil cathedral is stiU seen the sepul- 
chral monument of Don Jayme I. of Mallorea. CiUes on the 
smaller island of Minorca were Ciudadda and^ Mahon 
(Mago), with one of the finest ports on the Mediterranean. 

599. Y. The kingdom of Sicily or !ZH«acrta.— The Si- 
<nlians had thrown off the yoke of Oharles of Anjon and Na- 
ples on the Sicilian Yespers (423). They gave the crown of 
Trinacria, for they resomed the ancient name of the island, to 
the able and successful Don Fadrique II., who maintained his 
independence of Naples.*^ After the most devastating wars 
with the Angeyin Kings of Naples, and ciyil feuds between 
the Catalan and Chiaramontese (Sicilian) parties, the island was 
united with the Aragonese crown in 1412. During this period 
it became divided into L Vol di ZhmonOj east, urith the mar- 
graviate of RandazzOj the counties of Adram^ Af^done^ Mis- 
treUay Minco (the latter four belonging to noble Catalan fami- 

**"Triniicriaii Kings until thd permanent union witli Aragon : Pe- 
dro III of Aragon, 1282-1286. Jayme H, 1285-1291. Fadrique 
(Frederic) H, 1291-1887. Pedro It, 1887-1842. Louis, 1842-1865. 
Fadrique ML, el Tonto, 1866-1877. Martin the Younger, 1877-1409. 
Martin the Elder (succeeds his son), 1409-1410. FemaAdo I. of Aragon 
and Sicily, 1412-1416. Sicily remains thenceforth united with the 
Spanish monarchy until the general peace of Utrechtv io 1718. 

SiaHTH PEaiOD. — ABMOJd. 723 

lies), Monfortey Chracey Augtestdy a&d others, mth the cities of 
Catania^ Syracusa^ Messina^ PaU% Nasoy Zampulicy and 
CefcUUy all celebrated by the military events of those times. 
II. Vol di Mazzara, west, with the counties of Palizzi and 
Ciaconio (of the Giiiaramontesi), and the cit^Bs FalermOy the 
capital, CasteHamarCy Trapaniy Mazzaray Salemiyand Set- 
acca. III. Yal zv'Agiligento soathwest, with the counties of 
Camaratay CcdatabMatay and Stcidianay and the cities of 
Agrigento BSid Castrojarmi.; and lY., Fa/ £?i iVb^o southeast, 
unbracing the possescdons of the turbulent Chiaramontesiy and 
the principality of Buteray belonging to the Catalan nohles of 
Alagona, with the towns NbtOy Modica, and Alicata. To the 
kingdom of Trinacria belonged the islands of Mcdtay GozzOy 
and PafUcdarm. On the eastern coast of TuniSy the Catalans 
had occupied the important islands- of Ce^n^^i^ (Kerkeri) and 
Gerbes (Zerbi)^ with the castles of Zadaica, Cantara, and 
Agirra. and the fortaresses of AlcoU and Temolumy on the 
mainland of Africa, which were bravely defended by Aragon- 
ese giwisons, and were useful d6p6ts for the commerce on 
the shores of Barbary^ and ports of refuge for the Catalan 
fleets. But, during the internal disturbances in Sicily, and 
those in Yalencia, against Alonso lY., the Saracen inhabit- 
ants of Gerbes rebelled ; they obtained aid from the Tunese 
and the Neapolitans, and, driving off the Sicilians, Carchis 
and the other possessions were lost in 1336. 

YI. The island of Sardinia, divided into its four jurisdic 
tions (323), the judges of which sometimes would take the 
royal title, was a bone of contention between the rival re- 
publics, Genoa and Pisa. The noble house of Oriay and the 
Margraves of Malaspinay held with Genoa, while the judge of 
Arboreay and the Counts of Bos and DonoraticOy raised the 
banner ^f Pisa. The prudent Don Jayme I. gained the good 
will of all parties, and, landing with a powerful fleet, in 1323, 
the Aragonese were received with open arms. Nobles and com- 
moners pressed around the old hero of thirty battles ; the Pi- 
sans were defeated near Cagliari, and (ifter the surrender of 

794 sioHra vnaacfD. — ASLMOon^-^^AXAKKA. 

itfi strong fortress, thai l&rtOe and l>eautiffil island was, Vy tko 
treaty of 1326, united to the Aragonese empre. 


Tarraconensis, with the archiepise^al see in Ta&ragona, 
the suflragan chnrohes of Bardnona, Gerunda (Oirona), Bi- 
stUdunum (Besalfi), Ataona^ UrgeHiSj Solsana, ^Okd Ilerda 
(Lerida). II. Provincia CiESARAUousTANA was erected' bj 
Pope JTohn XXIL, in 1318, from the western portion of the 
prorinee of Tarragona ; it had the see in Zaraooza, on the 
Ebro, with gorgeons cathedral and conrcfnts, and embraced ax 
snftragans, those of Jaea, Ofca (Huesca), Balasiro^ Thnzo- 
na, Aldarracin, and Tertsel. III., Proyikcia YALSNrmA, 
comprising the southern part of Valencia, and the Balearic 
islands. Valencia was the archief^seopal ihrone, with three 
sniFragans, Segorbe, Orihuela, and Fahnay on Majorca. 
Aragon had four uniyersities : those of Lerida (from 1245), 
Huesca (1354), Barcelona (1430), and Valencia (1410), 
which latter had six chairs for the Latin, and two for the 
Greek langoage and literature.** 


601. Extent and Government. — This small and histori- 
callj unimportant state embraced the upper valleys of the 
western Pyrenees, and bordered north on France, west on 
Biscay ; on the south, the E^o separated it from Castile, and 
the river Aragon from the kingdom of that name on the east. 
The royal dynasty of Don Garcias VI., Ramirez (318), be- 

""Oareiiis, the ambftssador of King Aloneo Y., a native Catalan, de* 
livered ao elegant an oration intiie Latin laiqpiage, before Pope Sixtua 
lY., tliat the Italian pedants preeent looked at one another in astouish- 
ment^ end the celebrated Pomponius Lietus exclaimed, fiill of admira- 
tion : " Who u the Barbarian that tpedka with rueh eloquence / * A Na- 
varrese Prince translated some of the worlcs of Aristotle, from the Latin 
into Spanifeh. 

«ame eztbefc with Sandio YX., in 1234, mud tbe Count Tliie- 
bault I. of GhamfAj^) inherited the throne. On the decease 
of H^iry I., the last scion of this house, in 1274, the queen 
married her danghter, Juanna, to King Philipp le Bel, and 
Navarra became thus united to France daring fifty-five years. 
But Philipp VI. of Valois, in 1B28, was anxious to rid him- 
self of one of his most dangerous competitors for the throne 
of France, by surrendering the kingdom of Navarra to Philipp, 
Count of Evreuz (306, 393), married to Jeanne, daughter of 
Louis X. This separation from France was hailed with joy 
by the Navarrese, knd those wild mountaineers celebrated the 
festival of their independence with the horrible slaughter of 
ten thousand Jews, who were settled among them, and had 
enjoyed the protection of the French kings, whose bankers they 
were.** Charles the Bad took a pernicious partin the struggles 
of France, without any benefit to Navarra^ There, the hos- 
tile factions of the Beaumotasr and Agramonts involved the 
Gountry in the fiercest civil wars, which only terminated with 
Uie destruction of the unhappy Prinee Carlos de Viana, in 
1462. Navarra was always exposed to the conflicting influ- 
ences of France and Aragon, and could never gather its 
strength. Its states enjoyed great privileges which were pre- 
served by the frequent changes of the dynasties. The Kings 
of Navarra were surrounded by a council of twelve members, 
chosen from the high nobility. The Cortes were composed 
of the three estates : nobility, clergy, and the deputies of 
twenty-five cities, which had early obtained their different sta- 
tutes— ^05. The Navarrese had a hi^ school in TudeJa, on 
the Sbro, but most of their youths went to finish their studies 

**Kingg of the Eyereiax dynasty were: PfaUipp^ 1528-1843. Charles 
L, le Mauvais, 1343-1887. Charles IL, le Genereux, 1387-1425. Juan 
H of Aragon, 1425-1479. The unhappy Blanehe of Aragon was forced 
to renounce^ the throne, and periatied, poisoned by her sister, Eleanor of 
Foix, who inherited TSAiTBrrtu hnt died tlH«e weel&s after her &ther» 
Juan IL, in 1479. Francis the Handsome (Phohus), of B^arn, 1479-1483. 
Jean d'Albret, 1488-1516, last King of Navarra: the country was then 
eonqnered By Fernando, d OatcHcQ, and «nited with Spain. 


either in Lerida, Toolomie, or Hontpellier; and geaertl eda« 
eatioB made only slow progress in a country where commerce 
and industry were neglected. 

602. Division, Cities, and Historical Places— The 
small state was divided into six provinces— mertn^^oc^es — 
five of which lay in the south of the Pyrenees, and one on the 
north, called Merindad de tiltra puertos. Pamplona, on the 
Arga, was the capital. Aybar and Sanguesa, on the river 
Aragon, EstreUa, OlitCy and the gloomy castle of Orthez, in 
the Beam, were all the scenes of melancholy events in the 
history of Carlos de Yiana and his no less unhappy sister 
Blanche de Navarra.**' Navarra formed the bbhopric of Pam- 
pilufuij belonging to the ecclesiastical province of Burgos 

XIY. The Mohakmedan Kingdom of Granada. 

603. Extent, €k)VERNMENT, and Civil Feuds. — After 
the defeat of the African Moors at Tolosa (587), and the sub- 
sequent downfall of the Almohad dynasty in Spain, the pro- 
vince of Granada became the centre of a limited, but powerful 
kingdom. The active and generous Wall Mohammed Ebn 
Alhamar was raised to the throne in 1232, and seciired the 
tranquillity in the interior by the encouragement he awarded 
to commerce, industry, and agriculture, and peace abroad by 
rendering nominal homage to the King of Castile. Though 
Granada^ in the subsequent century, lost all the fertile lands 
on the Lower Guadalquivir, Xeres, Tarifa, Algesiras, and Gid- 
rcdtar, it still contained within the circuit of one hundred 
and eighty leagues, all the physical resources of a strong em- 
pire, which, by the valor of its Alhamarid monarchs, the en- 
thusiasm of its dense population, and the strength of its rock- 
bound frontiers, for more than two centuries — 1232-1492 — 

""'See PreBOoU*g HiMtory of Ferdinand and Isabella, yoI. I., cap. S^ 
and for the ultimate oatMtrophe of l^ayarra^ in 1618, vol. IIL» cap. 28. 


resisted Uie united forces of the Spanish monarchies. The 
influx of Saracen exiles from the provinces lately conquered 
by the Christian arms, rapidly increased the numher of its de- 
fenders, while the internal disturbances in Castile during the 
reign of Don Pedro el Cruel and the weak kings of the Tras- 
tamara dynasty, left the Granadians periods of comparative 
tranquillity f^r the development of a higher civilization in 
commerce, science and arts. Agriculture,- too, was held in re- 
spect, and carried to a high degree of excellence.^ Their 
manu€&etures of woollen cloths, CQtton^ and flax, were impor- 
tant objects of export, and the sword blades, armor, and dyed 
leather (cordwain)^ of Granada, wore, during that period, ^^e 
best in Europe. Their commerce extended to Egypt and 
India. Thus an immense wealth and all the enjoyments and 
comforts oi life were concentred in this delightful region, so 
bountifttlly blessed by nature. Befined manners, a chivalrous 
affeotion for the fair sex, and, in consequence, an honorable 
position of woman in society, brilliant valor, love for poetry, 
muQio, and rural occupations, blended with the wildest pas- 
sions of party spirit, revenge, and deadly feuds, characterized 
the hot-blooded and generous Oranadian cavaliers. Supported 
by their African allies, the Alhamarids attempted to throw 
off the f<Hrced allegiance to the Castilian Kings. Within 
Oraaada itself contending parties arose among the nobles, 
whose influence decided the succession of the throne, and the 
direction of the government. One king armed against the 
other, fearfal revolutions shook the throne ; *^' nay, the hostile 

*" Christian Spain was indebted to the Moslem Granadians for the 
introduction of her most exquisite fruits and horticultural products, for 
the sugar cane, cotton, silk, the skilful culture of the mulberry tree, 
vid the ingenious mode of irrigation, and thus, by the distribution of 
^he waters tranfijforming the desert into a Paradise. 

*^From the accession of Mohammed L Ebn Alhamar, in 1232, to 
She last King, Abdallah el Zaguir, by the Spaniards called Boabdeli, 
or d Rey Chieo (the Pigmy King), in 1492, twenty-three kings had oc- 
cupied the gUttering throne of the Alhambra» and tasted the bitter cup 
of human greatness. 

728 Bonn nsKU>i>.^-*oBJiiiAiML 

parties cdled the GaaiiliiA enemy to tlvHT »ap{k>rl» Yet, 
while the wars raged on the firontk«B,'a»d one borikr <»stle 
fell into the power of the Christians after ^e ol^er^ the Gra- 
nadisns still oontinned to shed th^ blood in civil eontests, 
and it was at last, the rebellion of Abdallah el Zaquir (the 
Dmnkard) against his unolO) Abdallah ei Zagal{fhe Damil- 
less) — which, after the most determined retnstance of the Gra- 
nadians, opened the gates of the splendid ei^ital to the armies 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, on tiie 2d of J^annary, 14Q2, and 
pat an end to the Mohammedan dominion in the Peninsnlak 

604. Division — Crriss and Hi8!3R>niCA& SrsmB, — ^Aflter the 
loss of Algeziras and Gilnraltar in 1344, the western fronti^ 
of the kingdom ran through ^e deep valley of Wady-Ara, 
along tiie northern declivity of the Sierra de Antequera, and 
was protected by the strongly-situated cities of Honda, L^'ay 
AntequerOj Alhama, and the nmweroas border-castles, erew«- 
ing every hill in the northern dastriets of Eai&at Jakasst^ 
El jFandcdky and Bordshila-^B^^^ opposite to the CasUliaH 
provinces of Cordova and Jaea. On 4lie northeast, HJbe 
fartile regi(m of Kastahma was defi^ded by the towering 
Df^al Samantan (now Monte Caaorta), which s<qparated 
Granada from Mnrcia, while the eaiftem deelivity of Sierrit 
Nevada presented a fi)nnidable frontier line of deep, rocky 
defiles, and the monntaki4bftS of Vkdad^ASdad (Velex-el- 
Blanco), VaJad'HU-Ahmar (Velez-e^Rubio), and Su/tchana^ 
and Almeria on the sea-coasi. The city of Ghanada (Arabic, 
Gamatka^ or Garb-Naath), the capital of the empire, was 
situated on the northern declivity of iJjAal Kais (Sierra 
Nevada), in the plain of the river Xeml^ sufficiently protected 
on the east by the fortresses of Wady-Asch (Gnadix) and 
Basdtha (Baza), on the south by the snow-capped range of 
the mountains, and on the west by Alhdma and the other 
above-mentioned cities. Only in the north the valley of the 
Xenil opened on the plain of the Guadalquivir, and the citj 
was therefore often exposed to the sudden incursions of the 


€aflitiliM ohivalry ; tliere^ toist, Isabelb fixed her camp, anS 
built h€r threatcauBg town of SatUa-R. It was to tlie Almo- 
faad and Alhamarid djnaaties that fiianada owsd the Alhamhn 
with its wonders, the splendid xiios9]ies-<-a$af7tas----oaraTao- 
serais^ baaaars, aqueducts, hrtdgeS) hospitab, paMie baths, aiid 
all the other liberal iastitutioiM of Mic^nunedaa piety. 
What Cordova had been in theniiith eeivfciiry, Ghranada became 
m the fifteenth. It cfrntuned tiien iani hnndzed thopsand 
li^bitants, and ocenpied a einnunferenoe of three leagues, 
which was defended by ranges of waQs with more ibm. a 
thousand towers. Yet the Moon^ capital was as celebrated 
tor the industry of its citiaens, the lesrmng ef its Alunans 
and AlehaMsj as Ibr die magniieence of its royalty and the 
■valor of its knights^ — and it is with a feeling of sorrow and 
regret that we read in Don Hnrtado de Jiendoza, ihe misery 
ftnd rotnwluch the narrow-minded polities of An Spanish 
monarofas, and the tenors of liie Inqnisxiixin, brought on this 
happy country, when the cross was planted on the Alhambra, 
and Granada sank with the nation that preferred exile and 
death to despotism and bigotry.^ JJ^Samam (Alhama), 
situated In the upper range of thenu^mtaiins of Antequera, 
eig^t Ifei^^ues southwest of Gianada, was the frequent retreat 
«f the Moorish kiaga, who in those elevated regions eigi^ed 
ihe deticious thermal springs, ihal gs?e ihe town its Anduo 
name. Bdng surrounded by fesrldl precipices and walls conr 
aid^red impregnaUe, Alhama beowne the principal d6p6t ef 
the royal reyenues. But in .1461 k was jmrpcised and taiken 
by Don Eodengo Ponoe de Leon and aiumd of daring knights, 
twho held it^riously in spite of all the despente attempts xd 
the old king, Muley Abul Hassan, to recover it. Southw«ist^o|i 
the coast, lay the splendid city Malakka (Malaga), and more 

^ Only one bEsnoh 4>f t^e aneknt Qnouidian mduttry, llist of ths 
Albaydn doth ouumfactnret by Mmnrii xek^^u from Baens U«till 
oanied on, bnt it stands in the same proportionifco those of old as the 
■|^my conTents and unfinisbed obamhat a&d:paUMa840f Cfliaiiles Y, do 
to the faiiyfaaUs of tha Alhandbva. 

730 SOHTH PBEI0D.-^-GaJkRlA4. 

inlaDd, the strong Baksh (Yeles-Maiaga)) whiok were both 
taken by King Fernando in 1487, after the bravest defence 
of their high-minded and wealthy citizens. Al-Mank^ 
(AlmuQeoar), east of 'Jfalaga, on the rockj coast, was the 
strong castle in which' the Moorish kings used to imprison 
their rebellious relatives and hoard their treasures. At Loja^ 
west, on the Wady-oi-Jora^ and in the defiles of Alxarquia^ 
south of Antequera, the Spaniards suffered severe defeats in 
1483. Almeriay on the coast, and the border castles Zakara, 
MadroflOy Modtn, Alcoyj OreZy AlboXy and many others, 
became celebrated during the border warfare of the times. 
Padtd, the summit of Mount Alpujarras, south of Granada, 
was the spot (still called Ei ultimo sospiro del Moro)y where 
the unhappy Abdallah (Boabdil) took the last look at hiB 
capital, on his departure after the surrender in 1492, and his 
mother, the masculine Ayza, upbraided him Us tears wi^ 
saying, '< Well doest thou to weep like a woman for a cily 
thou wouldst not defend like a man I " 

605. Such was the state of the Hispanic Peninsula about 
the middle of th» fifteenth century. Geanaba, in civilisation 
and arts, wealth and comfort, stood high above the Christian 
states. PoKTUOAL had opened its brilliant career on the 
Atlantic Ocean ; Aragon, strong by its excellent constitution 
and its maritime possessions, extended its influence over 
Italy ; Navarra, with its outward tincture of French gayety 
and glitter, remained savage and poor, while Castile, passing 
through the alembic of her civil wars, recovered her strength 
and her virtue in the energetic reign of Fernando and 

"** A very unfavorable, but no donbt faithful, descdption of tha 
desolate and demoralixed condition of Castile, daring the citiI war in 
1466, written by intelligent contemporaneous travellen, was last year 
published in Germany. This curious book, in the quainJt old Oennan 
of the fifteenth century, carries the reader through Germany, Bur- 
gundy (tlie Netherlands), England, f'raaoeb. Spain, Italy, and Hungaiy. 


XY. The Italian Principalities and RsptrBLics, a. d. 1450. 

606. Historical Remarks. — During the two centtiries 
which followed the Lombard League — 1250-1450 — the 
political and geographical aspect of Northern Italy has 
undergone a total change. The warlike and tumultuous 
republican cities, and the principalities of the powerful 
families which succeeded thein^ have nearly all disappeared. 
Venice has occupied the cities and districts situated in the 

The authors were Schassek ftnd Tetzel, the former a Bohemian, the 
latter a IS'tirnberger Doctor, both acting as secretaries to several Bohe- 
mian (Hassite) noblemen, who in that year— 1466— undertook a grand 
tour through Europe. From England the travellers arrived in Castile, 
which is described as an uncultivated country, a dreary wilderness 
covered with box and rosepaary, where the travellers were continually 
exposed to the attacks of prowling robbers or pilfering gypsies. The 
Gastilian people appeared to them as a proud, irascible, jealous^ inhos- 
pitable, shabby, and cruel race, reckless alike of the lives of others and 
their own, ever and anon insulting the foreign ^avaliers^ and throwing 
atones at them. In every town they beheld permanent gibbetrtrees 
hanging full of ghastly fndts; they saw culprits chained to iron bam 
between lighted piles of wood, by which their flesh was roasted alive, 
and nothing but charred skeletons left. The Spanish prelates they de- 
scribe as turbulent and luxurious ; the priests as ignorant and venal. 
The knights were dressed in the flowing drapery of the East^ in imita- 
tion of the Arabs, and galloping along on light jeneU or barbs, they 
considered them unable to withstand the shock of the French or- 
EngUsh chivalry. The Spanish ladies, too^ wore Oriental dresses ; they 
covered their faces with veils^ and smeared their eye-brows and chins 
with black and purple ointments. " In a word," says the honest Tet- 
zel, the secretary, ** the Spanish people are so mixed up with Jews and 
Saracens, as to be worse than either, and more Heathen than Chris- 
tian!" The wh<^le Peninsula was torn by party feuds, everyone 
hating his neighbor, and. thinking onlyx>f selfish interests. Though 
Aragon was in a much better condition than Castile, yet it was only 
lifter a hundred hairbreadth escapes from the kidnapping land-rats 
(Almugavars) of Aragon and the water-rats (pirates) of Catalonia, that 
our jaded travellers could escape across the Tuscan sea to Italy. (See 
liOndDn Quarterly Review fdr April, 1S&2.) 

732 VOBm VKM30B. — SStALf » 

eastern moietj of Northern Italy, between the Adda, the 
0^0, and the Adriatic Ghnlf ; shfe has dispossessed &11 the 
pet^ princes of their territories, and confined the Patriardi 
of Aquilej'a to some insignificant tracts on the coast Nezt 
in pow» stands Milan, which, under the sway of the families 
of Delia Torre and the Yisconti (414), has become an inde* 
pendent sovereignty, only nominally recognizing the supre- 
macy of the German emperor. In the west, Savoy (413, III.) 
has extended its dominion north of the Alps into Lesser Bur- 
gundy, and subjugated the smaller territories between the 
mountains and the Oulf of Genoa. The principality of Asn 
(411) belongs to the Princes of Orl(6ans in Prance. The 
Marquis of Montfbr&at is an independent sovereign. Man- 
tua is hereditary in the family of Gonzaga. Ga&pi, Cos- 
KEGOio, and MiraNdola, south of the Po, form small princi- 
palities. The house of EsTS, descending from the Italian 
Guelfs, has enlarged its dominion by Papal fiefs. Tuscany is 
now divided between the two republics, Florence and Siena ; ' 
only Lucca has preserved its 4otibifiEil independence in the 
comer of Movnt Apennine. The German ^ii^ had made 
frequent but unsuccessfdl attempts to restore the inftuence of 
the ancient empire in Italy ; Henry TIL, honest and brave, 
fell by poison ; Louis of Bavaria, alike treacherous to friend 
and foe — to Ghibelline and Guelf-^fled, detested by both. 
King John of Bohemia came and went like « Quixotic knight- 
errant. His son, Charles lY., appeared as a trim but p^mi^ 
less courtier, a harmless candidate for the Boman crown, 
without army or treasure, and selling the last remaining 
imperial fiefs to the highest bidder, in order to pay his passage 
back to Germany. Thus, in the fifteenth century, we find fair 
Italy left entirely to herself^ and if it was not to her a period 
of peace and unclouded serenity, the cause lay in her political 
position, and in the character of her inhabitants. Tet she 
had at least expelled her foreign masters, and if her own 
pinces, into whose arms she had thrown herself, still quar- 
relled and fought, they w»e now moved by their own Italian 


«Bilnti(m and poUtm Tlie GknatA «Qd Engiuih nunrcmMriei , 
^e Wemers wd fiawkwoods, had {>eidEd)[ed^ and Italy beheld 
-wi^ a oertain naiioiial pride, a n^ew aohool of wamors, ihi^ 
of&pxing of her soil, the Oanaagnolaa, the BraodoSi and the 
SfomiB, who, hy a higher and mora hutiiaae organisatioii of 
their armies, fought out the disputes of the. Italian States 
wok&ag themselyes ; and while these native comdo^tieri tilted 
with their lances and ransoio^ their prisoners in all polite- 
ness and etiquette, the kii!|ger iiepublics and prinoipalities, 
Yenice, Florence, Milan, and Niaples, fotined oonfederaoies for 
a pMtical bqJaitce of powir^ whk^ secured a eertain tran- 
quillity and independence to alL The Pope Mmsdbf ^was, 
aboat A. n. 1450, at the head of fswk. an •RaUcm Ailiancey and 
lat^, the admirahle Lorenao de Medioi placed Italy beyond 
the hazard t>f foreign inTasioo. It was not until after 
the death of diat great irtatesmaa, in 1492, at ^e close 
of the fifteenth century and the boguuuiig of isksB Modem 
iSra, &at the gathering stonoiB broke loose at onoe over 
that prosperous country. Italy stood then at the head of 
Sturopean civilisation, in eoninietr^ seiene€»» and art; the 
fourteenth century was Ihe era of Gienius'-H>f Dante, Pe- 
trarch, utd Boeeaee; the fifteen^ tiiat ^xdassieal leamii^ 
■and research. This general burst c^ nn^ortal aotmty ennobled 
the sentiments of the Italian dation; their extensive eom- 
^nerce and multifarious indiMStiiy refined the manners, and thtis 
we discover, amidst petty wars of envy and ambitiol^ an 
eEtraordmary progress towards a h^her development in Itail|r 
during the period between Dante, the stem GthibeEne partisan, 
and Lorenzo, the princely preserver of peace. 

607. S^TATfiS of* NORTHEKft i1^AI»T. — 'I. Th£ EbPUBLIO OF 

Saint MARK.r-The ^reat ev^t whioh formed a period in the 
, history of the Y^aetlan eonstitution and politics was the noise- 
less victory of the wealthy aristocratical families, which, by the 
•eksing of the grand oouncil — la serratura del maggior consig' 
Ho — ^in 1297, brought the entire government into their handa 


Teniee thus became a close and aelfish oligarchy; ahe Btndi> 
ened her constitation in 1311 by the creation of the Oounoil 
of the Ten Signers of the Bladk Robe— -i neri — who, with 
the Doge as their president, gave a new direction to her 
gOTcmment — a fearful despotism at home and continental 
conqnests abroad. 

In 1450, the dominion of the Republic of Saint Mark 
embraced the territories of Bergamo^ Brescia^ Verona^ and 
Vicenza^ conquered from the family of Delia Scala; FeUre^ 
RoveredOf Belluno, Ccuiare, FritUi^ Trevisoj and Padua^ the 
latter two treacherously wrested from the unhappy princes of 
Carrara in 1406. Within the territory of the Duchy of Milan, 
Venice possessed the city of Crema, and south of the Po she 
had conquered the important Ravenna and Bagno-cavallo in 
1441 ; nay, she extended her grasping hand as far as the 
coasts of Naples, where she at a later period held the ports of 
JVanij Brindisif OctUipaliy Pugliano^ and OtravUto, 

During this period of her highest power, her Eastern 
Empire consisted of — 1, the Jktrian Peninsula, with the 
duchies TLara and Sebeniooy on the mainland, and the Dal- 
matian Islands ; 2, Scutari and Durazzo in Upper Albania ; 
3, the Ionian Islands, with BtUhrinto, Farga, Frevesa, and 
Arta, in Epirus, Vostizza and Anatolico in Acamania, and 
Naupactus (Lepanto) in ^tolia | 4, in the Morea, FairassOj 
Chiarenza (Glarenza, 358), Mbdon, Corona Mmembasia, part 
of Lacedamonia and Argos; and 5, the Grecian Islands 
(359), with Negroponte^ Candia, and, in 1473, the fertile and 
beautiful Cffprus.^ 

608. Venice had become a splendid city, and the finest 
monuments of the celebrated Place of Saint Mark date from 
this era of conquest, wealth, and prosperity. Yet her most 
gigantic undertaking was the Long Walls — ^t murazzi — 

*"* The narrow space left va does not permit ua to go into any 

nOHTH FB&IOD. — ^ITALT. 785 

mniiiiig for twentj-five miles from Torcdlo, on the ii<»th, 
along the narrow eastern eoast southward by Malamocco and 
Palestrina to Chiozza, to protect the lagoons and the proud 
,3ride of Samt Mark herself from the irruption of the 
Adriatic. The Mutazzi became, in 1379-81, the scene of 
the fearful attack of the victorious Genoese, which brought 
Venice to the brink of destruction ; but by the timely arrival 
of Carlo Zeno and the Levantine fleet, terminated with the 
celebrated siege of Chiossza, on the south of the Lagoons, the 
battle of Brondoh, and the defeat and surrender of the entire 
fleet and army of the Genoese on the 21st of June, 1381. 
On the shores of the lake of Garda took place, in 1439, that 
highly remarkable campai^ between Francesco Sforza, the 
general of the united repuolics of Venice and Florence, and 
Picdnino, the lieutenant of the Duke of Milan, the two 
greatest condottim of the age^ during which the Venetians, 
with extraordinary exertions, transported w entire fleet of 
galleys and armed barl^s across the rugged mountains of Bas- 
aano into the lak^, and defeating Piccinino at Tenna and Salo^ 
relieved Brescia, and recaptured Verona, by military skilly 
bravery, and the boldest stratagems. But Venice had not 
preserved her ancient Italian virtues, and we turn with dis- 
gust from the relation of the frightful political crimes and 
treacheries by which she suceeeded for the time to unite and 
oonsolidate her mighty empire on sea and land. 

609. II. Ths DircHT of Milan, under the sway of the 
family of Viseonti from 1284 to 1447, embraced the ancient 
archbishopric (407), the county of Favia, Cremona^ Farma^ 
Fiacenza^ Boblno, Tortona^ Alessandria^ Novara^ the terri- 
tory of jRt«5ca, situated between the lakes of Como, Lugano, 
and Maggiore, and in the north, the Vol di Sesia, Duomo 
d'Ossola, Vol LevantinUy and VaUeUina^ where the dukes 
encountered the Swiss mountaineers in many a hard-fought 
battle. Gian Galeauo Viseonti, the first Duke of Milan, 
built in 1386 the magnificent cathedral — il JDMomo— and in 

786 mamm nEEHsa— nftX.Y. 

]S9d the Oartbvfiitta Convaa^b— 4a Cer«MM»— new Psm, wbcve 
hifl gocgeouB maiusolewn ftTes teBtimoBy to the wedNli and 
ftriisiie skili of the tinw. Pavta and JPuacenza posseesed 
flourishing nniTersittes. ArbmiOj in the Yal LeTtfitina, 
Maoalo^ on the Oglio, and the oity of Bresckty became m 
1422-1427 the aoene of the yictories of the eelehrated Oon- 
dottiere Francesco Cannagnola, who, as general of the Yene- 
tians, was treaoheronslj decoyed to Yenice, and most mjnstlj 
put to the torture, and beheaded in 14^ At Caravaggie, m 
the swamps of the Adda, Francesco Sfona defeated and 
captured the entire Yenetian army in 1448; Imt, snddenly 
entering into an alliance with that republic, the perfidknB 
Condottiere mardied his anny against Mikn, and was pro- 
daimed Duke in 1450. Sfona was, however, a gtseat states- 
man; he secured the tranquillity of Italy, and after « 
brilliant reign, left his throne to his son Gakaaso, on his 
death, in 1466. 

610. IIL Thk Bepitbuc of Cbavoa, the moirt tttrbnlent 
of all the Italian deniocraoiea, pesses o e d I. Th% lAgunan 
coastland, fremi Monaco^ en tiie west, enstwaard to Z^rtce, on 
the frontioni of tibe tezskory of the Counts of Mi^aspma, 
with the capital of Genova La Superia, Sawna, JJbenga^ 
OnegUoy VentimigHaj the exoeUent haiber of S^zia, and 
numerous castles on Mount Apennine, which belonged to tbD 
noble families of the Doria, Fieschi, Spinola, Grimaldi, Bocca- 
nera, Giustinianl, and others. II. ^he iiE^and of Oorsifxi, 
which was peranaaently ocoupied by tlM denoese in 1284, afber 
the disastrous defeat of the Pisan fleet off the iriand of Hd- 
lorca (417). The repuhiUe did not, howcTer^ obtain a quiet 
possession of that island ; it was for a long time the a|^le of 
discord between the rival Catalans (596) and Oenoese, and the 
latter, thoug^i oiben driven out, d[>tained uitimately the upper 
hand. Corsica was divided into Terra Commune^ north of 
^e mountains, and Terra di Vimarca^ on the south. BasHa^ 
Cahiy J^ttcM Sam JBam^kciOy JUeriOf and Oinarcaf were 

^« ttoBt iiii{x»rtftiit tofvns. The fierce Oomoam xttottstaneeiB 
were goY^ined with flu iiwi rod, and tkeir frefoent insmree- 
tioBs gave jxineh tro«Ue to Genoa. III. Tine Gireeioii lelanda, 
Chios, Somas, Mcafia, Psd&ra, Metdmo (Lesboa), Stalimene 
(Lemwm), liv^ios, Uknedo*, Th&sos, Bamothrakiy and the 
strongly fortified dtj aiHl poirt of I^magntdc^ on Umb 
eastern coast of Cyprus. lY. .Pera and Galatd, on the 
Golden Horn, opposite to Cdnstwitinople, was the great 
emporium of eastern commerce, which the Genoese lost after 
the ^nquest of the Greek capital by Sultan Mohatnmed II. 
in 1453. T. The important colonies in the Taurid Penin- 
sula (Crimea), and on the adjacent coast of the Sea of Azof, 
Caff a (Theodosia), on the eastern shore of the Crimea, wa,s a 
splendid city, with 36,000 houses within the walls, and 8000 
in the extensive suburbs, inferior only to Genoa herself, and 
, proudly called the Lesser Gtmstantinople, Smaller cities 
were Soldaja, Chersoneso, Katolimne, and FondicOy on the 
straits ; San Giorgio, PaUastra, and Tana (Azof), on the 
mainland. These possessions, with their rich bazaars and 
depots of eastern commerce, were swept away by the invasion 
of Mohammed II. in 147S. Kuinous cities and castles now 
cover the site of Genoese power and glory. 

611. IV. The Duchy of Savoy (413) acquired under its 
first duke, Amadous VIIl., Vercelli in 14^7. Several of its 
southern territories, such as Chierasco^ Savigliano, Cuneo, 
and Mondovi, were still in the possession of the Provencals. 
Duke Louis — 1439-1465 — ^married Anna of Lusignan, with 
the hope of obtaining the island of Cyprus, but Venetian 
intrigue despoiled him of all his rights, and he gained nothing 
but the empty title of King of Cyprus, 

V. The Marquisate op Montferrat, with the cities Alba, 
Nizza, Acqui, Casali, Chiavasso, the margraviate of Carretto, 
and the southern territory of the Lurhgh^ which remained fiefs 
Gi the German empire^ 

VL Asti (411), with its territory, belonged to Uie Doke 


Louis of Orl^aiifl as dower of his wife, Yskntina YiscontL 
The pretenfdons of Louis XIL, as Doke. of Orleans, caused 
ihe second invasion of Italy by the Prench in 1499. 

YIL The smaller sovereignties of the Malaspina, Pala- 
vicnro, QowzAOA, Correogio, Pio pi Carpi, Pico pi Miran- 
DOLA, and the ancient marquisate of Este. 

612. States of Oentrai. Italy. — ^I. The Eepublic of 
Florence (416) had preserved its admirable constitntion 
daring the storms of the fourteenth century, and enjoyed the 
highest development of its commercial and literary activity in 
the fifteenth, under the sway of her distinguished citizens, 
Cosmo and Lorenzo of Medici. Pisa^ with Livamo (Leg- 
horn) and part of the Mdremme, Arezzo, and Cartona, had 
been incorporated in her territory, which now extended 
eastward across Mount Apennine, and south to the lake of 

II. The Bepubuo of Siena preserved likewise her liberty 
under continual contentions between the nobles and com- 
moners. She remained the fiiithful ally of the Medici, and 
extended her territory throughout the ancient palatinate of 
Tuscia and the islands Elba, Pianasaj and Giglio. 

III. The Bepublio of Lucca had taken an active part in 
all the movements of the fourteenth century. After the death 
of her illustrious captain, Castruccio Castracani, she was con- 
quered by the Florentines, but she soon threw off the yoke, 
and recovered her liberty and popular gpvemment. Lucca 
took no part in the movements of the time, and sank, later 
back, into profound obscurity. Her territory reached to the 
Gatfagnana in Mount Apennine, whose defiles were protected 
by the important fortress of Pietrd Santa, 

XVI.— The Papal State. 

613. Acquisitions of Territory. — ^The downfall of the 
Souabian house, and the troubles in Germany (394, 511) had 
given the Popes free hand in Italy ; yet, instead of contributing 

SIORTH FEaibfi.*^TrALT. 739 

tatbe work of peace, their ambition and thirst of dominion rose 
to the highest pitchy They inrolved themselves in endless 
wars with their neighbors, , and found their most inveterate 
opponents in the noble families of the Colonruiy Orsiniy 
Savellij Ccntij and others in the environs of Eome herself.'^^ 
The humiliation of Pope Boniface YIIL, the long residence 
of his successors in Avignon — 1305-1378 — and the great 
schism that followed, brought confusion into the administra- 
tion of the church, and undermined the authority of the 
Popes. Yet during that period of disorder, they artfully 
extended their dominion over Bologna^ Ferrara^ and the 
whole of Romagna^ where the Spanish Cardinal Albomoz, in 
1354-1358, with more ability in intrigue than military talent, 
succeeded m setting the petty tyrants at variance one with 
the other, and in deposing and subduing them alL These 
princes were the Malatestij seignors of Rimini, Pesaro, and 
Fano, the MontefeUri of Urbino, the Varani of Camerino, 
the Orddafi of Forli and Cesena, the Manfredi of Faenza, 
the Alidodoi Imola, and the GabrielH of Oubbio in Mount 
Apennine. Thus the Papal State in the fifteenth century was 
bounded on the north by the river Po, and on the south by 
the Kingdom of Naples* It embraced — I. The ancient 
Patrimony of Saint Peter with JRowie, the Campagna^ 
Maritima^ and Sahina, II. Umbria, with SpoletOj Foligno^ 
and Perugia, III. The March of Ancona, with the cele- 
brated sanctuary San Loretto, IV. Romagna. V. Ferrara, 

*" See the remarkable passage in Machiavelli : 1 cieli fecero cr^scere 
in Roma due potentissime famiglie, ColonneH ed Orsinty acciocchd iJ 
papa qnando mancasse degU ostacoli oltramontani non potesse nd fer- 
mare nd god^e la potenza sua^ Ondecehd papa Boni&cio, ei volse a 
yolere spegnere i Colonnesi, ed oltre alio avergU scommunicati, bandi 
loro la crociata contra. II chd eebbene ofifese alquanto loro, offese piCi 
la Chiesa perchd quelle arm! le quali per caritA della fede aveva virtu- 
osamente adoperate, come si volse per propria ambizione ai Cristiani, 
otxninciarono a non tagliare. E cod 11' troppo desiderio di sfogare il loro 
appetito, faceva ehe i pontefici appoeo appoco si disarmayana Ztf 


Boviooyaiid other £«& of tlie fiouly of Estb. TL Bologka 
and its territory. That li^ and tamoltaovs xepnUio boob, 
threw off the yoke. YIL Behsvbhto and Ponte Corvo in 
the Kiogdom of Naples. VIIL The oonaUes of Atignoh 
and YsNAiaanr in Franoe (502). The city of Avignon^ on 
the hanks of the Bhone, between ihe men 8<Hrgiie6 and 
Doranoe, beeasM in the fourteenth century 4^ oentre of all 
the eookaiastical and politioal interests of Enn^e during the 
long residence of tiie Popes. Many minons Gothic pidaoes, 
ehorches, and oonycaits, still remind the teaveller of those 
times. In the charming valley of VMuduse (the shut valky) 
Petrarch songht in Tain a solitary retreat to toget his passion 
for Laura de Sade. Her pat^nal castle of Saumane lies 
high on the monntain, northeast <^ the valley. There, in the 
grotto of die SargOBM^ the yonmg Tnsoan poet eonposed those 
pore and exalted effusions of the heart, which remain the most 
beantifnl lyrical poetry ot any modem tongoe. 

XYIL — Thb Ejngdqm of Naflss* 

614. The Angevin and Araoonian Dynasties. — Naples 
had seen her happiest days during the reign of the Souabian 
House (423). From a first rate power controlIiDg the destiny 
of Italy, that rich and brilliant sovereignty sank into insig^ 
nificance. Naples, under the Angevin princeSj after the 
massacres of Sicily, the defeat and capture of Prince Charles 
the Lame in 1284, and the death of his father, King Charles 
I., the following year, lost entirely her influence in the political 
balance. Oppressed by a foreign dynasty, which at onoe 
abolished the beneficent tHmstitution ot Frederic IL, witibout 
patriotism and virtue, the distracted Neapolitan people offered 
no resistance to the invader, and the most beautiful provinces 
of Europe became now for centuries the battle-field on which 
ambitious princes, French, Hungarian, and Aragonese adven- 
turers, or mercenary Italian condottieri, sword in hand, 
disputed with one another the spoils of a defenceless nation. 

Usdor the au8;>m8 of a briHiant French oomi and ohiyabrio 
aimj^ an absolute govenuxi^t was introdiiieed : foij tbe larger 
cities Bariy Brindin^ Tcarcmt^^ and NapieSy xetaioed tbeir 
B^mkieipal institutioxis. To some^ written atatates were granted. 
The barons obtained extenstre privileges in order to secure 
their miUtaty senriee in the wars with Sicily and Lombardy ; 
while all the estates of the partisans of Manfred and Coiura- 
dino were sequestrated and granted to the numer(ras French 
nobles^ the Artais^ Canielmas, Ciermonty dc PJ&andarty 
JmnviHcy Marsmc, Mmtfofty FomiCy and others who had 
followed tbe Angerin banner. Naples became the royal 
residence, and was adorned with magnificent buildings. The 
strong Castello Nuoro arose. The University of Frederic II. 
was enlarged and endowed, and the supreme tribunal — Graai 
Carte — ^transported to Naples. One religious f&te, touma^ 
ment, or courtly pageantry, followed the other^ and kept the 
Neapolitan public in a whirl of excitement, while the provinces 
were plundered, and French corruption bid defiwQce to every 
feeling of morality and virtue. The licentious reign of Queen 
Oiovanna L, the murder of her husband, Andreas of Hungary, 
the subsequent invasion of King Louis with his Hungarian 
hordes, and all the frightful disasters of the contending parties 
of Anjou and Buraszo, tc^tiier with the treachery of the 
Italian CondotUeri, Sforaa Attendolo, Braccio da Montone, 
and Galdora, in the times of Queen Giovanna II., brought the 
Neapolitan people into the deepest despair, and it was, there* 
fore, with enthusiamn, and the liveliest hopes of better 'days, 
that they at last, in 1442, opened their gates to Alfonso the 
Magnanimous of Aragon, who by the union of the kingdoms 
of Naples and Sicily — U regno delle due Sicilte di qud. e di 
Id del i^o-^with Aragon, rendered himself worthy of the 
affection of his people, and secured his throne to his successors 
at his death, in 145^. 

615. Cmus AND HiSTORicAX. Bites. — Anversay near Capua, 
where King Andrew was ruthlessly murdered, August SO, 


1345, whh the eonniyaxioe of Queen Oioyftima I., who fled to* 
Provence after the defeat of her general, Niocold degli Aoeia- 
juoli, at Capua, by the Hungarians, in 1348. At the Castle of 
Muro^ in the mountains of Basilicata, the pld guilty queen 
was smothered by the Hungarian avengers^ May 22, 1382. 
Pescara^ on the sea-coast, where the celebrated Sforza Atton- 
dolo, while crossing the ford of the river with his heavy armed 
cavalry, sank with his horse and perished, iu 1424. Aqidta^ 
in the Abruzzi, became, in the ffiune year, the battle-field 
between the greatest Condottieri of the time, in which the 
ohivalrio Braccio da Montone perished, and Queen Giovanna 
II. reoccupied the tottering^ throne of Naples. Near the 
island of Fonza^ opposite to Oaeta, (the scene of the mag- 
nanimous conduct of King Alfonso Y.,) that enterprising 
prince was vanquished, in 1435, in the singular naval combat 
in which the Genoese, by skilful manoeuvres, destroyed the 
entire Catalan fleet, and carried the Aragonese monarch with 
all his knights prisoners to Genoa. 

616. The Ecclesushcal Division ot iTALT.^^The Italian 
Peninsula, with the adjacent islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and 
CiHTsica, consisted, towards the dose of the Middle Ages, of 
thirty-eight Ecclesiastical Provinces, with About two hundred 
suffiragan Bishoprics. The largest of these, the Boman Pro- 
vince, or Patrimormim Sa/ncti PeLri^ embraced tbe greater 
part of the Papal State, and extended fxoim the Po along the 
Adriatic, and a<aross Mount Apennine to the river Gurigliano 
(Liris) in the Kingdom of Naples. Bome was the Patriarchal 
See, with the following sidmrbinarian or immediate suffra- 
gans : The Bishops of Porto di San Ippolito, and Ostta, at 
the mouth of the Tiber, Maglianoy I^ascqiif Tivoli, Pales- 
tfinaj Albano, Segni, and Veletri, Mediate or non-exempt 
suffragans within the frontiers of the Patrimony were the 
Bishops of Terracina^ Castro^ Sutri, Faiera (FaUsei), Orta, 
ViUrbOy Bagnarea^ Anagni, FeretUinOy Aletri, Orvieto^ 
Noceruj Narm, BAUi^ Temi^ Amelia^ SpdOo^ Todi^ FUi^no^ 


Camerino^ Assisi {422), Perugia, Cagli, Mantefeltro, Pesaro, 
Fhno, JBbssomhrone, Sinigaglia, Jesi, Ancona, Osimo, Re- 
canati, and Maeerata. The Bishoprics beyond the frontiers 
of the Patrimony, but belonging as suffiragans to the Roman 
Metropolis, were those of Civita-DucoLle, Teramo, AquHa, 
Civita di Penna, Civita di Ckieti, Vaiva, Stdnwna, and 
Sora — ^all situated in tbe kingdom of Naples. 

617. Eavenna, IJkbino, Fermo, and Teate, on the Adri- 
atic coast, formed separate Arohiepiscopacies. The other 
Provinces were those of Milan, Aquileja, Grado (with the 
Metropolitan See in Venice), Bologna, Genoa, embracing the 
northern part of Oorsica, Pisa, with the south of that island, 
Turin, Florence, Si^na, nineteen Neapolitan Sees, among 
which those of Naples, Capua, Bsnevento, Amalfi, Salerno, 
and Acerenza (Achemntia), were the largest. Sicily had 
four, those of Syracuse, Messina, Montreale, and Palermo, 
and Sardinia three, Cagliari, Arborea, and Sassarl 

XVIIL — The Prankish Principalities in Greece. 

618. Historical Remarks. — The rapid conquests of the 
Ottoman Turks since the permanent settlement of the sultans 
in Adrianople, in 1361, had changed all the relations in the 
East The Greek Empire was in 1450 nearly confined to the 
environs of the Capital, und some distant possessions in the 
Morea, while the weak and disunited Latin principalities on 
the mainland already paid tribute to the terrible Sultan. 
After the final conquest of Constantinople, in 1453, those 
small states were all swept away by the scimitar, and only 
George Castriota (Iskanderbei), the hero of Albania, the 
Elnights of Rhodes, and the Dukes of the Archipelago, under 
tlie protection of the Republic of Saint Mark, yet for a time 
offered a gallant resistance to the victorious arms of Moham^ 
med II. 

619. These Prankish or Latin principalities, the relics 


of the CmMding Oolonies of tbe tihirteeBtli «ad fovrteenih. 
oentories (336), were : I. The Duohy of Athens aad Bceotia ; 
II., the Dudiy of Leticas and Acamania; III., the Prinei- 
pality of Achaia ; lY., the Duchy of the Axchipela^ ; Y*, 
the Genoese Lordshipa of the Gatelusii and Giustuuniani, on 
the iEigean islands; and^ YL, the MiUtary Order of Saint 
John, on Bhodes ; to which may be added, YIL, the Princi* 
pality of Albania^ under Oeorgios Castriota. 

620. L Tbs DacBT or Atbens (355) had, after die defeat 
and death of Walter de Brienne in the battle on the Cephissos 
in BoDOtia, in 131 1, been di^ded among the vietorioiiB Catalan 
and Aragonese freebooters. These wild warriors, ^biking 
possession of the oastles and properfy of the French barons 
slain in the action, and marrying their wives and daughters, 
oonstituted their goremment with the title of ^' 7%e Sovereign 
Army of the Franks in Romaniay^ and eleoted the Frendi 
knight, Boger Deslau, as their chief. *^ Yet, in order to ke^ 
peace at home among themselves, they prudently waged con- 
tinual wars with the neighboring princes of Epinia and Thes- 
saly, and the barons of the Morea. When in 1326, at the 
death of Sir Eoger Deslau, they remained without a leader, 
and symptoms of ambition and jealousy began to threaten the 
internal tranquillity of their military republic, they offered 
the sovereignty of Athens to King Fadrique of Sicily, who 
conferred ^e duohy on his son, Don Manfiredo of Aragdn. 
The princes of that house, however, did not take actual pos- 
session of the duchy ; they governed it by their bailiffs, and 
retained only the title of Dukes of Athens and NeopaZras 
(594)."^ Tbe military commonwealth of the Catalans being 

"* Ducange^ in bis SiHory of the ByzantiM Mnpke (70L ii, p. 197X 
telU us that hs had seen a curious doounMnt, dated Thebesi ia Apri^ 
iai4^ with this iDseriptioo; if<M tmiv^rHUtt fid4U Francorum easercUm 
in partibu9 Rornania extttentU, 

"" The titular Dukes of Athens and Neopatras, of the House of 
Aragon, were: Manfired^ Prince of Sicily, 132^-4830; WUliam, hia 

fitoHtH nsftioix-^-^fteficB; 745 

reontited by new binds of adventaren) from the Spftnish Peniii* 
sula, iremftined in hostile rektio&a to the prinoee of Anjon in the 
Morea, uai. took an active part in the desperate naval battles 
between the Venetians and Genoese on ihe Hellespont and 
Bosphoms, in 1354. But, in the contest which arose in 1386, 
between these warriors and Nerio Acoiajuoli, tiie governor of 
'Corinth, andgnardiaii of the principality of Aehaia, concerning 
the anarriage of the wealthy hdress of Soula (Salona), the 
former were defeated and dispersed, and tiie duchy of Athens 
lliiis passed by conquest to that itoble Florentine family. *^* 
Antonio Aceiajuoli, the son of Vletio, took possession of 
Athens, and extended his dominion over Boeotia and the 
Isthmus of Corinth. He was an amiable and distinguished 
prince; under his mild and equitable government Athens 
enjoyed uninterrupted tranquillity for years, while the more 
nor^^n provinces were desolated by the fearful invasions of 
the Ottomans. But this prosperity did not last, and it was 
the Athenians themselTes, who, disgusted witii the oppresflion 

brother, 1S80-1SS8 ; Jayme, Mcond brother, regent of Sicily, 1S88'184S ; 
Fadrique^ Marquis of Bandai^o, son of Don Jayme, 184S-1855; Fad- 
rique III., King of Sicily^ 1366-1 87*7 ; Maria, his daughter, married to 
I>on Martin, King of Aragon (699). 

"^ The Aeeiajnoli, like the Mediei, were on^nally Florentine meiv 
ehante, who by theb manntaetaring interests and banking bueiness 
rose to the poesesston of weaUh ai^d princely estatea Nicholas Aeeia- 
jnoli, the head of that funily, about 1884, was an able statesman and 
keen political intriguer, and both he and his descendants in Greece gave 
early examples of the superior position which in the fourteenth century, 
the purte of the moneyed citizen began to assume over the ttoord of the 
leudal baron, and the Uamin^ of the poliUeal churchman. The Dukes 
of Athens of the House of Aooiijuoli were: H^erio Z, 1886-1394; An- 
<eiHo, his son, 1894-^1436; I^erio II, 1486-1468; the infant son of the 
former, with his mother as regent, 1463-1466 ; Franco, nephew of 
Kerio XL, last duke, deposed and beheaded by Sultan Mohammed XL, 
1466-I46d. See for the history of Athens during this period tlt^e above 
cited work of Colonel George Finlay, p. 182-201, which contains, more- 
ever, admirable sketohes of the social condition of Greece in tiie 
ifi^eenth centi^iy. 

746 SIOHTH PBRIO]).— a&BEO& 

and the orimefl of Fnaco Aociajuoli, the last duke, called is 
the Saltan Mohammed II. Thus a TorUsh army took posses- 
sioQ of the city and Acropdis in 1456| and Attica became 
thenceforth a part of the Ottoman Empire. 

621. II. Thb Dught of Leuoas— J>Mi(»u/ia-*(Santa 
Maura) embraced the island of that mune, the palaiinate of * 
Cephalonia^JthakajZafUej tiie city of Gktrenza in Elis, and 
the despotat of Acarnaniaf at that time consisting of the 
ancient Acamania, the west of JEUoliat and the souUiem part 
of EpiruSy with Arfa for its capital The dnchy was in the 
possession of the Tocchi, a noble family from Benevento, in 
the kingdom of Naples (360). 

III. Ths P&ingipautt of AchaiAi or Moreay had» after 
the death of William of Yillehardoin, in 1277 (358), with 
the hand of his daughter Isabella, passed to the house of 
Anjou, and was mostly governed by bailiSs appointed by Ihe 
kings of Naples. The Bysantine despots of Misithra, how- 
ever, incessantly attacked the Frank barons, and wrested 
one castle and district from them after another, in spite of 
their desperate valor, and the brilliant victories of John of 
Katavas and his chivalry over the Byzantine mercenaries at 
PHnitza and on Mount Makryplaghi^ in Arcadia, in 1264 and 
1268. The Catalans made inroads from Attica; the Yene- 
tians possessed Coran^ Modon, Argos, and Manemiasta ; the 
Pope held PaZras and Natqdia ; thus the Frankish dominion 
in the Morea, formerly so powerful, was in the beginning of 
the fifteenth century reduced to EliSy western Arcadia^ and 
the coastland of Ajchaia, The last Frank sovereign who 
assumed the title of Prince of Achaia was Azan Zaohariah 
Centurione, Count of Chalandritza. Having, in 1430, sur- 
rendered that fortress and all his other territorial possessions 
to the Despot Thomas Palaeologus, for a life-rent of his 
baronies', the Frank Principality became extinct after an 
existence of two hundred and twenty-five years, and the whole 
peninsula, with the exception of the five maritime fortressoi 


hdd by the YenoiianS) vas oum more reunited to the Bytan- 
tiiie Empire. 

622. lY. The Dncnr of Naxob (861), under the third dj* 
nasty (that of the Grispi), enjoyed during the fifteenth century 
a comparative tranquillity, though the coasts of those beautiful 
and highly^cultivated islands were often exposed to the sudden 
landings of Turkish pirates from Asia Minor, and the indus- 
trious islanders suffered still more from their subjection to 
the commercial monopolies of their protectress, the republic 
of Yenice. These pernicious restrictions on commerce and 
industry, and the enormous taxes imposed by the indolent 
and luxurious dukes, depressed and ruined the native Qroek 
population, which began to decline so rapidly that Albanian 
colonies had to be called in from i^e mainland to repeople 
the islands of los, Andros, Keos, and Kythnos (Thermia). 
After the fall of Ehodes, in 1522, the terrible Hiure'ddiu 
Barbarossa, the Turkish Capudan Pasha, appeared before 
Naxos ; the capital was sacked in the most barbarous man- 
ner, and the whole island overrun by the Turks. The 
unhi^py Duke Giovanni Y. Crispo became a tributary to 
the Sultan. His son Oiacomo lY. was imprisoned in Con- 
stantinople; the Turks' took possession of the islands, and 
Selim II. conferred the government of Naxos on his bank^, 
the Jew John Miches, who, not daring to visit his exasperated 
Greek subjects, sent the noble Spaniard, Francis Coronello, as 
his deputy, to collect the tributes and overlook the public 
administration of the island. Such was the final fate of the 
duchy of the Archipelago, the last great fief of the Latin 
empire of Eomania; it fell in 1566, after having been ruled 
by twenty-one Catholic princes for three hundred and fifty-nine 

**' At KazoB the traveller ttill beholcb the roins of the ducal palaee 
transformed into a Capuchin convent^ crowning the hiH above the city, 
The armorial eeonteheons of the ancient Venetian familiet adorn the 
portals of the honseft) whose inmate^ descendants of the Giraldi, Gri- 

748 Kcnn nuon.— ^bsbok. 

y. Thc Os!«ob8b LoftDSKPfl in the iBgeaii belonged to 
&inilieB of Nobili, who stood nearly in the same relations to 
their metropolis as the Dukes of Naxos to Yenice. The Bo- 
rias possessed the eity of Ainos^ on the golf of that name, op- 
posite to the month of the river Maritza (Hehnxs), in Thrace, 
and the islands of Thasos, Samatraki, and Imbros, The 
Gktelnsii resided on Stalimne (Lemnos), Hagio Strati {^Gt)^ 
and Metdhno (Lesbos), the fertile and beautiful i^nd, witii 
its strongly fortified city, opposite the coast of Asia Minor, 
where the castle of ancient Phokaea had a Genoese garrison. 
The Giustiniani, one of the most influential families of Ge- 
noa, held the islands of Chios (Scio), Psara, Nicaria, and the 
mountainous and easily-defended Santos, After the fall of 
Oonstantinople, in 1458, and the occupatiou of the Gknoese 
sabnrbii, Fera and Galatdy by the Turks, those islands became 
the refuge of thousands of Greek fugitives ; but the terrified 
(Genoese lords soon surrendered their possessions to the vie* 
torious arms of Mohammed IL — 1455-1462 — and with the 
destruction of Caffa and the flourishing Genoese cities on the 
Crimea, in 1475, the republic lost her last colony and em- 
porium in the Levant. Samos having likewise suffered from 
Turkish depredations, was granted by Sultan Selim to Kilidj 
Ali Pasha, who brought new settlers into the island. 

623. YI. The Order of St. John, firmly established 
on Bhodes and the adjacent group of smaller islands in 13 lO, 
maintained its high renown as the bulwark of Christianity 
against the infidels (362). The city of Rhodes, on the north 
of the island, had two harbors, the Gkdley Port and the Forto 
di MandracehtOy which were protected by strong and beauti- 
ful towers, and closed by enormous iron chains drawn across 

maldi, Marini, YeDieri, Coronelli, or Delendi, figure m petty coneuls of 
Franoe^ Holland, Deomarir, and Sweden, wlule a faii'-haired little boy, 
who a few years ago received bia food in the Convent of the Lasariati 
for polling the church bell, waa eontidered aa the laat aeiaii ctf the proud 
dynasty of th^ DokM of JStaum. 

BGKm pbeuxdw— <ntSBOK. 749 

ilie entrance. The Upper Town — ^ Aaw^e t;t&--^th the huge 
Gbthio palaoe of the grand masters, the cathedral of Saint 
John, and the beautifnl street of the knights — ia rue det 
CheoaHers — ^was separated from the Lower Town — la viSe 
basse^^hj a transTerse wail with many towers and some gates. 
In this lower quarter lived the Greek subjects, the Jews, all 
the married citizens and retainers of the order, and those 
uumeroiis and beaatifiil Bhodian courtesans whose rich and ele- 
gant dress in the fifteenth century became the fiishion of all 
European ladies. The order was earlier divided into seven 
tongues, those of J^ancej Germany, Auvergne, Aragon^ 
JSngland, Pravencey and Italy ; but during the dissensions in 
the order in 1462, the eighth tongue, Castik»^Portugal, was 
created. The knights of every tongue had their position on the 
towers, walls, and outworks assigned for the defence of the 
city. Near the Mount PhUeremos (the ancient lalysos) was 
&e swamp where the young knight Deodat de Goxon, from 
Provence, in 1342, in a dangerous combat, killed the huge 
serpent or crocodile whieh for a long time had been the terror 
of the inhabitants and flocks of the environa On the moun- 
tain stood the celebrated Ohuroh of Our Lady of Phile- 
remos, to whose shrine pilgrimages were made by Gkreeks and 
Latins. Other eities in the island were JUndot on the east, 
and Trianda, NeokaUron^ and Kanduroy on the west Sultan 
Mdiammed IL sent,, in 1460, Misih-Fash4 with a hundred 
thousand Turks to besiege the city of Bhodes, but they were 
repelled with tremendous loss by the. gallant Grand Masteri 
Pierre d'Aubusson, and forced to depart from the island. 

624. TIL Th£ Principmjtt on Exnodom of Albania, 
under George Castriota, 1453-1466. This mountainous re> 
gion embraced Upper Albania^ the northern part of the medi- 
eval despotat of Epirus (372), extending from the lake of 
Labeatis or Scodra (35), and the Monte Negro on the norths 
Bouih to the river Amti (now Voioussa), and the high range 
of the Acrooenmitan panmumtoiy, which separated it from 


Bpims Proper. The precipitous moimtaiiui of Albafiift 
aflcendiiig in eeyeral ofbets toward Mount Pindus in the inte- 
rior, are inteneoted by the deep and fertile valleya of the 
Apiosj Genussos^ and the Black and WkUe Drin. The latter 
river, flowing from the large lake of Achris or Ochrida (the 
ancient Lychnidos), in a northwestern direction, discharges 
hself into the Adriatic Gulf, near Alessio, sonth of Scodra. 
The country was dirided into : I. Zenta, on the nordi of the 
Drin, with the cities of Scodra (Scatari), AsUivari uid Dulr 
cigno^ on the coast. It was inhabited by the fierce Albanian 
race of the Guegue$ or Red Skypetars. II. Bibb a, in the 
interior, on the Upper I>rin, and AenuUhia (Mathis), on the 
coast, with the celebrated monntain fortress of Croja^ liie 
birthplace and paternal inheritance of George Castriota; Z«f- 
mu (Alessio), at the month of the Drin, occupied by the Ye- 
netians ; Durazzo (Dyrrhachinm), Petrula, Albanorij DUra^ 
Stdlusa^ Stananf and other places, the scenes of the extra- 
ordinary deeds of the Albanian hero. This central re^n 
was inhabited by the brave and civilised Albanian tribe of the 
Mirdites (Mirdi), the countrymen of George Castriota. They 
were Cutholics, and enjoyed their independence under their 
own chiefe or Prinks. III. Musaki, Timaritza, and Des- 
nUza^ the southern region of Albania, extending from the 
Lake of Achris, westward to the Adriatic, and south to the 
river Yoioussa. Its inhabitants were the warlike and treach- 
erous Toxides, who later became Mohammedans. Berat 
(Beligrad, White City), on the Apsos, was their principal 
town. Fetra Alba^ Skrepari, and MbschapoliSj became cele- 
brated in the wars with the Turks. Wallachian shepherds 
were settled in the mountains with their flocks. In the four- 
teenth century the power of these Albanian tribes was so fut 
increased that, throwing off their allegiance to the distant and 
weakened Byzantine emperors, they began to descend from 
their strongholds, and attempt conquests toward the north and 
east But they could not retain their acquisitions. Gattaro, 
Antivari, Dnlcigno, and Lissus, were taken by the Yene* 


tians, and the Albanians soon felt the heayj sword of Ama« 
rath II. It was theti, in 1443, that the young Mirdid chief, 
G^orgibs Castriota, by the Turks called Iskander-Bei (Skan- 
derb^g, or Sir Alexander), fled from the service of Sultan Am- 
urath, and occupying Groja, Dibra, Petrula, Petra Alba, Stel- 
Insa, and Sfetigrod, drove the Turks out of the country. The 
Albanians of all the different tribes flocked to his banner, sgid 
proclaimed him Prince of Albania. With extraordinary brfr> 
very and talent, he, for twenty years, defeated and destroyed 
the immense armies which Mohammed II. marched against 
him, and maintained the liberty of his native country until his 
death, Jan. 17, 1467, in Lissus, where he was buried.'** The 
Turks immediately penetrated into the mountains, and entered 
Joannina triumphantly in 1478, yet they never succeeded in 
establislung their dominion among the warlike and liberty- 
loving tribes of Albania. 

XIX. — The Btzantine Empire in 1450. 

625. Decline and Pall of Constantinople. — ^Neither 
the talents of Michael YIIL Palaeologus, nor the victories 
of the Catalan adventurers in Asia Minor, under his son 
Andronicus IL, in 1304-1307, could stop the advance of the 
Ottoman hordes. The civil wars between Joannis Cantaku- « 
zenos and the young emperor Joannis Y. — 1341-1346 — the 
internal decay and misery, the defeats of the foreign auxili- 
aries at Nicopolis, in 1396, and at Varna, in 1444, and the 
virulence of the theological contest of the Latin and Q-reek 
Churches, brought the ancient empire, in 1450, to the brink 
of the precipice. Its still remaining territories at the time 

''^ See the lilstory of the great Albanian chief in Bismondi^s Italian 
RejmUU9^ YoL Y., pages 297-886, and in JAfe of Qtorge CaHriot, Scan' 
derbeg, Kiftg of Albania, republished from KnoUe's History of the 
Turks by Doctor Clement C. Moore. New-York, 1860. A modern 
Greek translation of Marinus Barletius' Life of Scanderbeg appeared 
some yean ago in Yenice. 

752 EIGHTH FSILK>I>.«-K!O90TiJmNQin.B---i!nil»iE2OlfP. 

consisted of: I. The citj of GoN8TAfirnNbFf.6 with its 160,000 
inhabitants, and the envirODs as far as the rttinous walls of 
Anastasitts. Beyond Silivri and Apolhnia the oounkj 
swarmed with Turkish Spabis. II. The Chaloidian penin* 
sula in Macedonia, with the city of ScUoniki^ Cassandria^ 
and the promontory of Athas, inhabited by monks. III. 
Peloponnssus, divided into tiie two despotats of Misithra 
(Sparta) and Patrax^ at the time belosiging to the two hostile 
brothers, Demetrius and Thomas PakeologL The virtues pf 
the last emperor, Oonstantine XI., could no longer uphold the 
perishing state. Constantinople sank breath the scimitar of 
Mohammed II., on May 29, H53, and the peninsula waa 
incorporated into the Turkish Empire in 1460. 

XX. — Th£ Grand Gohnbnxan BMPaiB of Tk^izond. 

626. Declinb and Fall.< — This small and feeble state, on 
the shores of the Euzine Sea (374), had by the prudent con- 
duct of its Orand Comnenian princes, and the continual feudfl 
between the Mongols and Turks in the interior of Asia Minor, 
withstood all the storms of the times. It still extended ia 
the beginning of the fifteenth century from the mouth of Kizil- 
Irmak (the Halys of the ancients) eastward, along the ridge 
of Mount Paryades, which secured it from the incursions of 
•the White Horde — Ak-Koirdu — of Turkomans on the Eu- 
phrates, to Bathys in Lazica, on the frontiers of Georgia. On 
the west, the empire was protected by its alliance with the 
Genoese, who held possession of the strong and important 
maritime <;ities of Amastra and Amisos, and with the Emira 
of Kastemuni (the ancient Paphlagonia) ; and on the east by 
the fine, warlike race of the Lazi, who served in the army of 
the Comnenian emperors. The Emperor Alexius IV. and his 
son Kalojoannis had bravely beaten off the first invasions of 
the Turkoman Sheiks and Ottoman Sultans, but the idle 
pomp, the bigotry and ceremonious pedantry of the Byzantine 
court, found their way to Trebizond, which appeared 9» the 

rexj oaricature of its prototype— 4h6 same despotisiA and re* 
Ugknia inioleraiifee ; the Lasiaa mouiKtaineers were treated 
like 8er& by the arrcigant TxebuBonliiie nobles; the Oieek 
population were, oppressed bj tribiltes and taxes, and by tiie 
eneroachments of the Qenoese ShyloekSt who held all wesltili. 
and epmmerce in thebr hands. The time had arrived when 
the moral degradation of the Oomnenian prinoes, the avariee 
epd selfishness of die archons sad clergy, became so offennTO 
to the mass of the people that they everywhere eoni^dered 
the conquest of their country by tiie Turks as an e^eni 
preferable to the continuance of their actual miseries. After 
the overthrew of Oonstantinople, David Oomnenus still foi^ 
ei^t years, under continual ttnziety, bought his peace with 
Sultan Mohammed II.; but, in 1461, the conq[aeFor suddenly 
appeared in Asia Minor, at the head of a most formidable 
fleet and army. Despair took possession of the €breek prince; 
Trebisond surresdered; the emperor with his &mily was 
transported to Mt^tfron-OroSy near Serres, where he soon fell 
a sacrifice to the suspicious jealousy of the perfidious Sultan. 
The beautiful city of Trebizond^ its fortifications, palaces, 
churches, and other monuments of the taste and skill of the 
Byzantine artists, Went to ruin ; its fertile plains were aban- 
doned, and exhibit, at the present day, the same squalid 
picture of social and intellectual degradaticm as every other 
part of the Ottoman dominion. 

XXL — ^The OrroMiN Bmfire. 

627. Historical B£MA&Ka.^*«-The obscure origin and 
rapid progress of the Turkish empire is one of the most 
astonishing phenomena in history.^' li owed its rapid 

^ Mahan, m Western Khorasao, sooth of Ehowaresm (21 2^ was 
the home of the Oghtman Tartars Suleymam-Shah-Ben^Eaial, wilhhis 
tribe of 50,000 souls, fleeing at the approach of Dshingja-Ehaa. in 1224, 
songht refuge at Ehelat (338)., ia the Armraian moiiBtains, and aa thei 
solitary banks of the Lake of Wan. When the Mongol storm had passed 

754 nasTE noitioii.— nniKST. 

giowtii to leaden of Idgh-toned character and inTentfre 
gmtkBy who at the yeiy outset gave it institatioits and laws 
adapted to the religions fanaticism and warlike spirit of the 
nation ; nay, of such yaat snperioritj to those of the adja- 
cent states, both in Asia Minor and in Europe, as to render 
the Osmanli Turks the superiors of those nations both in 
the field and the cabinet. ThuS) then, it can be understood 
how a band of some few hundred Tartar horsemen within 
little nKHre than one century— from 1327 to 1453— organ- 
ised the best drilled and brayest regular infantry- the Jan^ 

oyer, in 1231, the older sons of Snleyman led the Oglniasa tribes back 
to Ehorasan ; but the youngest son, Ertoghml (the Straight)^ with only 
400 £smilie^ took service with the Seldjnk Sultan of Bum, in Asia 
Minor. He fought victoriously the battles of his liege lord, and re- 
oeived in reward, as a timar or fie( the fertile plains between the San- 
garins and Mount Olympus in Bithynia, on the frontiers of tha Greek 
EmfMra There, at S»ki'8ehehr, the ancient Doryleum (827)^ CHhman 
(Osman, that is, Bonebreideer), the son of Ertoghrul, by Ihe conquest of 
Melangtia (Karadja-Hiss'r)— 1288 — Yar-lRtt^r, many otiier Greek for* 
tresses, and the rich and delightful Brma (264, IY.)| kid, in 1826, the 
Ibundation of the Ottoman Empire. 



SuAiLunauji and GumooHDi JSiktogbmul, 

retora with the Horde to KtaorMan, 
in 1881. 


Obuak, tiaeo. Alar6d.Dk^ 

I yirif, tl881. 

tiaW. tl889 . ' 

Batazid L nderim, 1 1408. 

Mnup (Amontb) IL, 1 1451. 

MoHAMMin IL, El FaUtch^ (the Conqueror), 


Mnstaft, BATAimIL, J>9eh9m (2Sixl^ 

tl474 tlUa. pobsonedinltalv. 



issaries — ^the most impettions and Sclent cavalry — ^the ^'- 
pahis and SiHhdar^-^and an Artillery more formidable than 
any in civilized Europe at that time.'" Every branch of 
the administration, the regulation of the tributes, the division 
of the conquered lands into hereditary fiefs— smm^s — ^with 
military tenure — timar — the institution of the pashas (com- 
manders), of the tchauchs (messengers), and even of the imaumSy 
dervishes, and numerous military and civil olB&cials, answered 
wondeifully to the development of an active and enthusiastic 
nation, continually swelling by new tribes from the east. 
Orkhan, the son of Osman, was the great legislator of the 
Turks; by his efficient institutions the more energetic portions 
of the Greek race became absorbed into that of tl^e Tartar 
nomades, and the ablest . Christians found, in the camp of the 
Sultans, an open career for their talents as warriors and as 
statesmen. Thus the Ottomans, on their first establishment 

'^ The force of the Ort<u or regiments into which the Janissaries 
were divided, was composed of Christian youths^ who^ as adopted chil- 
dren of the Sultan, were trained and drilled in military schools for the 
seryice of the prophet Their ootnmander-in-chief was the Chor-hadgi 
(sonpmaker); the colonel was called Athdihi-hadgi (head-cook); the 
symbol of their union, the aottp-kettle, as indicative of plentiful pro- 
visions. In the begmning these young Christians were mostly prisoners 
of war or orphans who would have been left to perish in the general 
desolation of the country, had Sultan Orkhan not converted them into 
a powerful instrument for the creation of the Ottoman Empire. Soon, 
however, a fixed tribute of children was imposed on every Christian 
town and village that fell into the power of the Osmanlis. Without 
relatives or a home, entirely dependent on his energies and talents^ the 
young Janiuary had his career before him, and could attain the highest 
dignities of the state. Soim Christians from every country flocked to 
the crescent-banner of the prophet As renegades they frequently com- 
manded the armies and became the early creators of the Turkish navy. 
The Greek historian, Chalkokondylas, describes the admirable discip- 
line of the Janissaides, the precision and velocity of their movements^ 
the perfect order of their camp, the excellent regulations for the com- 
missariat-, and the constant supply of provisions and regular monthly 
pay which distinguished the Turkish armies from those of TjTestem 
Europe at that time. 


in Europe, in 1356, lobdued the warlike SelaTonian tribes on 
the Danube, Rwept away aU the Jjatin principalities in Greece, 
the relies of the crusades, and Qu the ruins of the mdllennial 
Bjsantine empire founded that Sublime Pokte, whose fron- 
tiers toward the middle of the sixteenth century extended 
from the Adriatic Gulf and the Carpathian Mountains, across 
the Black Sea and Mount Caucasus, to the Tigris, the Persian 
Gulf, Egypt, and lost itself in the distant deserts of Africa. 

628. Extent, Provingbs, and HisronicAL Cities. — 1. In 
Asu. — A. Anadou, in the western parts of Asia Minor, com* 
prising the following provinces: L Osman- (the ancient 
Bithynia and Phrygia Epictetns), was the home of the Otto* 
man Turks.'^' The earliest settlemeoat of the Oghusian-Tartars 
was, as we have said, in the plain of ^ikirSchehac (Borylseum), 
and this territory, sacred to the Ottoauu»s by so many memoriala 
of their forefathers, is still called Sultan-Oeni — the Front cf 

** Ten Seldjukid princes; who called thenuelyeB the Kings of the 
KatioM — Muluki Tawaif-AiaA escaped the sword of the Mongols, which 
about the years 1278-1296 dismembered and destroyed the celebrated 
Snltanat of Ikoninm (Rtim), of KiEd] Arslan ($27). These chiefe di^ 
Tided among themselves the western provinces to which they, tm^ 
gnlarly enough, gave their own name^ still preserved in the IJiwat 
or 8an^ae» of the Porte. Emir Katasi settled in Mysia; SHtru-Chan 
and Aidiny in Ionia» Caria, and Lydia; Mtntesche, in Caria; TekhUh^ 
in Lycia ; Ilamid, in Fiudiaa and Phrygia ; Karaman, in the larger dia- 
trictfl of Isauria, Lycaonia, and Oappadocia, where, driving out the 
Mongols, he occupied Icontum (Konijah), and made it hia capital Alt*- 
ehir was the only Seldjukid Emir who did not give his name to bis 
territory, hut called it Kermian, after the capital Ghad-ThhekH took 
Kastemuni, in Paphlagonia^ and Eastern Bithynia^ and Otman had 
already obtained the border lands at the base of Mount O^jmpus. When 
we find these Turkish chiefb give their names to tibe states of which 
they were the founders^ why should we reject as &ble in the manner of 
■ome modem antiquarians the ancient ffeUenie traditions, which make 
the HelteneB (Greeks) take their name from Hellen, the lonet from lon^ 
and many other tribes from the names of their early leaders^ who founded 
the primitive states of Hellas. 

the SukoM. Thence the Tartar horsemen, under the pturple 
eresoent banner, began, in 1299, their conqneata, which, after 
defeating the Byzantine Greeks in many baltles, they ex* 
tended westward to the Propontis and the Bosphoms, and 
eastward across the riyer Ssakar^a (Sangarius) to the shores 
of the Blaok Sea near Erekli (HeraUeia). This conquered 
territory became divided into : 1^ Khodavend Eiar (Victor 
and Lord), on the Gulf of Mudania^ with the cities of 
Brusa and Nicaa ; and, 2, Kodjorlli (Mesothinia), widi 
Nicomedia and Scutari^ opposite to Gonstantinoplcb Eski- 
scHBHB. (Old-town), on the banks of the Fu/rsak^ the ancient 
Thymbres (327), was the early capital of Osman, from 1299 
to 1326, and every mosque, sepulclural tyrb^, <Mr castle, in the 
environs, is dear to the Turks/ as the cradle of tiie nation. 
Sudi interesting places were Bosoni^ Inoniy and Akbyk 
(White Moustache); KcuradskorHiss^r (Melangeia), and BUed- 
shik (Belokome), west of Borybeum^ the &8t conquest of the 
Ottomans from the Greeks in 1299. JRlmrni (Dog's Snout) 
a village near Dorylsdum, the residence of the v^oarable ITde- 
bali, father-inJaw of Osman, whwe the young hero, after 
faithfully wooing his beloved Malahatun for many years, at 
last married the beautiful ancestress of the Turkish Sultans. 
BausAj their second capital, at the foot of th^ snow^topped 
Mount Olympus, on the banks of the river Niltrfar, is not 
less celebrated by its gorgeoua monun^ents of Turkish archi- 
tecture, than by tiie industry of its inhabitants, the salubrity 
of its climate, and the therapeutic power of its hot springa 
Olou-Ujjami (the great mosque), the mosque of Sultan Ork- 
han, and that of Sultan Bayazid Ilderim, are unsurpassed 
masterpieces of Saraceno-Turkish taste and magnificence; 
schools and hospitals surrounded by shady gardens are 
attached to every mosque. I^nijc (the celebrated Nicaea) was 
conquered in 1329 by Sultan Orkhan-0«nanoglou (son of 
Osmaa. Ghemlik^ on the bay of Mudania, the Kibotos of the 
Crusaders (327). Jmiktrnd (Nicomedia) fell in 1338, aft^ 
the great defeat of the Emperor Andronieus the Yoanger at 


Phikkrene. Yeni-Schehr (New Town, Neapolis), Yarhiuary 
Ainegol (Mirror-Sea), and GMse (Lubicisa), are all places of 
interesting events in early Turkish history. 

629. II. Karasi extended along the Hellespont sonth to 
the river Lyons, thus embracing the ancient Mysia, with the 
cities Bergama (Pergamos), LampsaM^ Ahydos^ Bigha, Bur- 
nabadski (Troy), and Aidindschik (Cyzicus), on the peninsnla 
of Proconnesus, where the Gondottiere Roger de Flor, with his 
mercenary army of Catalans and Aragonese, vanquished the 
Tnrks in brilliant battles in 1307-9, and drove them back 
across Mount Taurus. The city was, however, surprised and 
taken by the Turks under Suleyman, the son of Sultan Ork- 
han, in 1356, and there they assembled thmi Jlfst fleet jmik 
which they landed in Thrace and occupied KaUipolU in tiie 
same year. The petty princes of Karasi were allies of the 
Osmanlies, and began early their piratical expeditions on the 
^gean with ^e devastation of Chios in 1307. 

III. SsARUKHAN (thc ancietit wSlolis and Northern Lydia), 
south of Karasi, with jbhe cities of Magnesiay Akhissar {^hjvw 
tira), and Adala, 

IV. AiDiN (the ancient Ionia and Western Lydia), with 
Smi/rnay Tchesme (Kissos), on the coast opposite to Chios; 
Ajamk (Ephesus), Ala-Schehr (Philadelphia), reconquered by 
the Catalans in 1306, but worse treated by the ferocious and 
debauched mercenaries than by the Mohammedans themselveSi 
and soon lost again. 

Y. Mentesche (the ancient Doris in Q«n6)^ynii\i MuglaJh 
(Hylarima), MUet^ Eskikissar (Alabanda), and Ch&rsun 
(Cibyra). The strongly-fortified peninsula of Halicamassus, 
with the castlejB of Fetranion and Btidrun (362), belonged 
to the Knights of Bhodes, who with their splendid and invin- 
cible galley fleets protected the islands. 

YI. Tekieh or Tekk6 (ancient Lycia and Pamphylia), on 
the southern coast, with Antalia (Satalia), Sidischehr (Side), 
Makriy Kastdlorizzo^ Myra^ and Fin^a, 


YIL KsmmuM (woinft Fbygk Pae«kiaiui), with Ladik 
(Laodioea) ind 2V^m&, on the Mendei^ (Mjenider^ Ekiakifa 
(Gotyaeum) in the nortli, tiie oipitel of a Sddjiikiiii Eodr, 
£Mi-Karakis9ar (Old Blade Tower, or Sjmnda), and San^ 
dukli — all places odelmfted in the hialoiy <tf the Ciniiadea. 
At Akschaij in the aonth. Sultan Bajand Sderan, in 1392, 
took the ftithkaa Kanunanian Prince, Alah-ed-Din, prisoner, 
togetiier with his sons, and after their execa&n incorporated 
all the soatheasten pari ai Asia Minor with the Ottoman 

YIIL Hawid (Pisidia and Phiygia Kekanmena), the land 
of lakes, widi Bparta, and AJt-Sekehr, where the imprisoned 
Bayasid Thunderbolt died in his hMphe$ or grated litter, (m 
the 8th of March, 1403 ; he was honed in Kutahija. 

630. IX. Kakawaw, the largest Emirate, which for nearly 
a century remained independent of the Tnikish Snltans— 
1299-1390— emhraced the Bocky Oilida, Isaoria, and Lyca- 
onia^ with the cities Mdmfah (Icmiom, Bom), Earaman^ 
Kantbunar^ and the eztcnsiTe salt lake l\iZ'TchdBi. In the 
northern part of Karaman lay the hattle-Md of Angora^ 
CfD. the Sangarins, where, on the 19lh of Jnly, 1402, the supe- 
rior tactics of the Mongol, l^vr Khan (Tamerlane), main- 
tained the bloody day against Snltan Bayasid Ilderim. After 
the mostfri^tfiil straggle between nearlyhalf a million of sayage 
warriors, the Ottoman Janissaries, abandoned by their Spahis 
(cavalry), were soiroimded by myriads of Tartar horsemen, 
and cat down to a man. The Saltan, with a host of Turkish 
officers and other dignitaries, fell into the hands of the 
Mongol Emperor, who soon retired into Upper Asia, and thus 
saved the Ottoman Empire. The last Karamanian prince, 
Kasim Bei, died in 1483. 

X. KASTEKum (the ancient Paphlagonia), on the shores of 
the Black Sea, between the Sangarius and the KizU-Irmak 
(Halys), remained long hostile to iJie Turks, and the Emirs of 
Szinup (Sinope) and SaUemuni (Oastamone) were not sub- 

760 ElOaTH.PIt&UHIu— OTTttXAll ISKPIftS. 

doid until ftfto the eooquesl of OMataatioopky when Mo- 
bammed II. moYod all ius forcoB againat Trebiaond^ in 146i« 
It waa the laat of tbe Soldjiddasii prinoipaUtiea in Asia Minor, 
which, by its aUianoe with Gbristian atates, had maintained iti 
independence of the Ottoman Umpsre^ 

631. B. The SmuTANATE of Ssiwas, 09ctmding frcnn the 
frontiers of Trebiaond al<»ig the eastern banks of iib» Kisat 
Irmak, southward to Moont lanros or Boighaar-Dagh (266), 
and eastward to Malatia and the valley of the Euphrates^ 
Celebrated commereial oitieswereulfTKZstaon the Jeschil-Innak 
(Iris), Tokat (Comana Pontioa), Sjimariek (Mazaca, Gaesarea) 
at the base of the snow-caj^^d JErdisck-Ikigk (Monni 
Argados), and SHuhu (Sebaste) on the Upp^ Ha)y& The 
yalley of the Euphrates, the western slope of the Armenian 
mountains, and northern Al Dsc^mra (Mesopotamia), were 
inhabited by two powerful Turkoman taribea from the Gaspiaa. 
The horde of the White Sheep---JU;-J&t«/i«---K)ccnpled i^e 
table-lands . between Ssiwae and Eiaerum, and the horde 
of the Black Sheep — Kara^Komlilir^SsafK^iat (Samosata)^ 
Aumda^ and the plain Coventry towfu?d Ekirran Mtd NMm 
(Nisibis), and eastward the highlands of Khdat to die sbcnrea 
of the lake TFon, in Persarmeaia. Their attaduaent to % 
wandering life led several of their hordes into the pluins of 
Asia Minor, where, by the support ti&ey rendered the field* 
juki&a Emirs and the Emperors of Ttd>isond, they soon got 
into war with the Ottoman Turks.'^ Isonn Hassan, tha 

** The TUrkomanB still inhabit the large central plains of Aaa Minor, 
where they gram their numerom herds of horses on the banks of the 
Balys and thaLakd of Tatta in Karamsnia. They are a handBorae people r 
thnr women fl|^ wool and main exoeUeat eacpeta ; tftia men toid tiieir 
floeks and smoke their tchiboka Constantly on h^vsebaek^ with tilia 
lance on their shoulder, a sabre by their side» and a brace of long pis- 
tols in their girdle, they make vigorous horsemen and hardy warriora 
They mad^ themselves so feared by the Ottomans that Sultan Moham* 
med I. agreed to purchase the neutrality of Chan Kara Yoidouk (Black 
l4Mch>oC tha White Hordes bgr the payoMat o# an aannal tribnte of 

SIG9TH BSiU0I>."--QTr01[AK VXtlBM, 761 

celebrated Gban of the White Horde, formed a powerfol em* 
pire in Armenia and Mesopotamia bj hia yictoiy over the 
Black Sheep* Hassan opposed a barrier to the Otton^ans in 
the East, and though he was defeated by Mohammed II. in 
person, near Terdshan, in 1473, the Snltan did not dare to 
cross the Euphrates, The great Turkoman chief died in 
1478; the disputes among his nephews weakened the state 
and on its ruins rose the new Persian Empire, which was 
founded in 1508 by that astonishing fanatic, Ismael Sophi, 
who under the mask of religious enthusiasm and divine iur. 
spiration raised himself from a hut to the throne of a great 
monarchy. Cities in Turkomania were Erzerumy on the 
Upper Euphrates, the great manufacturing town of Armenia, 
and later one of the bulwarks of the Ottoman Empire y Er- 
zendgin (Arzinga), on the same river, where, in 1462, Mo- 
hammed II. and Hassan B^i, the two ^eatest men of their 
time, met to conclude the treaty which decided the fate of the 
Comnenian Empire; Beiburty with McUatta^ Marasch^ and 
Aintab, all flourishing cities at the present day. Thus the 
Euphrates and the Gilician defiles formed the utmost eastern 
firQintiers of the Turkish Empire at the close of the Middle 
Ages; during the sixteenth century they carried their vic- 
torious crescent-banner beyond the Tigris, to the Persian Gulf 
and the cataracts of the Nile in Egypt. 

632. II. Ottoman Possessions m Eueope. — C. Ejalet 
Eum-Ili (Bomania), extending from the Bosphorus along 

cn/t thousand saddlea and other cavalry oqufprneiits. When, in 1459, 
the White Horde entered iato alliance with the Emperor David Cam* 
nenus of Trebizond, and a Turkoman envoy appeared in Ckmetan* 
tinople to demand of Mohammed IL the annual tribute lejft unpaid for 
sixty years, the proud Sultan heard the Turkoman patiently fb the end, 
and replied calmly: "Depart in peace; I will presently come to Ar- 
menia, and discharge all my debts." We may hope that the myriads. 
of 4erce Turkomuw now in arms on the frontiers of Russian Armenia 
will give a good aeeoont of themMlveii against Prinoe Woronsow and 
hia Cossacks. 


Djehal BaUcan (Mount Hasnnu), westward across to the 
Adriatic Sea, and embracing tke Byzantine provinces of 
Thrace, Macedonia, £pim8, and Thessaly. It was dl^ded 
into fifteen Sandjacs (banner provincei), and govemed by 
Pashas of two or three tughias (horftetails) ; yet the limits of 
their jurisdiction were never accnrately defined. The first 
Turks who crossed the Hellespont were some bands of light- 
horse— TVrco/^ot^s — ^who as mercenaries followed the stand- 
ards of the Orand Company of Catalans and Aragonians, 
and contributed by their bravery to the victory at KypseUtz^ 
where 5000 Catalans defeated 50,000 Greeks in 1308. Tet 
the Turcopoules never returned into Asia ; they perished, and 
all the later attempts of the Ottomans to obtain a firm footing 
on the Thracian shores of the Hellespont were frustrated by 
casual accidents rather than by the vigilance of the Greeks, 
until the year 1356, when the daring Suleyman, Mother of 
Sultan Orkhan, on a dark night, crossed the straits with 
thirty-nine of his bravest companions — ddhides—on two 
rafts, and by surprise took possession of the castle of Dshem- 
enlik (Tzympe), opposite to Lampsakos. Thousands of their 
countrymen soon followed, and by the conquest of the impor- 
tant Kallipolis (Gallipoli), they defeated all the weak attempts 
of the dastardly Byzantines to drive them back into Asia. 
At Bulair, north of Kallipolis, stands the tyrbe or sepulchral 
monument of Suleyman, who there perished by a plunge of his 
horse in 1358. Castle Konur, Faniarij BJiodostos (359), 
Ypsella (Kypsellas), on the Maritza; ChariopoliSy and Tchorli 
(Tzurulon), in the interior of Thrace, are places of historical 
intarest in the Catalan and Turkish wars. Dimotika (Didy- 
moteichos), on the Lower Maritza, became, in 1360, the resi- 
dence of .Sultan Murad I., who next entered Edr&ne (Adn- 
anopolis) in triumph, and made that splendid and populous city 
the second capital of the rapidly-increasing Ottoman £mpire. 
FUihe (PhilippopoUs), on the Upper Maritza, fell, and after 
the nocturnal suiprise and defeat of King Louis I. of fiungaiy 
in the defiles of Mount Hasmus, in 1364, all Thrace and Mace^ 


donia, with the exception of Constantinople and the maritime 
cities, became an easy and permanent conquest of the Turks. 

633. IsTAMBUL — Konstantimipolis — (Constantinople),'" 
stormed, sacked, and partly desolated by Mohammed the 
Conqueror on the 29th of May, 1453, saw its glories perish 
one by one. The religion and nationality of the Greek race 
were saved and protected by a politic and wise Sultan, but 
hundreds of thousands of Asiatic fiunilies were transported to 
the smiUng shores of the Bosphorus, and the Mohammedan 
mosques and sarais soon raised their soaring cupolas and mina- 
rets over the Christian diurches and imperial palaces of the 
yanquished people. Istambul, th^ permanent residence and 
third capital of the Sultans, by its magnificent position, and 
gorgeous monuments of Osmanlic piety, pomp, and art, soon 
outshone all the cities of the Orient, and remains to this day,- 
with its numerous suburbs in Europe and Asia, its 350 
mosques, 900 other public buildings, and 900,000 inhabitants, 
the most wonderful and most picturesque city in the world. *^* 

^ The TnrkiBh name is a coiruptipn of the modem Greek: 't^tm^ 
Min (ctr r^p 96\w), similar to that of 8tanko, 'stan Ko (cir rw K« in 
the Dorian dialect)^ for the island of Cos» and Btdlimne for Lemnoe» and 
others. Still more absnrd is the modem Greek perversion of Monnt 
Hymettns^ near Athens, which the ignorant AUienians heard pro- 
nounced Monit Motto by the Yenetiansi and translated into their 
modem jargon Tselo-Yuni, that is, the FooU Mountain, 

'''Host of the Byzantine monuments hare disappeared or else become 
incorporated in Turkish structures^ which is the case with many of the 
diun^es and the Seyen Towers. The most interesting reUcs from the 
middle ages still sttmding are the StuUa Sophia, the Obelisk and Serpent 
on the Aimeidan, the column of Constantine, that of Theodosius in the 
gardens of the Seraglio, the subterranean cisterns, the aqueduct of Ya- 
lens, the Genoese tower and fortifications in Galata, and the splendid 
ruins of the triple Byzantine walls {x^pffoua rtixn) between the Golden 
Horn and the Propontis, with the minous palaces of Slachema and 
Hehdoman (Tekiomr SeraiX between which is seen that hidden pos- 
tern— the fatal Kerk(>p<yrt<i (Circu8gate>^-by which the Turkish cayalry, 
during the assault, unperceiyed by the defenders, penetrated into the 

764 mQwm period.— -ottokam bhpirk 

The neighboring maritime Iowds on ike Kara-Denghdz (Blaok 
Sea), KUa (Ghehe), Midia (Sahuydeasos), Lutda (Thyniaa), 
Akteboli (Agathopolis), Sizeboli (Apollonia), Burgas (Debel- 
tos), Ahiali (Anchialos), and Missivri (Mesembria), at the 
baae of Mount Ho&muB, were all easily reduced. Mohammed 
II. drove the Genoese from €kilat& ; they lost all their for- 
tresses on the Istandnd Boghazi (Bosphorus) and Aenos on 
the .^igean, and within twenty years the blood-red banner of 
the prophet waved triumphantly from the Banube and the 
Crimea, to the southernmost promontories of the Peloponnesus. 

684. D. EialWt Dshesair (District of the Islands and the 
Coast) embraced in this early period the Sahdjacs of Livadia 
(the duchy of Athens and Bceotia), and of the island of Bgri- 
bos (Negroponte or Euboea), conquered fh>m the Venetians 
in 1470, with Gallipoliy in the Thracian peninsula. Stines 
(Athenai, Athens), after the fall of its unwbrthy duke, Franco 
Acciajuoli, in 1456, still continued to be an archi^iscopal 
s ee a populous and a beauUfnl city, whose monuments ex- 
cited the admiration of Sultan Mohammed II., on his visit in 
1462. It was reconquered by the Yenetian admiral, Victor 
Cappello, in 1466, and most barbarously plundered and deso« 
lated by Christian warriors ! But the perfidious Venetians 
soon retired, and Athens remained henceforth in inglorious 
tranquillity, as a fief of the Harem, under the mild govenunent 
of the Kisldr Agd^ the head eunuch of the imperial seraglio. 

635. E. EiALET MoRAH (the Morea), after the expulsion 
of the Despots in 1461, became divided into the two Sand- 
jacs of THpditza (Tegea), and Mistra (Sparta), and was 
colonized with numerous Albanian settlers, who likewise oo* 
cupied the island of Foros^ on the coast of Troezen, and 
those of Hydra and Spetza, in the Argolic gulf. 

F EuLET BuLGAJEL-Iu, the formcr kingdom of Bulgaria 
(968), embraced the Sandjacs of Silistria, Nicopolis^ Widdin^ 
and Sofia. 

siGHTH Tnu»ix-«orRmAN XMrats. 765 

G. EiALST BosNA, with Servia, the treBtemmost proYinoe 
of the empire, bordered already on the Venetian possessions 
m Dalmatia and Croatia, and l^e Turkish Spahis spnrred 
boldly tbrouji^ the gorges of the Julian Alps, and filled the 
beautifol plains ci Friuli and Treviso with bloodshed and 
devastation. The fate of Servia had been decided on the 
battlefield of Kossowa in 1389 (566). The last king^ Stephen 
Thomasewieh, of Bosnia, was captured and breaded in 1463. 
and the whole country occupied by the Turks. Yet ^e gallant 
Matthias Gorvinus drove them once more beyond the monn* 
tains at the point of the sabre, and wariike Hungary maintained 
her conquest, until the battle of MokacZj in 1525, brought the 
irresistible Janissaries before the walls of Buda and Vienna 

Bosnia having been colonized by a thi<^ly settled Mo- 
hammedan population, soon became the northern bulwark of 
the Ottoman En:^ire. Bastu^Serai, Trawnick^ Vrand&uk, 
Magiayj Banialuka^ and Zwormdc^ were fortified with im« 
pregnable fortresses ; numerous timam or fiefis were distributed 
among the SpahiSy and 78,000 Bosnian Janissaries secured 
the easily defended frontier lines on the Save and the Unna. 

H. Arnaut-Ili, embracing the principality of Croja and 
Epirus Proper, both eo bravely defended by Castriota (624y, 
was invaded by the Ottomans i^ter the death of that hero, in 
1467. Scodra made a brilliant defence under the Venetian 
noble Antonio Loredano, in 1475, but Crqga^ Jjissos^ and 
JDurazzo, fell in 1478, after the most heroical resistance, and 
with the conquest of Joannina and Arta terminated the 
bloody war, though the Sultans never sueoeeded ^tirely in 
sttbdubg the wild and haughty race of the Albanians until 
they received them into pay as mercenary soldiers,— the dread 
alike of friend or foe. , 

I. The Transbanubian Voivodats of Wallachia ANn 
MoLPAViA belonged to the Ottoman Porte ta tributary states, 
governed by their own native princes, and it was only after the 
conquest of Hungary and Trani^lvania in the sixteenth cen* 


torj tliat the Sulfctns were enabled to exert their pffirnidoiis 
infiaeoee over those beaatifiil and fertile t>roymcc8, the sover- 
eign^ of which is now the subject of contention betwe^i 
Russia and the Porte, supported by the Western Powers. 

Sueh was the immense extent of the empire in a. d. 1481| 
on the death of the terrible Mohammed IL, the Conqueror, 
who had even lived to enjoy the successful invasion of Italy 
by the capture of (MrantOj and the firightfol massacre of its 
mhabitants, August 11th, 1480. But under his successors 
the thun4ers of war again rolled back over the East, and gave 
terrified Europe some years of doubtful tranquillity to prepare 
for the still more formidable invasions of Sultan Suleyman JI., 
the Magnificent 

XXII. — The Mongol Empiric: of Tamerlane. 

636. Extent op the Mongol Conquests. — ^The nomadic 
nation of the Mongols (Kalmuks), from the table-lands of 
central Asia, have thrice appeared as conquerors on the stage 
of thcworld during the middle ages ; in the fifth century as 
Huns, under Balamir and AttQa — ^375-452 ; in the thirteenth 
united with the numerous Tartar tribes of the Caspian, under 
Dshingis Khan and his sons, who, between 1202 and 1250, 
formed the largest empire the world had seen ; and^ lastly, in 
the fifteenth century, under the still more terrible Timurlenk 
(Tamerlane), in 1363-1405, carrying death and desolation 
over the fSftce of the earth, from the Ganges to the Mediter^ 
ranean. Though none of those mighty empires, during the 
lifetime of their founders received a sufficient organization to 
bold together after his death, they nevertheless exercised tibe 
greatest influence on the future destiny of the conquered 
races, and changed the entire geographical divisions of Asia 
and of Eastern Europe. - Only the Huns disappeared imme- 
diately after the death of Attila, leaving no traces behind 
them, save the consolidation and more developed military spirit 
of the numerous Oermanic and Sclavonian tribes who had 


broken their ohaiBS and cUvided the umnense territories of 
their vanqnished oppressors (109). The empire of Bshingis 
Khan ombriieed, at the close of the tiiirteenth centurj, five al- 
most independent states, i. China {Kathay or Sina), under 
the dynasty of the Yaens, from 1294 to 1368. comprehend- 
ing China Proper f Carm, Thibet j Tunhin^ Cochin- China^ 
Northern Indiay westward to the Ganges, and Mongolia 
(Mcmgolistu[i) north to Mount Altai and the lake of Baikal. 
Peking was the capital, and the Yfiens, as descendants of 
Chan Knblai, considered themselves Great-Chans, enjoying 
the nominal sovereignty over the other Mongol states. 

637. II. TsHAOATAi, comprising the ancient Mawalal* 
NaJir (212, XXII.), Khowaresniy TurkesUm^ JSashgar^ex- 
tending from the sea of Aral on the w^st, to the dreary desert 
of JSM, beyond Mount Muztag, and on the east and south, 
across Mount Himalaya to Delhi, on the Ganges. The ci^ital 
was Samakkand ; twenty-two chans held the sway from Tsha- 
gatai-Chan, the son of Dshingis, in 124 1 , to Timurlenk, in 1 363, 
who was born May 7, 1336, in the castle Schehr-Sebz^ near the 
city of KesQhy south of Samarkand, in the present Bukhara, 
III. Persu, or Chanat of Iran, reaching from the Indus^ 
through Beltidshistan, Sedshistan, Kermany Persia Proper, 
and the countries west of the Euphrates and Mount Taurus, 
to the shores of the Mediterranean. This splendid empire 
was founded by the savage Hulagii, in 1258, on the ruins of 
the Abbasid CaUphate of Bagdad (274), the dynasties of the 
Assassins (364), the Atha.bek3 (329), on the Buphrates, the 
' Eyubids, in Syria, and the Seldjoukids (327), in Asia Minor. 
The Perso-Mongol princes resided in Baqdap, on the Tigris ; 
they called themselves II- Chans, that is vassals of the Cha- 
Oban, or Great Chan of Kathay* HulagCi was a chieftain 
of inhuman cruelty, but his descendants soon adopted the 
milder manners of the Persians ; they abandoned their Dalay 
Lama for the Prophet and the Coran \ they revelled in all 
the enjoyments of the paradise of Schiraa (277), and leaving 

768 mavm FSEtoiii — wmgol VMn&n. 

the goTeranent in t^ hairdfl of ambitionfl Bminsj the most 
frightful disoTdera, civil wars, fratarioides, and awfdl crimefl, 
opened the path for Tamerlane, who, bursting upon l^e dis- 
tracted country in 1363, filled it with devastation and blood- 
shed. On the retreat of the Mongols, in 1410, the Turko- 
mans of the Black Sheep occupied the eastern provinces on 
the Euphrates and Tigris, until they, in their turn, yielded 
to their brethren of the White Sheep Banner, and a modem 
Pensian empire arose^ as we have seefi) under the hypocrite 
Sophi, in 1508. 

638. IV. The Chanat op Kaptschak (385), north of the 
Caspian, between the Yaik and the Volga, was the scene of 
simUar disorders and cruelties against the wretched Russian 
and other Sclavonian Nationer, or among the princes of the 
Crolden Horde themselves. During the civil war between 
Ohan Urtus and Maihai, in which the former iock possession 
of the Golden Tent of Sarai, the news spread through Mount 
Oaucasus of the rapid approach of T^nierlane and his Myriads 
of Mongol cavalry. A sudden panic took possesfiiion of the 
guilty chiefs; they harnessed their jKi^A:a5, mounted their 
Tartar steeds, and hurried into the steppes beyond the Volga 
and the Uralsk. Terror came upon them in the night time ; 
already they saw the Mongols, in imagination, and began, like 
the Infidels in scripture, to slay one another. Hence family 
feuds arose, which demanded revenge of blood* Tuktamisch, 
a Kaptschak ^nnee-^Aghlen — fied to Tamerlane, and at the 
head of a Mongol division defeated his uncle Urus and his 
sons in 1377 ; but being himself afterwards vanquished by ' 
Tamerlane, on his march to Kaptschak, in 1395, he fled to 
Siberia, where he perished. The Golden Horde, attacked by 
the Russians, broke up ; Hadji-Geray occupied the Crimea, 
and became the founder of the ChamU qf Tartars in that 
peninsula, whidi, after continued wars with the Genoese, became 
tributary to the Ottoman Sultans in 1525. Other chiefs 
raised their banner in Kasan and Astrachan, but they were, 


in 1552, subdued by the caars, and their territories incorpo- 
rated with the EuBsian Empire. 

^ V. The Chanat op Ssibir (Turan), on the east of Mount « 
Oural extended from the northern region Vg^-ia (253, 453) 
along the river Ob to the sources of the Irtisch on Mount 
Altai. The capital of this vast but little known empire, in 
cold and dreary Siberia, was Ssibir (Iskir), near the present 
Tobolsk, on the Irtisch. It survived the downfall of the 
Qolden Horde on the Volga, until it was invaded by the Cos- 
sacks, and bowed to the sceptre of Czar Iwan Wassiljewitch, 
in 1584. 

639. Tamerlane combined the military talent of Attila 
with the affability and prudence of Dshingis Chan, and the 
ferocious druelty of belli. ' A zealous Mohammedan, he united 
the diffierent Mongol and Tartar tribes of Central Asia into a 
powerful and wellTorganized army ^ and on his march westward, 
in 1370, all the nations went down in ruin before him. The 
Turkomans galloped to the mountains; the hitherto invincible 
Mamlukes, after the defeats at Baalbek and 2)ama5C2^5, wheeled 
round, and fleeing to Egypt, left all Syria at the mercy of the 
invader. The Ottoman Turks then advanced from Asia Minor, 
but while the prudent Timur Chan (Tamerlane) secured all the 
means that could facilitate his victory, the proud Bayazid, the 
Thunderbolt) despising his enemy, and neglecting that pre- 
caution which had procured him the victories of Nicopolis 
and Semendria, ran into the snare of his wily adversary at 
Aftgora^ where he lost his throne and his liberty. Tamerlane 
was as great a warrior as he was fi statesman ; his army was 
the first of modem times in which the different bodies of 
troops were distinguished by the colors of their uniforms ; his 
artillery was more formidable than that of the Turks ; and his 
Tartar citirassiers, admirably mounted and armed, rode down 
with irresistible impetuosity the Spahis and Janissaries, then in 
the height of their glory. But we turn with disgust from the 
bloody pages of his history, and behold, with a shudder, in 

770 nOBTH nSEZOIK — UOIUQOJm empieb. 

Pamaomui and Ba|;dad, the chapels built to eommemorate tiM 
spots where he reared his horriUe pjrraraids of humaa skolla 
to grace his triumph oyer shioghtered Bations. On his sadden 
death, at Otrar, on the xiyer ^hun. Sir (the ancient Jazart^), 
the 18th February, 1405, his empire extended from Smyrna^ 
on the Mediterranean, to Delhi and Fatna, on the Ganges, and 
from the Don and Terek to the Nile and Indian Ocean. 
Sama&kand and Kesoh were his capitals, whidi he adorned 
with magnificent mosques and basaara. The Oreat Chan him* 
self, with all his court, lired encamped under tents, in the 
enyirons of these cities; the most extravagant luxury waa 
introduced, and the splendor of dresses and furniture sur- 
passed all beliei The celebrated aarmorers of Damascus and 
the silk weayers of India were transported to Samarkand, 
which rose as the centre of Asiatic commerce m eomn^uniea- 
tion with Russia, China, and the countries on the Mediter- 
ranean. Yet his numerous hodb immediately diyidjod hia 
empire ; they refused to recognize his nephew, Pb Mohammed 
Dsdiihangir, as their sovereign, and thus many smaller 
dynasties were formed. The Ottomans reconquered Asim 
Minor; the Turkomans, Persia; the Man^ukes returned from 
Egypt, while the Timurid Cl^efs of Upper Asia were, by 
endless wars, circumscribed to Eastern Persia, Chorasan^ and 
Kandahar, until they too, in their turn, sank before the 
Afghans, the Uabcks, and other northern tnbes from 
tiie Steppes, and only the Great Mogul of Delhi, in Hinc 
doostan, retained yet for a length of time the title and tiie 
wealth, if not the talents and bloody laurels of his gigantio 

XXIII. — The Sultanate of the Cikcassian Mamltjkes* 

640. Extent, Conquests, anb Dynasties. — The Mambike 
Sultans (365) had enlarged their Egyptian empire from ^e 
ruins of the two Christian kingdoms in Syria, that of Jeru- 
salem, in 1291, mi that of Annenia (Cilicia), in 1371. It 

leA^d from the mggej eoastiiuMl of JsachUH (Uie aneient 
Imuria), along Bi^gliar Dagh (Mount Taurus), to the £u* 
phrates, and throu^ the great Syrian desert and Idumasa, to 
the Bakr Akabah or the Aelanetic Gulf of the Red Sea^ in- 
cluding Egypt and the western coastland as far as Barca (the 
ancient Cjrenaica) and the smaller St/rtiSj where it bordered 
on the kingdom of Tunis. Among all the Oriental govern- 
m^Hits that had sprang xxp sinoa the Cnundes, the most lawless 
and barbarous was that ef the Mamlnke& The Bafaarid 
dynasty took its name from Bahr^ that is, the sea, because its 
w^ Mainluke warriors were ^scamped at Rudahy in the 
Delta, cm the sea-shOTe» After the reign of twenty-finzr 
Sultans, it was overturned, in 1382, by the Circassian Mam« 
luke Barkok d Tkaker (the Glorious), with whom begins the 
seeond dynasty of the twenty-one CircassiaB Sultans, who, 
under continual revolutioiis, assassinations, and monstrous 
cruelties, ruled those beautiful but unhappy oountiies untO 
their conquest by the Ottoman .Tuvksy \% 1517. 

641. The eondition of Egypt was miserable in the highest 
degree ; and its Mohammedan and Coptic Christian inhabit* 
ants were oppressed and ill-treated by this ruthless military 
government. Great riches, however, flowed together into 
Egypt during this period, on account of the brisk commeroe 
of the Italian Kepublics, principally of Venice, with the East 
Indies, by way of Alexandria, the Nile, and the cities on the 
Bed Sea. The Sultans protected this commerce, and sent 
their fleets tathe states of C€manory Cakoity Cranganor^ and 
others on the Malctbar coast of India, whence they brought 
home the spiees, ivovy, jewelry, silks, and other rich produe- 
tions of the East. Yenioe was therefore in a dose alliance 
with the Mamluke Sultans, and attempted in vain with them 
to frustrate the bold designs of the Portuguese on the Indian 
coasts, after the discovery of the sea passage around the 
African Cape of Good Hope, by Yaseo de Gama, in the year 
1497. The oommermal and poUtieal rektianB of the E^rp- 


tian Sulttiis and the Bepnblio of Yenioe to the PortHgnese 
navigators and the Indian princes are highly interesting, but 
they belong to the Colonial Geography of Modem History. 

The Mohammedan Dynasties in Al-Magreb (Western 

642. Oenbral Remarks. — Haying finished our sketch of 
the geographical position of all the European and Western 
Asiatic states, from the period of the Crusades to that of the 
discovery of America, we think it proper not to close our 
work without mentioning the revolutions whicli during that 
time had taken place on the shores of Barbary. Though they 
did not exert any direct influence on the principal political 
events of Europe or Asia, they nevertheless had weight, upon 
the relations of the Moslemin and Christians in Spain. The 
African dynasties were three in number ; one of which still 
occupies the throne of Morocco ; the other two, Tunis and 
Tlemsen (Algiers), became notorious as the states of those 
desperate Corsairs, who, in spite of all the exertions of the 
emperor, Charles Y., continued for nearly three centuries 
to obstruct the commerce on the Mediterranean, and bring 
desolation and misery over ihe civilized nations inhabiting its 

XXIV.— The Kingdom op Tunis. 

643. Extent and Dtnasties. — Tunis, Kairouan, Mahadia, 
and Tripolis, together with the adjacent islands, Carchis and 
Qerbes, had in 1147, been occupied by the Norman, King 
Roger I. of Sicily (333). Yet these possessions on the main- 
land of Africa were later abandoned by the Italian Normans 
during the decline of their power in 1160. Soon the Al- 
Muabedin (Almohads), in their enthusiastic advance through 
Africa and Spain, took possession of Tunis and the cities on 
the Syrtis. When, however, their principal efforts became 


directed against the Castilians of Spain, a young warrior, 
Abu-Hafs- Omar-Ben- Yahia, the son of one of their most 
distinguished generals, obtained the command in Tunis, and 
his great-grandson, Abu Zakaria I., extending his conquests 
beyond Tripolis, and southward through the desert to the 
N^gro states, made himself independent, and took the title of 
Sultan or Emir al Mumemin aZ Murtesi (the Orthodox) in 
1250. During the ti^ouble of his son Abu-Abdallah-Moham- 
med-Mostanser with his uncles, Tunis was besieged by Saint 
Louis and his French crusading army in 1270. But the Arabs 
made a bold defence, and the French king, with many of his 
barons, perished by the plague on the promontory of Carthage. 
The dynasty of Abu-Halfs continued their sway during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, under frequent internal 
revolutions and feuds with the western dynasties of the Zianids 
in Tlemsen, and the Merinids of Morocco, until Muley II. 
Hassan, a younger brother, by terrible cruelties against his 
relatives, attempted to secure the throne of Tunis — ^1500- 
- 1534. But his half-brother, Ar-Rashid, fled to Hai'radin, the 
renegade chief of Algiers, and obtained a Turkish fleet for 
his support. The. terrible corsair soon forced Muley Has- 
san to surrender : but instead of placing the Arab prince on 
the throne, according to his promise, Hairadin took himself 
possession of the fine city. This usurpation caused that bril- 
liant campaign of 1535, in which Charles Y. stormed the for- 
tress of Goletta, delivered thousands of Christian slaves, and 
replaced the old unworthy Muley on the throne of Tunis. 
The kingdom of Tunis extended from Milah and Constaii- 
tina on the west, along the territory of ancient Carthage to 
Barca on the east, with the cities of Bona (Hippo Regius), 
Hamamet^ Sfakes, Cahes, Tripolis, and Lebida. Tunis, the 
capital, was then one of the largest cities in Africa ; the for- 
tress Goletta, Arabic HaJkolvad, commanding the entrance 
of the bay, secured the Spanish influence over the greater part 
of the northern coast of Africa. 


XXY. — ^The KmGiK»i of Ti^smsbn. 

644. Extent ahb Bevdlvtiorb. — More powerful tkan the 
Abu-HafiucLi in Tunis were the Ziaiids in the western MA6as»- 
iX-Au8AH or Tlemsen. Abn-Yafaia-Yagmurassen-Ben-Zian, 
hj descent a Fatimid (280), raised in 1240 the banner against 
the Almofaads in Morocco (334), and took the proud title of 
caliph. He was a distingnished and yictorioas general in 
sixty-two battles, a friend and generons protector of Arabic 
poets and historians. His descendants, the Zianids, repelled 
the attacks of the Merinids <^ Morocco, and extended their 
dominions along the coast Some were benerolent princes, 
but others, as nsnal, luxurious tyrants, and horrible crimes 
and oiril fends deluged their thrones with blood. The capital 
was the strongly-fortified Tlemesen, in the interior. Oran, 
on the western coast, was taken by the Spaniards in 1448. 
M Dschezair (Algiers), Mahadia^ Mascara^ and Budshd^ 
were likewise cities on the coast. Thousands of Spanish Mo- 
hammedans fledng from Granada^ aftor its conquest by Fer- 
nando and Iiabella, settled in the African ports and began 
those daring piracies against the Christian vessels whM^, after- 
wards, under Hairadin (Chair-ed-Bin) Barbarossa, the Cor- 
sair, from Lesbos, who occupied the ^one of the Zianids in 
1533, as Dey of Algiers, took the feaiful character of a 
general piratical war&re against all Christian nations on the 

XXVI. — The Kingdom op Fez awd Moeocco. 

645. Dynasties, Extent, and Pkovinoes. — ^After the 
battle of Toloso, in Andaluna, in 1212, when the power <^ tiie 
Almdiad kings had been shaken in Spain, the wealthy and 
talented chief of the Merinid family in Africa, Abd-al-Hak- 
Yahia, Ebn-Bekr, from Teza, in the proTinoe of Scfaans, east 
of Fei, rose in arms against the ruling Almohad dynasty, and 

mawtm pb&iod. — ^fez and morocco. 775 

hid 8on Atra-Beks^ I. ooxiqtiered tlie capital On tbe 20th of 
August, 1248. The Merinids rapidly obtained possession of 
Ihe whole fertile and prosperous regions of Magreb-al- 
Aksa (214). 

Abul-Hassan, the Merinid, raised his standard about a. d. 
t350 over the whole Barbary coast ; the eastern dynasties 
were forced to recognize thfe siipremacy of the Merinids, yet 
the maritime expeditions of the Portuguese, and particularly 
their conquest of Oeuta in 1415, so much distracted the kings 
of Morocco, that many of their Tassals again threw off their 
allegiance, and thus forwarded the ambitious designs of the 
Christians. In 1471, Emir Seid Oataz, of a lateral Merinid 
line, haying been driven from his govOTnment of Arzilla, by the 
Portuguese (582), gathered an army in the interior, and took 
possession of Fez and Morocco at the head of eight thousand 
horse, and his successors, the Oatazids, maintained their do- 
minion for eighty years. In 1550, however, Mohammed 
Sherif, of the ancient family of a sainted Marabut, himself 
a leaned and flattering courtier, gained the favor of the 
kii^ and army in the wars against the Portuguese, and 
Itscending fh>m one high situation to another, culminated by 
overturning the throne of the last Oatazid, and founding the 
present empire of the Scherifi in Morocco^ JFhz^ TaJUelt, 
and Su$. 

646. the kingd(»n extended from the rtver Moluya, on 
ihe borders of Tlemsen, westward along the coast to the city 
of Ceuta, which from the year 1415 was in the possession of the 
Portuguese, together with the Whole western coastland, south 
as far as AIcaztxrai-Kebir^ at that time forming the Portu- 
guese province of Algarb beyond the Sea (582, 583). The 
high range of Mount Atlas, by the Arabs called Djehal Tedla 
and Adimmciy formed the eastern frontier, and separated 
Morocco from the independent Moorish states of TajUdt^ 
Sedjelntessay and Darahj on the outskirts of the great desert 
Sahara, in the interior. On the south the border ran along 


ihe riyer W&dj Darah, wMoh disohaegeB itself into the 
Atlaatic, south of CcU)o de Nao, nearly opposite to the Cana- 
rian Islands. Miknasa (Mequines) was the ancient capital 
of the Saracen conquerors. Fez (Faz), io a heautiful valley, 
surrounded by high mountains, near the riyer Seboueh, was 
founded in the. year 807 by Edris-ben-Edris (214), whose 
father had raised Magreb al-Aksa into the kingdom of Me- 
quines, independent of the Caliph of Cordova in Andalos 
(Spain). His splendid mosque and sepulchre are still the^ 
objects of numerous pilgrimages from every part of the Mo- 
hammedan world. Fez was long the seat of Arabic learning 
and industry, and celebrated by its colleges, palaces, hospitals, 
sanctuaries, and other public edifices of Oriental piety and 

Morocco (Merakash), south of Mequines, in the extensive 
and well-watered plain of Eylana^ was still a small village at 
the first appearance of the Almoravids in 1050, but it became 
later, after the union of their empire by the conquest of Fez, 
the capital and residence of the Nazar-ed-Din of Morocco, 
and the most populous and commercial city in the kingdom, 
Agadir^ Mogador^ and Asafy, were thriving ports on the 
coast of the Atlantic. Tinmal, on an elevated site amid the wild 
mountains of Darah, on the south, was for years the refuge of 
the Almohad sectarians in the twelfth century. In the desert 
of Lamtuna^ south of Darah, arose the austere religious sect 
of the Almoravids, whose conquests and government in Africa 
and in Spain constitute one of the brightest pages in the Ara* 
bian annals. On the plain near Alcazar-al-Kebir was fought 
the bloody battle between the old dying Mohammed Moluk and 
the young King Sebastian of Portugal, on August 4, 1578, in 
which the latter and nearly his entire army were cut to pieces. 
This great disaster, and the subsequent subjection of Portugal 
herself by King Philip II. of Spain, put an end to all the Por- 
tuguese designs of aggrandizement in A£rica, and the evacua* 
tion of most of the maritime cities which they had conquered 


at such an enormons expense of blood and treasure daring the 
fifteenth century, the period of their military glory. 

The kingdom of Morocco did not yield to the Moham- 
medan states in Spain during the brilliant era of Arabian 
civilization. The great King Abd-el-Mumen, the Almohad, 
embellished his beloved Morocco with elegant aljamas 
(mosques), tanks, aqueducts, gardens, and collies, where 
literature and science were tauglit to form able cadis, walis, 
and military officers. He assembled the sons of the most distin- 
guished chiefs of the Berbers and Eabyles from the desert to 
the number of several thousands, and gave these young HaJUes 
a complete literary and military education, being himself present 
at their exercises, like Charlemagne, and encouraging their 
exertions by presents and offices of confidence ; and Morocco 
became thus the centre of the Mohammedan power, from 
which those myriads of warriors were launched on Spain, who 
for centuries retarded the progress of the Christian arms. 

" Yet," to close with the words of Prescott, the great 
American historian, '^ the empire which once embraced moro 
than half the ancient world has now shrunk within its original 
limits, and the Bedouin wanders over his native desert as free 
and almost as uncivilized as before the coming of his apostle. 
The language which was once spoken along the southern 
shores of the Mediterranean, and the whole extent of the 
Indian Ocean, is broken up into a variety of discordant diar 
lects. The elegant diction of the E(»ran is studied as a dead 
language, even in the birthplace of the Prophet, and darkness 
has again settled over those regions of Africa which were 
illummed by the light of learning." 



^ 226. Professor F. Knise in Saint Petersburg, gives in 
an interesting treatise, translated into the Annals of the 
Northern Antiquaries for 1844, a more detailed account of 
the origin of the Warjegs, who, under the command of the 
Jutish Chief Euric, in 852, laid tibe foundation of the Bus- 
sian empire. The War&gs, according to his statement, form- 
ed part of the fEir-spreaditg Gothic nation. They inhabited 
the southeastern coast of Sweden, opposite to Finnland, then 
called RosLAGEN, ^here they early obtained the name of Ross, 
or Russians. They were already known to the Greek geo- 
graphers in Alexandria, and Ptolemy mentions them as a wild 
piratical nation, under the name of ^tpotam — ^PmRiESi — Va- 
reesiy or Warsegs, from whom the Finnic gulf was called the 
sea of the Waraegs. They likewise appear among the Grothio 
swarms during their first invasion of the Roman empire, in 
the second century of our era, and they began already to take 
service in the Roman army of the Emperor Maximin, the 
Thraeian, in 235, under the name of Ibsderatiy Yaraesi. Hav- 
ing united with Ruric and his Jutes, they occupied northern 
Russia, and extended their relations southward to the Black 
Sea and Constantinople, where we find them again some cen- 
turies later, among the Scandinavian warriors, as Varanghi, 
the faithful body-guard surrounding the throne of the Byzan* 
tine emperors. The name of Russia, therefore, appears for 
the first time on the Lakes of Ladoga and Ilmen, toward the 
beginning of the tenth century. 


^ 266. Ancient Gappadocia, situated north of Mount Tau- 
rus, and west of its eastern branch, the Anti-Taurus was by 
the Romans divided into Prima and Secunda (26) During 
the reign of Justinian I., or later — sajs Constantino Porphj- 
rogenitus — ^these provinces w^re formed into two military 
Themes, which, therefore, must take their place among the rest^ 
though the Imperial Historian has omitted to give them their 

XIII. Thema Charsianum — ©ifia Xaptricofov — embraced 
the northern part of Cappadocia, bordering on the Armenian 
and Bukellarian Themes ; it obtained its name from a brave 
Bysantine general, Charsias, who had distinguished himself in 
the wars against the Persians. Kaisaie^eia, on the Melas, a 
tributary of the Halys, was the metropolis. Other cities 
mentioned by Constantino, were Nyssa^ northeast of the 
former, Therma and Regipodanos. 

XIY. Thema Cappadocl£ — 0cfba KamroSoKias-— consisted 
of Lesser or Central Cappadocia, south of the Gharsian 
Theme. It was separated from Cilicia by the high range of 
Mount Taurus, and bordered west on the Anatolian Theme and 
the extensive plains of ancient Lycaonia. It was traversed 
by the river Halys, and the large saltish lake of Tatta occu- 
pied its centre. Constantino relates that it had of late been 
organized as a Theme with its military commanders and border 
garrisons — Ttana, on the northern slope of Mount Taurus, 
was the metropolis; Faustinopolis, Kyinstra, NanzianzoSj 
Erysitna, Farnassos^ on the Lake of Tatta, Diokaisarcia^ 
RodandoSj and several fortresses on Mount Taurus, are 
mentioned in the Byzantine historians. These two Themes 
will thus take their place among the ttaenty-ninej and the 
PRiEFECTURE OF Cyprus (267), and the Eparchy of Crete 
(268) will fall out as being still in the possession of the 

^ 439. The disputes between the Swedish Archbishops of 
Upsala, and the Danish Primates of Lund (293), who refused 


to recognize the independence of the former, and their right 
to take the pallium directly from Borne, ^ntinued during 
the greater part of the fourteenth century. The arrogant 
John Grand, the Archbishop of Lund — 1289-1302 — excom- 
municated his riTal, while the no less violent John of Upsala 
returned the compliment, and sought himself redress in Eome. 
Yet the Popes in Avignon, though bribed by bolh parties with 
large Isums of money, left the dispute undecided until the year 
1367, when Tope Urban V. at last recognized the indepen- 
dence of the metropolitan see of Up^a of the Danish Primate 
of Lund. From that time until the Eeformation in 1532, the 
Swedish Church formed a separate province — Provincia Up- 
SALiENsis, with the six suffragans, the Bishops of Linkopingy 
Skaray StrengndSy Wezio, WesteraaSy and Aaboy in Finnland. 
Among the numerous convents were celebrated those of the 
Dominican and the Franciscan monks at Skaray in West Goth- 
land, and SigtufuZy and the nunneries of Santa Claray Santa 
Mariay the Sko-Kloster of Cistercian Nuns on the MsDlam^ 
and the still more magnificent sanctuary of Saint Bridget, at 
Wadstenay on the banks of the lake Wenern, where the vir- 
tuous and unhappy Queen Philippa of Denmark, found a re- 
fuge from the insults of her unworthy husband, King Eric the 

^ 443. The ecclesiastical province of Norway — ^Provincia 
NiDARosiENSis — ^had been erected by Pope Eugenius III., in 
the year 1151. Its metropolitan see was in the ancient city 
of Trondhjem, on Nidaros (223), and embraced the four Nor- 
wegian bishoprics of Opslo, StavangeVy Bergen, and Hani- 
mcTy together with those of SkalhoU and Hdurriy in Iceland, 
and that of the jFterder. The episcopal sees of the Shet- 
land and Orkney Islands, which earlier had belonged as suf- 
fragans to Nidaros, were united to the Province of Saint An- 
drews in Scotland, on the Cession of those islands to King 
James III., in 1469. A bishopric had, so early as 1 126, been 
established at Gardar, in Greenland, where it remained flou 


rishiiig for tiir^ooitttriM* lis Itst bfadiop, E&dndtt Asdce*- 
BOfUy was ordamei is Trottdhleni, in 1406, and is known to 
have sailed for Greefiland, whom he ofteiated Ibr scfreral 
jears. Soon, howerer, tho navigation and commerce of those 
distant settlements was disoonlintied. Th^ Icelandic colonies 
perished by war or pestilence, and it is only of late that inter- 
esting mins, seals, and other antiquities of the mediaoval 
ohnrches, haye been discovered at Oardar, on the IsOmras 
of Bid, at JgaUkOf Kakartok, and tnany oUier places on the 
Oett*Bygd^ tx Eastern coast of Oreenhuid.* 

^ 449. Tax Chu&ch of Poland embraced three vast pro^ 
vincea with a great number of soffiragan bishoprics. On the 
west, L, P&oviNciA Gneznensis, with the metropolitan see in 
Gnezen (250, 812), it extended eastward through McLZoma^ 
northern LUhucmicLj and SamogUia^ with the episcopal sees 
of Flozko, Wilruif and MednikL North lay II., P&ovincia 
RioENSis, with the see in Biga, and the suffiragans of Pome- 
rania^ WarnUay Samaitia^ Courlandf (Eselj and Dorpat, 
Esthlandy on the Finnic gulf, belonged to the Danish province 
of Lund in Skaane. IIL, Pbovingia Leofolieksis, with 
the archiepiscopal see in Lembs&o, reached south through Ma* 
Itcz (Galicia) and Bukotaina, to the frontiers of Moldavia 
and Hungary. The Granduchy of Russia, belonging to the 
Oriental €keek Churdb^ consisted of two provinces, those of 
Moscow and Kibw.. 

^ 646. For the last twenty-five years, however, European 
civilization and progress have begun to dawn on the northern 
coastlands of Africa, in c(mseqaenoe of the occupation of Al- 
giers and Constantina by the French, in^ 1830-1836. The 

* See for deti^ en the diseovery of the lee^ttiidio Settlements and 
the probfthle iaie of the inkabitaiitfl, the JSdepedMm tf CapL W, A. 
Graak to the eaU eoatt 0/ Gr§enlmi«^ in the Eim^liah translatkm by 
George Hacdougall, E^., London, ISdY'-^paget S8-i4> and the*re- 
•earches of Prol Charles Q, Rafh On hk Ancient Geography of Greetk- 
land, Copenhagen, 1845. 

Ai>DEKftAi*--*xMr cor j^iriHo&s. TtS 

mooemM conqneBts «&d ezleodkig ooloi^satioii of that Mtxre 
and powerful nadoii in Barbuj^ exert alreadjp a l>eneftceiit in* 
fluenoe on the political and aooial institntiocii of the neighbor- 
ing Mohammedan States of Tunis, Tripolis, Morooeo, and the 
Arabiiii nomadio tribes of Moant Atlas. 

List of Authors on the SiMory and Gtogra^hy of the 
Middle Ages^ vfhose Works have been eenmdted m the 
composition of the present MamtaL 


Sfbunse (Oharlxs YOJuy^Vbrbmurkungen amn JBistorueh-OeographU- 
^hen Mand-AUat, Gtotlui, 18S7-18i6. 86 pages, 4to., eontamiiig 
highly Talnable notiees for the desotaptioii of ms great Atlas. 

AiouBT (Aux.y*'PrSci9 de la &«ogr§ipbM HiHorigw du Moyen Age — 2de 
Edition. Pans, 1888. 162 paget, 8y<k, Wbich we have followed 
in the main diyiuons, in the concise introdnctory chapter on the 
Koman Empire, and in its Accurate and minute description of 

IfALVB Bfttmfs System ef Vkiwrsal ^ogtuphv, Boston, 18S4, 8 yok, 
.4ta, has furnished us with several sketches of manners and insti- 
tutions amo^ the medtdsTal nations. The Done, lUdthe-Conrad 
Brun is the most distingnished writer on JMsm Otography. 
His pertinent remarks on the earlier condition of the eoun tries he 
describes^ have enlivened and embellished his work, and secured 
its rank as the philosophical Geography of the age. 

MAirNEBT^s and ITgkkbt*s Ancient Geographies have lUcewise been used 
for the earlier periods. 

I General Hibtobies ov the Mii»>le ActaL 

Gibbon's Decline and FaU of ike Ernnan Empire staads firA ia mk; 
yet more important for our purpcNSe has been-^ 

Ruxb'8(Fbtedebich)— iTafui&ucA ckr Oeeobiehie dee MUUlaUere. Berlin, 
1818, 8va A profound and excellent work in nearly all its parts. 
The objection of others* to his employing the ethnographical in- 
stead of the synchvcmistio method^ has rendered the book more 
precious to us. 

Bbpm's (Friedebics)— JZonci^A der QeeehiekU dee MUtelaHere. Mar- 
bui^, 1821, 1.-II. vol., and Cassd, 1834, HL^YIL vol, became our 
g^de for the chronology and the genealogical tables. 

Lekrhuch der Geechiehte dee MUtelaltere. Gassel* 
1848^ avo, is a asefol aUklgm«d( itit the itmae^r. 


Lm (jaMMmMy-Zehrbueh der OetMekU de$ MUtaaker9, Hafle^ 1880^ 

8vo., and his Tolnminous Handbuch on the same subject 
LvDiar's {JBxrxKxmY-'Allgemeine Oetehiehte der Volker und Staaten des 

MiiielaUert. Jena» 1821. I-II. t«L, 8to^ 
Eicbhokn's (Johann GofnFBisi>y~WeUgۤchie?Ue, Second voL Beatlia- 

gen, 1819. 
Haixam's (Hdibt) View of the State of Europe dnzfaig the Middle AgM 

London, 1818. L-IL voL, 4ta 

n. Spicial Histobhs. 

GmcAino Naxiovb— Manso's MsUny of the OHroff&ths. 

Dr. John A0Ohbagh'8 HUiory of the Vuigoths. 

Frankfurt, 1827. 
Hbnbt Leo's Qetchichte der ItalienUehen BtaaieH. 

YoL L Hamburg, 1836. 
AuousTiN Thibrbt — Lettree gur FhUtoire de France, 

Bruxelles, 1886. 
SiMowDB DB Sbsmondi — SUtoire de$ Fran^ai$. Brux- 

eUes, 1886. VoL L-VIIL 
M. 'M.iQBYLm-^IIuiory of France, Kew-York, 1845. 
Vol. L-IL 
SoLATONiAK Natiomb — ^Paul Joseph Sohafarik's Slaioitchc AlterikSmer, 

Leipsdg, 1848. L-IL voL 8yo. 
Cbobaso— Jacobus BoiroABS — Qe$ta Dei per Francoe. Hanoyrin^ 161L 
FuxnEUGS WxtKXN — Getchiehteder XreuaOge, VoL L--Vn. 
J^boBAVD^HUtoire dee Oroieadee, VoL L-VI. 
Robinson and Smith — Biblical Jteeearchee in FalettineL. 

Boston, 1841. VoL L-IlL 
Ebnst Gustay Sohvlts— t/tfrtMo/em. Berlin, 1845. 
Ibbland—Lxdbioh's Antiquities of Ireland, 

Thomas Moobbs BUtory of Ireland 
Scotland — ^Buchanan— -iStfrum/Sco^tcarttfniKf^orMk Lib. XX. Edinburgh, 
PiNXBBTON'a Hietory of Scotland, London, 1797. L-IL toL 

Walibe's Soott^s numerous works. 
Ev«LANi>-*-LAypBNBXBO*s StstoTy of the An^Baxons, 
Linoabd's Bietory of JSngland 
Sbabon ToBiTXB ana others. 
Dbnmabk— T. G. Bahlmann — Oeechiehte vcti Dannemark, Hamburg, 
1840-48. VoL L-m., 8vo. 
Fbxdxbik Hammbbich— DanmarArt Valdemaremee JU, 1167- 

1876. Kiobenhayn, 1847. VoL I.-IL 
GuBTAv LuDTiG Badbn— Dafimar^t Eigee Eittorie. Ki6b€n- 
havn, 1829. 1st voL 

•8«eHcaiT7Leo^Lafai1ia«honidU»vaIHiBl«7. Hdle 1880| pi«a «. 


KoBWAT — Jacob Aals Translation of the Heimskringla of Sncobo 
Stubleson, with valuable geographical notes and map. 
Christiania, 1838. VoL L-IL 
Samiqel Laing's TVavela in Norway, London, 1886. 
Swbdbn — ^E. G. Geijeb — History ofStaeden, in the English translation. 

Z. TopjBUUS — Finnland. Helsingfors, 1845. 4to. 
Rusfl&A — ^Nikolas M. Eabamsin's History of the JiutHan Empire^ in 
a f4rench Translation. Paris» 1806. YoL L-YIII. 
Pro£ Kbusb's Russian Antiquities. 
Poland— Joachim Lelewel — Oeschichte Polens — ^Leipzig, 184*7, with an 

Historical Atlas. A noble book. 
PEuaeiA — JoHAMNES YoiGT — Gtschichte Pretuaens von den altetten Zeiten. 
Konigsberg, 1827. Yol. L-IIL, and his Getchichte Ma- 
rienlmr^Sy 1824. 
Fbanob — See Germanic Nations. 

GxBMANT — ^K. T. Eichborn's Bevtache 8taai9 %md Rechtsgeachickte. YoL 
L-IL Gottingen, 1821. 
Fried, von Raumsr — Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihrer 

Zeit, Leipzig, 1840. YoL L-YL 8vo. 
Fried. Kohlbausch — History of Germany. New-York, 1852. 
Henrt Luoen, Sertobius, and others. 
SwnzEBLAND — JoHANNBS VON MuEiXEB — Geschichte der Schtoeitzeritehen 
Mdffenossenscfutft. Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1852. 
YoL L-X. 12mo. 
HuNQART — Count John Matlatr's- History of the Hungarians, 1830. 
Portugal — Iepolito HERcuLAN0—^t«f ona de Portugal. Lisbon^ 1846, 
YoL 1st 
Heinrich Schaefbr — Geschichte von Portugal, Hamburg, 

1836-50. YoL I.-IU. 
Bunham's History of Spain and Portugal New-York, 1852. 
YoL L-Y. 
Spain — ^Don JosA Anton Gom>ib-^Historia de la dominaeion de los Ara- 
bes en Espana, Paris, 1840. 8vo. 
Lembke — Geschichte von Spanien, Hamburg, 1880. YoL L 
Ernest Alexander Smith — Geschichte Aragoniens im Mittel- 

alter. Leipzig, 1828. 8vo. 
William H. VKssooTc-^History of the Reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, Boston, 1838. YoL L-UL 
Italy — ^E^enby Leo — Geschichte der Italienischen 8taaten. Hamburg, 
1830. YoL L-Y. 
" " JDie Lombardisehen Stadte, Hamburg, 1824. 

Raxjmeb*s Geschichte der Hohenstaufen, 
Machiavelli and other works of Italian Historians. 
Byzantine Empibe — ^Constantine Pobphybogenitxts and other Byzantine 
John William Zinkeiben — Geschichte Grieehenlands, 

Leipzig, 1832. Yol. L 
J. A. BucHON — HistoiredeBConqtiStetetdeVStablisse-' 
ment des Fran^ais dans les Hats de Vaneienne 
Griee, Paris, 1846. YoL L-IL 

7M tofft <3» AmnoES. 

BnAmnn Bmsoul 

JfjJAMaA'm^Ge^dhiehU tkr EalUnsel Morea im 

Mitidalter. 8tattgart, 1825-80. Vol. L-IL 
Ekrbt Cmaro^-^FdoponnewM, Ootha. 1861-52. 

Vol L-IL 
GaoBOs FoTLAT— nlf€dMBirai Greees tmd TVehizond. 

Edinbnrgfa, 1851. 
Jour Dx 1do9CA»A—'JS9petUcian 4e h$ Catalans $/ 
Armfftmeteg 'oontrm Ikrtot y OrieoM, Paris, 
Mohammedan Statu in Aoa— See GrusadeSi 

Babon J. VON HAMMSB-«6WAteJU8 der 
OmanetK Pesih, 1825. YoL L^Y., 
and iiiim«roiu wwks of travels in 
the East 
MoHAMMKDAir SiAxn Di Maobm^ Gondii Dunhai^ and Rkhm. 

fflSTORIClI Dmix. 

The Numbers indicate the Faragrc^hM. 

Abttdid dynasty of Seyflla, 8S1 
AbaiUurd, the Frencb phfloaopher. 8^2. 
Abbasid caliphs, 198, 199, 874. m 687. 
Abdallah Mostassem BUUL f07, 874 
Abdallah Y. Kaim Beai^Ulah, SBC 
Abdallah-«I-Zagel, 608. 
AbdBllah-el-Zagnir (Hoabdeli), 008. 
Abd-el-Uak-Yabia, of Morocco, 6tfL 
Abd-el-Malek, conqueror of OarttuweL 194 
Abd-el-Melek, caliph, 874. 
Abd-el-Mamen, or Morocco, MC 
Abd-or-Raman, the Ommyiad, t98, 868. 
Abd-er-Saman IIL, Emir of Cordova, 258. 
Abel, King of Denmark, 294878. 
Abealon (Axel), archbishon, 89& 877. 
Abu- Abdallah Mohammeo, of Tania, 648. 
Aba-Bekr,A]moxavld Smir oTMoioooo^ 88ft. 
Abn-Bekr L of Motocqol 6ftfi. 
Abn-Bekr, calipb, 80t 
Aba-Oosh, robber cM^ 8I0l 
Abn-Haft-Omar-Ben TahUL SO. 
Abul-Hassaa-Ali of Esypt, 280. 
Abnl-Kassem of Errps 880. 
Abu-Zakaria, L o^Tlml^ USL 
Abyssinian Mngf, 300. 
Acci^jnoli, Florentine Jkmlly, Dukes of 

Athens, 020. 
Acnnhas fionily, 864 
AdaUd€8^ oommandeia of the lUht trooM 

in Castile, 689. 
Adam, Bishop of Bremen, 80t 
Adelaide of Ivrea 846. 
Adelaide of Yohbnrs, 888. 
Adelaide of Bnrgira^, 851. 
Ademar, Bishop of Pay, 887* 
Adolph of Nassau, 519. 
Adolph I. Duke of CleTeA, 681. 
Adolph YL, Count of Holsteln, 444 
Adrian lY., Pope, 888 
AdscripH OUiba (serft), of Htinguy, 814 
Aduana, Moorish coundL 816. 
AelflrM the Oreat, 221. 
Aescewine, son of OIEm, 104 
Aethelnoth, of Canterboiy, 888. 
Aethelred IL the Unready, 889. 
Aetbelstane, King of En^an^ 88L 
AeihUntn (nobles), 79. 8M. 
Aettna, Boman general, 117. 

Agellianns the Athenian, aoa 

Aghtbid dynasty. 196, 869« 

Agitolfin^an dynasty, 860. 

Agnes de Courtenay, 868. 

Agnes of Franeonia, 8ft& 

Agnes of Hungary, 668. 

Agnee of Saarforucken, 86^ 

Agnes Sorel, 479, 488. 

Agramont fhction in Kararra, 601. 

Ahded-Ledin-IUah, 880, 888. 

Ahmed-Ben-Bidah, 277. 

Ahmed-Ben-TuTun, 280. 

Ahmed-Moes-ed-Daala, 877, 

Ahmed lY.Bhadi, 274 

Aime, monk of Monte-Casino^ 821. 

Akatziri (KhosarsX 96i 

Ak-Koinln, White Horde ot TorkoouuMU 

686, 681. 
Alah-ed-Din, first Tidi^ 687. 
Alah-ed-Din, Karamanian prlneCk tt8. 
Alan of QaUoway, 4SC 
Alan Yipont, 486, 
AlanifTurco-Gothic nation, 90^ 184 
Alaxd de Saint Yalery, 484 
Abffie the Yislgoth, ft^ 40, 67. 

Albanian setUementa hi Oieeee^ 861, I8L 
Albanian tribes (Oaafiasas), 186^ 
Albanians, 869, 624 
Alberld (Ugone), 410. 
Albert L, emperor, 681 
Albert the Bear, 896, 617. 
Albert with the Coe, 688| 684 
Albert the WlckeOl9. 
Albert the Wise, 628. 
Albertine dynasty, 618. 
AlbigenseB, 898. 
AJbcdn the Lombard. 121, 168. 
Albomoz, Cardinal, 618. 
Albrecht of Bavaria, 497. 
Albrecht of Brandenburg, 468. 
Albrecht of Mecklenburg, 880, 488. 
Albnquerqacs de la Cneva, ikmily in Gas- 

Alcabala, Moorish tribute, 868L 
Aldebeit of P^rlgneux, 846b 
Alemanni, 76, 81, 188. 
Alexander of Bulgaria, 86T. 
Alexander the Great, 811. 
Alttonder IIL, Pope, 41t 



Alexander of Poland, 44C 
Alexander of Soltwedel, 408L 
Alexander II. of SooUand, SS8, 489. 
Alexander IIL of Scotland, 48S. 
Alexander Stnart, 487. 
Aleoriad ot Anna Ck)innena, 816. 
Alexius Angelus tttu Usurper, 861. 
Alexius Angelas the Crusader, 861. 
Alexias Comnenus, emperor, 864, 816. 
Alexius I., Orand-Gomnenaa. 861, 874. 
Alexias lY., « Treblzond, «2«. 
Alexias Mureiaphloe 861. 
Al-Faradsh - Ebn • Osman-al-Earmath the 

Heretic, 27». 
Alfonso VL of Castfle, 818, 884 
Alfonso X. of CastUe, 677. 
Alfonso XL of CastUe, 691, 692. 
Alfonso VIL, Bamnndez of Galida, 818. 
AlfouH) L of Leon, 207, 81& 
Alfonso y. of Leon, 818. 
Alfonso Henriquez of Portngal, 674 
Alfonso HI. of Portugal, 677, 67& 
Alfonso IV. of Poitu^ 680, 691. 
Alfonso V. of Portugal, 679,688 
Alfred of HauteTille, 821. 
Al-Hakim II. uf Cordova, 268. 
Alhamarid dynasty, 687, 608. 
Al-Hud dynasty, m, 884 
All, the Caliph and Saint, 207. 
Ali-Ben-Bajah, 277. 
Ali-Ben-Naamh, 822. 
Alidoei, Signon of Imola, 414, 618. 
Allies (Sblites), Mohammedan Heretics, 207 
Allodium, 118. 
ull-Maman, caliph, 274 
Almanzas fkmllv in Leon, 690. 
Almanzor, caliph, 207. 
Almancor, vizir, 266, 818. 
Almaydas family, 684 
Almerids, dynasty o^ 820. 
Almocadenes^ commanders of the scont 
Alin CasHle, 689. 

Imohad dynas^, 816, 884 
Almqjari/aftffo, Moorish excise, 268. 
.41-Mondar, Arabian chief; 208L 
AlnHmtTtd dynasty, 884, 674 ' 
Almotacels, police oflBcers, 678. 
Almugavarea, Christian border-wardenfl, 
.<1288, 826, 689, 697. 

linvgai>ria», border-forays^ 689. 
^Inazar-ed-Din, 816. 
Alonso I. el Batallador of Aragon, 816L 
Alonso IV. ci Aragon, 606. 
Alonso v. of Aragon, 608, 614, 616. 
Alp-Arslan, Sel^iukid sultan, 824, 826. 
Auhing, national assembly in Iceland, 298. 
Alvaro Gonzales, marshal of Portngal, 680. 
Alvaro de Luna, 692. 
Amadeus I., Count of Savoy, 246. 
Amadens II I^ Count of Savoy, 418. 
Amadeus VIII., Duke of Savoy, 611. 
Amalasuntha, daughter of Theod(»rlc, 127. 
Amali, dynasty of; 90. 
Amaliic, King of JernsaTem, 888. 
Amber ^ revenue of the Teutonic Order, 881. 
Amer-Ben-Alas (Amm), 206. 
Amru, Chief of Zabulistan, 276. 
Andedis^Counts o( 896. ' 

Andreas, Elng oTNaples, 666, 616. 
AndiMS XL (^Hungary, 814, 666. 
Andrioffhj or King oflreland, IOOl 
Andronicus Comnenns, emperor, 861. 
Andronieus the Younger, emperor, SSit, 4ML 
Andronicus I., Grand-Comnenas^ 874. 
Angarian Saxons, 17a 
Angeli, dynasty ot 861. 
Angevin House of Hungary, 666; 

of Naples, 428, 614 
Angli, 78, 82, 106. 
Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, 148, 22L 
Anglo-Saxon tenanU4tirchitf^ 298. 
Angul the Hero, 82. 
AnguB-Og-McDonald, 286. 
Anbalt dynasties, 686. 
Aqjou, dynasty of; 876, 602. 
Anlaf (Olal) the Dane, 221. 
Anna Comnena, the Princess, 816, 821, 896w 
Anna of Constantinople, 261. 
Anna of Bretagna, 404 
Anna de Lavai, 607. 
Anna of Lusignan, 611. 
Anna of Hungary, 666, 
Anna of Prussia, 617. 

108, the Apostle of the Korth, 190 

Ansemandns (EUuueman), Count of Septt* 

mania, 167. 
Anti, Sdavonian tribe, 91, 107. 
Antonio Acd^uoli, Duke of Afhens, 620. 
Antonius the Triumvir, 8a] 
AntntatioMS, Ua 
AppeUidoB, military gatherings, 67a 
Aiquilares fiunily in Spain. 680. 
Arabic medical school of Salerno, 822. 
Archambaud, Sdgniors of; 2Sa 
Archibald, Earl of Douglas, 486. 
Archibald Douglas, BeU-the-Cat, 486L 
ArcharB ttom Tellemarken, 190. 
Ardario, King of the GepidisL 122. 
Arimanni (HeermdnnerX 152. 
Armature of the Crusaders, 826k 
Armlgeri (sergeants), 881. 
Arms of Godft^y of Bouillon, 889. 
Armory of Solothum, 664 
Amauts, see Albaniana 
Arnold of Brescia, 406. 
Arnold Melcbthal of Underwalden, 6601 
Arnold of Treves, 404 
Arnold of Winkelried, 662. 
Amolfo di Lapo, 416. 
AmiUf; King of Germany, 248, 258. 
Aipad, sreat Chan of the Magyars, 26a 

Ar-Baschid of^Tnnis, 64a 
ArrUr^han in Germany, 247 
ArrUre-Jl^ in France, 886. 
Artazenes Babegan, the Sasstaid^ 96. 
Arthur, King of Damnonla, loa 
Arthur II., Duke of Brittany, 470. 
Artois, French feudatories in Naples^ 614L 
Ascanian fiunily, 896. 
ABchTy Arabian tithe, 274 
Ashraf-KhaUl, Sultan of Egypt, 84a 
Asparuch, Chan of the Bulgars, 196. 
Asan, Ktaig of Bulgaria, 66a 
Asan II., King of Bulgaria, 867. 



As^aleb-Ne^jmed, Bultaii, 88& 
ABeaasins, 279, 840. . 
Awize (Code) of Jerosaleim, 848, 850, 8S6k 
Atabeks of AlDsheeirah, 829. 

Halep, 880. 

Persia, 829. 
Atalayas^ wardens, 578. 
Ataydes family, 584. 
Athole, Earl o^ the regicide, 486. 
Attila Uie Hon, 88, 117. 
Aorellan, Emperor, 11. 
Aushis March, Limodn poet, 596. 
Aufloniae, Gallic poet, €9. 
Austrian dynasty, 511. 
AvTOKpdTup, Byzantine title, 262. 
Avars, 149. 
Avaric armature, 149. 

life guards, 262. 
Averrhoea, see Ibn Boshd, 884. 
Avlcenna, the Arab philosopher, 822. 
Ayxa, Queen of Granada, 604. 
Azan Zacharias Genturione, Count of Oha- 

landritza, 621. 

Babenberg, House ot, 249, 896, 528. 
Baghi Bejan, commander of Antioch, 886, 

B<iglery Norwegian warriors, 296. 
Baharld Mamlukes, 849, 868. 
Bahxam, Gasnavid sultan, 276. 
Balamir, King of the Huns, 89. 
Balder, Scandinavian god, 106. 
Baldwin of Boulogne, King of Jerusalem, 

827, 885, 847. 
Baldwin of Burg, XL King of Jerusalem, 

887, 847. 
Baldwin IIL of Jerusalem, 888, 841. 
Baldwin lY. of Jerusalem, 888. 
Baldwin Y. of Jerusalem, 888. 
Baldwin of Flanders, Emperor of Bomania, 

Baldwin Xt. of Constantinople. 868. 
Baltea, dynasty of, 90. 
JSatinum^ Heer-ban orfeudal army, 118,247. 
'Bai,dyyoi (Yoranghl) in Constantinople 

226, 262. 
Barb^Ue (mercenary cavalry of Italian ty- 

Barcoebba, Jewish leader, 11. 
Bardas I'hokis, 825. 
Barkok el Tafaer, the Mamluke sultan, 

Barons of Hungary, 814. 
Bao'iA.xic^y HeKperov, secret council, 862, 
Basillus t, emperor, 261, 266. 
Basilius IL, the Bnlgar Slaughterer, 198, 

824,668. o -«» » 

Basinua of Thuringia, 120. 
Basques (Cantabri), 267. 
Bathory family, 562. 
Battyan family, 662. 
Batu-Khan, the Mongol, 804^ 886, 562. 
Bavarian dynasties, 611, 627. 
Bartbolomeo Diaa, 686. 

Bayazid Ilderim, saltan, 569, 627, 629, 680. 

Bayazid IL, saltan, 627. 

Beatrix of Burgundy, 896, 408. 

Beatrix of Castile, 577. 

Beatrix of Hohenstaufen, 896. 

Beatrix of Provence, 818, 602. 

Beauchamps family, 433. 

Beaudricourt, Knight, 486. 

Beauforts family, 48a 

Beaumanolr, Counts of; 470. 

Beaamont f^tion in Navarra, 601. 

Beda, the Yenerable, 101, 284. 

Bedawlns (Saracens), 20a 

BehetHa in Castile, 689. 

Bela 11^ King of Hungary, 661 

Bola IV. of Hungary, 66& 

Belezitaa Bulgarians, 261^ 

Belisarius, 128, 184, 189. 

Belo-Chrovats, 192. 

Benedictine Order Iq the North, 282, 29& 

Beni-Alaftas of Badajoz, 834, 574. 

Benjamin of Tudela, 262. 

Berberi, 97, 888. 

Berengario, Marquis of Frinll, 251. 

Bereny; Magyar ihmily, 562. 

Beringer of Xandenbei^, 2^48. 

Bermado III., King of Le<m, 26a 

Bernard, King of Italy, 189. 

Bemhard of Anhalt, 586. 

Bemhard, Margrave of Baden, 688. 

Berthold lY. of Zahrlngen, 549. 

Bertrand da Gueeclin, Constable of Franco, 
470, 692. 

Bianea of Lancia, 896, 424. 

Bianchi (Whites) of Florence, 416, 420. 

Biarke-Maal (dirge of King RegnarX 196. 

Bjame Herulibon, 224 

Bibars I. Bendocdar. 844, 846, 864. 

BUain, or ser& in Wales, 482. 

Bjom Ironside, King of Sweden, 190, 222. 

Birger, King of Sweden, 801, 440. 

Birger Jarl, 226, 801. 

Birkebener (Bark-legs), Norwegian war- 
riors, 296. 

Black Agnes, Countess of March, 486. 

Black Cavalry of Bohemia, 572. 

Btack^mail levied in the Lowlands^ 286. 

Black Nuns of Saint Benedict, at Bethany, 

Black-rent in Ireland, 429. 

BlanT;he of Aragon, 601. 

Blanche of Bourbon, (^een of Castile, 591. 

Boccaccio, 606. 

Boccanera fiamily, 610. 

B&nder {tne landholders), 222, 292. 

Bqethins, senator, 180. 

BogomUeSy Bulgarian sectarians, 867, 566. 

Bohemund, Prince of Antioch, 286, 824, 
826, 827, 886, 846. 

Bohuns of Wales, 482. 

Bolan, Russian poet, 804 

Boil (Bojoarii) or Bavarians, 81. 

Boistlaf (StephenX Krai of Servla, 196. 

Boleslav Chobry, King of Pohmd, 250, 
809 812 *» o -11 

Boleslav IL of Poland, 8ia 
Boleslav IIL of Poland, 81& 
Bolefll«7 Y. of Poland, 460. 


^y ^ y f^iy T/t AT. 2BBSX* 

nnnHbH OtniMMl. <1ft 
BopiAuse of MontferrM, 961, 418. 
BoBifaoe YIIL, Pop«, 46^ <1& 
Boniface of Terona, the ItAHaa kidA% 9U. 
BoniftdoB. Manfr»T« of Tuseanv, BlL 
Sordtr Itnighffiood In SeoOuid Md Eng^ 

land, 286. 
Borkelarok, Bnltan, Z4A, 
BorrelL <V>iuit of Barcelona, S99^ 
BoniiBi (andeot FruMiaoaX 91. 1W» ttl» 

Boonlaks, S6S. 

Boeon, Kiqcof Boian^jv Ml 
BoUmlateaTByzantiaa gMml, Mw 
Boudcaut, Martbal o( 4T& 
Boorbon dynasty, 4M. 
Bonrbon-Montpenakr dynaalj* MU 
^l9ur^«9M0 of Franoe, tOflL 
.09io«r-rAdfM (ebamborliInX SM. 
Boyaida, SdavonlaB noMea. 9M^ 6CK. 

, Bonaton of NovfON^ Wl 

Braodo da Mratonaktba Oaii4ntttm^«M 

Brahmlna of Hindooataa, S79L 
^/wr (freemen) In W»lea, 489k 
Br^nin (king) of Wales, 48S. 
Brian Bora, Ardilacii of iraland, 9S8» 
Brttona, T8, KM, itfT 
Brittany, dynasty o< 604. 
Braces of deotlnid, S88, 287. 
Bracteri, Frankisb tribe, 80. 
BraneUeschi, AreUteet 411 
Brano, Archblsiiopof (Cologne, 248L 
Bryennina, Bysanttne geaeral, 829. 
Bkrg wmM t i t ir ^ 482. 
Bqla-BonpSbetaa, tke flaheTman «f Dtiam, 

Bngislaos X. oC PoiiMranla» 581 
Bold dynasty, 2n, 821 
BoiMccAA^ipiM, Greek anny nOsn, SH 
Balat-Zospon, tribe ef fhe PetdMBefe^ 264 
Bulgarians, 88, 148, 181 

«* Black, 181 

•* White (Wolochs), 101 

** Kaaiic,801 
Bnlgarianstn Unngaiy, 680. 
Bolnrian Odonles on Mount AflUBW, 281 
Bnlgaxo-Serrlan Trtbee, 661 
Bnondehnonti, Florentine nobles, 411 
Bordariota, BnlmrlaB tribe. 268. 
Bwrghe»9u of the towns, 880, 24T. 
Bongmidiana, 81, 118, 141 
Burgundy, younger dynasty ei; 481 
Borchard l>nke of Sooabia, 281 
Borefta 0ean), Master ef ArtiUery, 48T, 4ML 
Butlers of Tipperary, 481 
Bymmf (golden coinX 281, 860^ 


Cade (JohnX the Sebel^ 481 
Oaldora, the Oondottlei«» 614 
Ccaar Bwdaa, 271 
Caledonians (Scots), 101. 
Calmarian Union, m^ 481 
Galo-Johaiines Goiqimmm, emperor, 82B, 

CUoprinL FMBlly < fHL 
Oallxtnstl., Pope, 808. 
Ciampbella, Otan of the, 266, 481 
Campobaaso, Omnt, the traiCor, 801 
Oanftnwy, or Irish Chief; 100, 141, 218. 
Cantelmaa, French feudatorlea in Naples 

Oantabil, see Basanes. 
Canute, see Knnd^ Klngcf Denmark, tti^ 

Capetian dynaatv, 281 
Oaplstran,tlM Monk, 681 
Capihdoiria, Lavs of theOtetoili^li^ 

CJaracalla, Emperor. 8L 

Oarloman, King of Nenstria, 164 

CarlovlnglBn dynasty, 164 

Carlo Zeno, Admiral, 601 

Carlos de Yiwa, 586, 087, 601, 801 

CannagnoU (FraadsooX the CoBdoltki% 

Cairara, dynasty of Padna, 414 887. 
Canroiicio (banner chariotX401 
Gadmir lY., King of Polaibd, see 
Cassiodohis Senator, 127, 181 
CatMio Nw»w> at Naples, 614 
CastiUan State Offlcen, 688. 
QutraaUM^a of the Romvis, TL 
CJaatroi Family in Portugal, 684 

in CJastile, 600. 
OBstrnodo GaslraoaBi, Lord of Lucca, 418V 

420, 612. 
Catalan Freebooters, 824 856, 878, 684 

CotopofM, <3reek Ooveraen^ 208, 878!, 971« 

Catherina Coraara of ChrpruSk 851 
Catherine of Franeoi 461 
Catherine of Poland, 061 
CathMne de Yenddme, 488. 
Cattf (HessianaX 81 
Gauriflini, Banldng^JMweb 481 
OMwiiairac of FnrtnMirwi 
CamxIUirot ViOAes^Nk 
Cavalry combat ef DorjrlmmiH 887. 

Celts, 17. 

OMienarUt in Hungaiy, 814 
Cent-ffrM^ 11& 

Oeorls iCixxaViX ainkle Freepun, 280» 
Oerdle, the Saxon, 104 
ChaUl, Mamluke saltan, 861 
Chalons, House of; 506. 
Champ de Mow of the Franks, 111 
GhamaTi (Franks), 80. 
Chandos Family, 481 
Charatch^ Arabian poll-tax, 274 
CHARLaxAOirs, 61, 104 157, 188, 167—188^ 

Ofaarlee, of Ctomany, Son of Chariemagne^ 

Charles, the Bald, Emperor, 228, 241 
Charles le Bel, 469. 
Charles le G4n6nux, 601. 
Gharies le Groa, Emperor, 228, 201. 
Chariea Knudson, Administrator bf Swe> 

den, 481 
CSiaries IL, fhe Lame»cf Kaple^ 814 



OhtfleB Martd, Mayor DowOf, 16i^ 1Q6» 

190, 1»T. 
Charles Martel of Hansary, S6B. 
CbMles le Maavals of Sayfltm, 461, 601 
CSiarlflS the Simple, 246L 
Ch^irloe Robert, Kins of Hanfwy, 656» 663. 
Charles of Yftloit, 4^. 
Charles IV., Emperor, 246, 511, 606. 
Charles Y., Emperor, 454, fifla, 643^ 648. 
Charles Y., King of Franee, 494. 
Charles Yt, of France, 461 
Chariea YIL. of Fnme«|587. 
Charles YUt, King of France, 60& 
« haries. Count of Angoulfime, 494 
Charles I., of AaJoo, 81& 48&, 502, 614. 
Charles L, Margraye of Baden, 588^ 
Charles, Dako of Berrj, SOSi. 
Charles of Blois» 470. 
Charles de Bourbon, ConstaUe of Fiwaoe. 

Charles of Oil§aaa, 492, 494 
Charles, the Bash, of Borgiudy, 49S| 497, 

608,508,509. •#"--' 

Charibert L, King of Paris. 14& 
Charibert 11^ 145. 
Charsias, Byxantine general, 966. 
XmffTi9ri»i», Bjiantine stamp datle^ 96S. 
Chazam (OnzsariX 90, 198. 
Checks (GzechsXlsSw 
Cbiaramontesi in Sicily, 609L 
Child Eaters (Knmanian), 81Si 
Childebert L, 118. 14& 
Childebert JL, 145. 
Ghilderic, 114. 

Cmlperic L, King of SoSssons, 148. 
Chivah-oas Societies in Germany, 588, 5I0l 

ChkMlomfar, 118, 116, 14ft. 
Chlothaire L, 118, 14& 
Chlothairo IL, 14&. 154. 
ChlotildN, viib of Clovis, lia 
Chosroes L, 96» 194 
CUnotiaa L, of DenmAik, 806^ 4i0, 4M 
Christian 11.. the Tyrant, 488. 
Christian, Archbishop of Msim, 428. 
Christian Pilnlms, 80& 
i '111 istopher Columhna, 691. 
CHii istopher, DokA of Btaden, 85a 
Chi istopher of BMSria, 4881 
Chi istopher. Prince of Denmn^ MS. 
Chi istopher IIL, King of Deninaik, 8fa 
Clm>watB (CioatsX 10^, 187, 260, 5161 
(/hrysocheW, Panlidan OeneraL 266i 
Chndes iFinns), 89, 805, 442. 
Chimi (Kumana,} 81& 
Chnnnl (Hans), 89. 
Ciinmertans (Cimbrl), T7. 
Circassian Mamlake^ 258. 
Clan Donells of Connanght 46a 
Clara of Zaach, 56a 
Clares of Wales, 48a 
Claude of France, 494 
Clans Ton der Fliie, the Honnlt: 502 
Clement YI, Pope. 602, 548. 
Clementia of Hahsbnrg; 566. 
Cleopatra, Qneen of E^t, 88. 
Clermont?, French nobles in Naples, 614 
CliAird flunily in Westmoreland 481. 

disBon, ConotB oL 47a 

Clovls the Frank, 71, loa 

Colonnesi, Boman ikmUy, 6ia 

Oome9 OrimktU, 15. 

CofM9 PalaUniM {lykOMgntfS, 167. 

Omms StdbvU (Constable), 29a 

CJommines (Philip de), the historian, 826^ 

Common Ireemen in Hnngary, 814 

Communs^ of Franee, 80^. 

Comnenian dynastr, 27& 

Compagnits des OrdowuMneet, 50a 

ConHgUo di Credmea^ 404 

OondiHonarH of Hvnjnry, 814 

OondoMeH (Italian), So, 606, 609, 614 

Oonft-Ms or Paiisiaa Hans^, 454 

Confutable of Armenia, 849. 

(Conrad of Montferrat, 4ia 

Conrad, King of Borgiindy, 244 

Conrad, of Cologne, A4 

Conrad, I, of FMBooniat 247, 249,28a 

Conrad, IIL, of OennMiT, 88a 

Conrad, lY^ Emperor, M 

Conrad, Duke of Mazcma, 879. 

Conrad, Martfais of MfwUiernl, 864 

Oouad, Doke of Sooabia, 895. 

Ck>nradino of Hohenstaofen, 896, 428, ^ 

OouBtanea of An«on, 89S, 89a 

Constance of Hohenstaufen, 896, 59a 

Constance of Naples, 89a 

Constantliie Msnaflsest the historian, 867. 

Oonrtanttae the Great, 7. 

CkxnstantSne, Emperor, 826. 

Constantino the AlH^an, pvoftssor at B*> 

Constantinns YIL, PorphyvOMiuiitiu^ Em- 
peror, 258, 27a 

OHMMiiMcm of Coand n. 80a 

Conti, Boman fltmily, 6ia 

Copemicas the Astronomer, M$, 

{^MtTtfiprictorM In Poftngsl^ 07a 
Coctosofi "^ 

Nayarra. 601, 

Cosmo de* Medleii 6ia 
Cossacks of the Ikm, 461 
Cottlns, Khig of tile Ottilia, 9L 
CimiU PaUMns at Btmgary, 814 
Ommi /^MTf of ChampMme, 489. 
Com^d4tborifi9 to Palesttee, 84a 
Covrt cT Amour in Provence, 819. 
Coutosj Knights' ilelh, 67a 
Crawlbmifl, Hightand dan, 48a 
Oredmua dl BanV Ambrogio, 414 
Creodtt (Crldda) the heroj4a 
CrescentiuB, the Cranttl. 262. 
Crispo (Francesco), Dnae of Nazoa, 861. 
GaUpi, dynttty of the, 861, 68a 
Oosoof Babenbevg^ 649, 
Cro, the old Scottish eompenaatton Ibt 

manshuMthter, 28a 
Croats in flnngatfy, 660. 
O^la Inaer^ipSMM, 282, 46a 



OnMeea, Monki, 1(Ml 
Oumani, Bee KamanL 
Cvmrick (Irish Bafeenard), 4S9. 
Cnrefi, fishermeii In PrasBia, 8T9. 
Cut-ia^ CaBtitian ooart, ft89. 
Cyning (King), hereditarj among tAe An- 
glo-Saxons, 89.\ 
Cypriote wmnen, 360. 
Cyrus, tlie Persian King, 211, 82& 
CyriUns, Greek Missionary, \V^ 
Czar of all the Bussias, 456. 

Gzekbo-Slovaks, lOT, 25a 


Daci for Dani (DaneB), 107. 

Daco-Roman^ 561, 570. 

Dagobert L, King of the Franks, 145, 161 

Dai, or Mohammedan refttnner, 864 

DaU-al-Kebir, 864 

Dalecarlians, 488, 44a 

Dalle Caroert, dvnastj o^ 86L 

NiocoK Dnke of Kaxoa» 86L 

Dalriadst Gaello tribe, 884. 

Dan, 82. 

Vana-OeUf tribute of the Anglo-Sszons, 

Danbarys family, 488. 

Dandolo, Venetian family, 851, 869. 

Danebrog^ national banner of Denmark, 
292, 877. 

Danish (yrosaders, 827. 

Dano-German inyaders in Britain, 148. 

Dan Mykilati, 65. 

Danske, Daner (Danes), 85. 

Dante Alighleri, the great Florentine, 416, 
420, 6oa 

Dannbian Sclavi, 560. 

Darius Codomanoa, King of Persia, 210. 

David, I., King of Booaaiid, 286, 485. 

David, IL, Braoe, King of SootUnd, 485. 

David Comnenns of Trohlzond, 851, 874 

David, Grand Comneniu, last Emperor of 
Treblzond, 626. 

David, Count, of Hnntingdon, 486. 

David Stuart Duke of Kotiuay, 486. 

Decani^ in Hungary. 814 

Dfoms^ Thanee^ ebleft 162. 

Delendl, family of Bantorinl, 622. 

De rEtendard, French feudatories In Na- 
ples, 014 

Delia Scala, dynasty of Ycnma, 414, 607. 
' Delis Torre, dynasty of Milan, 60a 

Demetrius, Falaeologus, 625. 

Dengisb. son of Attlla, 109. 

Deodat de Goson, Kniffhtof Bhodcs, 628. 

Dermod McMorcbad, King of Lelnster, 288. 

Desiderius, King of the Lombards, 155. 

Despots of the Morea, 858. 
of Epirus, 860. 

DeutacTies Jiaus (convent of the Teutonic 
KnightR), at Jerusalem, 889, at Marien- 
bnig (Prussia), 882. 

Deutach meister. Grandmaster <^the Teu- 
tonic Order, 468. 

DeuUchritUr (Koljrhtfi of Saint Mary), 

Derorgfld, of Galloway, 48S. 
Diamy^the Persian poet, 277. 
Diego, Duke of Viaeu, 579. 
I>)eteh-ed-Din, Khowaresraian Prince 276^ 


Diezman of Thfiringla, 895, 519. 

Dilemid (Ziad), dynasty, 277. 

Dimitri IV., Dow^coi^ 466. 

Dlnlz, King of Portugal, 577, 578. 

Dinner, in Poland, 818. 

DiaoTheagn (Seneschal), 290. 

Disdain or oeurt-offlcers in Wales, 482. 

Dismemberment of the Arabian Empire, 

Dismemberment of the Garlovingian Em- 
pire, 228. 

Ditmar of Meroebnrg, 226. 

Dogta (Dukes) of Venice, 272. 

Dokak, the Ort^kid, 880. 

Dolce, heiress of Provence, 818. 

Dombrowka, Bohemian princess, 250. 

Donatl, Florentine nobles, 416. 

DootMday Book, 256, 291, 87a 

Doris, family, 6ia 

Douglasses of Liddesdale, 4B5. 

Dragcn-^ihip*, of the Northmen, 291, 29S. 

Dra^Dsh, Drakul, Prince of Moldavia. 57a 

UpoKovrtto^poL, Byzantine ensigns, 262. 

Drengs (shield boys) on the Welsh bor- 
ders, 29a 

Drogo of Hauteville, 821, 28a 

£^pofi6ytSf Byzantine galleys, 262. 

Drost, Marshal of Sweden, 801. * 

Drottar, Swedish Chlefh, 190. 

Apovyy^toiy Byzantine staff officers, 262. 

Druses, Heretical sect on Mount Lebanon, 

Drusns (Claudius), Roman general, 76^ 

Dshaubar, the ftnatie reibrmer, 884 

Dschem (ZizimX Turkish prince 627. 

Dshingis-Khan, the Mongol conqueror, 276* 

Duarte L of Portugal, 579. 

Ducal Court at Athens, 856. 

Dttoss (Soman Dukesl 6. 

Duces Limttis (Border Counts), 17a 

DucM Pairis (Dncal Peerage), 499. 

Dunols the BastBrd,490. 

Dutch Colonies in Hungary, 661. 

Dw VmuU4BetDalmaU4»,Vl2. 

Eadrio the Traitor, 289. 

Eadmnnd Ironside, the Sftzon, 289. 

JSaldormeny 221, 290. 

JSarls, 221. 

Eberhard, Duke of Franconla, 249. 

Eberhard, Count of Wfirtemberg, 628, 644 

Ebn-Tnee, Arab astronomer, 28a 

Ecoelino of Bomano, 414 

.Edda, Icelandic Poems, 85^ 

Edgar, King of England, 290. 

Edgar ^theling, the Saxon, 28a 

Edmund Baliol, the Pretender, 48& 

Edward Bmoe, 288, 48a 



Edward the Confessor, 291, 292, 298, 4H. 
Edward I., King of England, 485. 
Edward II. of England, 28a 
Edward IIL of England, 482, 461. 
Edwftrd of Wales, the Black Prince, 464, 

4T2, 592. 
Edward IV. of York, 484. 
Edris-Ben-Edris, 214. 
Edrtssid dvnasty, 19S, 214. 
Egbert, King of England, 221. 
Eginhard, 156, 191. 

Eistha (Esthonians), a Finnic Tribe, 91, 806c 
JSt-Campeador. See El-Cid. 
El-Canes, Turkish Emir, 82T. 
M-Cid (Dim Eodrigo do Bivar), 816, 820, 

Eleanor of CasUle, Queen of Aragon, 69& 
Eleanor, Queen of England, 886. 
Eleanor of Poix, 601. 
Eleanor of Poiton, 482. 
Eleutheri, in Cyprus, 850. 
Elizabeth of Bavaria. 895, 424 
Elisabeth of Bosnia, 555. 
Elisabeth of Hungary, 558. 
Elizabeth of Luxenibttrg-Q6rl|tz, 497. 
Ella, King of Northumberland, 190. ' 
Ellac, son of Attila, 109a* 
Emah-ed-Din-Zenghl, 880. 
Emed-ed-Daula, the Buid, 274. 
Eniir-al-Mumenim^ 274 
Emir-el-Monlemin in Morocco, 884. 
Emir-al-Onifa\ 274. 
Empedocles, Byzantine general, 259. 
English MUaUmaHea, 282. 
Enriqueces, family in Castile, 690. 
Enrico Dandolo, uog/a of Venice, 861 
Enzius, King of Sardinia, 895^ 410. 
Era of Bemval^ 426. 
Eric Plong]^nning,King of Denmark, 294, 

Eric of Pomorania, 488, 489. 

Eric Ihe Eed, the discoverer of America, 

Eric, Prince of Sweden, 440. 
Eric XIV. King of Sweden, 464. 
Erichtonians or Lorraine, 896. 
Erdtidy family, 562. 
Ernest Iron-heart, 528. 
Ernestine' dynasty of Saxony, 618. 
Ertoghrul, the Tartar, 627. 
Erwin Stcinbach, the Architect, 589. 
EseudeiroB-Fidalgoa, 578. 
Escutcheon of Portugal, 577. 
Este dynasty of Perrara, 414 606, 611. 
fistyi (Esthonians), 91, 805. 
TStats ginefaitx in France, 426. 
Eugene III., Pope, 405. 
Engenius, the Maglster Offldomm, 52. 
Evuovxoi TrptaTo^dXrcUy (choristersX 262, 
Euric, King of the Visigoths, 128. 
Eaetacbe Saint-Pierre of Calais, 474. 
Eustache, the Crusader, brother of God- 
frey of Bouillon, 827. 
Eyubid dynasty, 828. 
Ezeritffi, Sclavonian tribe in the Morea, 190, 


Padrique II. of Trinacria, 699, 620. 
Padrique III. of Trinacria, 599, 620. 
Fadrique of Kandazzo, titular duke of 

Athens, 620. 
Padrique, Grand Master of Calatrava, 691. 
Fmardos, family in Mnrcia, 690. 
Palone& See KumanL 
Falstaff (Sir John), 479. 
Eanaticism of the Assassins, 864. 
Farinata degli Uberti. 416. 
Fatlmld dynasty, 259, 280. 
Pebrer the Poet, 596. 
Fedames, initiated Assassins. 864. 
Eehm-Gerichte^ Free Courts in West- 
phalia, 648. 
Feir-Emir, the armorer of Antiocb, 8^ 
Pelician of Zaach, 662. 
Fellahs of Egypt, 865. 
Fcrdnsi, the Persian poet, 276. 
Fergus, King of the Scots, 101. 
Fernando I- King of Castile, 265, 8161 
Fernando IL, King of Castile, 817. 
Fernando IIL, el Santo, King of Castilo 

and Leon, 816, 687, 691. 
Fernando II. of Leon, 816. 
Fernando V. el Catolico of Aragon, 8ia 
Fernando, Count of Castile, 255. 
Fernando, o Principe Constaate, 588. 
Perguesons, clan of the, 286. 
Feudal System in 

Aragon, 255, 819, 696, 696. 

Armenia, 849. 

Castilo, 589, 590, 695, 

Denmark, 29i. 

England, 291. 

Prance, 118, 167, 28a 

Germany, 248. 

Greece, 855, 866. 

Hungary, 814, 

Italy, 252. 

Palestine, 248. 

Portugal, 578. 

Scotiand, 884 

Sweden, 801. 
Feudum (Fob Odel), 118. 
Fieschi family, 610. 
Pinnaith (PinnsX 86, 802. 
Finnid tribes, 89, 226, 801, 802, 306. 

superstitions, 801. 
Fitzgeralds in Kildare, 480. 
Pltz-Stephens of Cork, 480, 
Flavins, Constantlns Florua, 78. 
Flemish Crusaders, 887. 
Fiorina of Burgundy, 827. 
Florins, gold coin of Florence, 416. 
Poederati, Gothic mercenaries, see Waragtu 

Fogsd, chief Judge, 437. 
Folgolh'- ~^^- - - 

joth (royid retinue), 290. 
Folkunear, dynasty of, 225, 489. 
Pools' Fraternity in Cleves,581. 
Foral, court-house, 578. 
Foraes (or rights) of Portuguese cities, 578. 
Fosaados, military expeditions, 57a 
Francesco Sforzat Duke of Milan, 414 ^ 

"l^apxos (Greek viceroy of Italy), 158. Prancis L, King of Franco, 494 

l&xton (Sir Piers), the King's murderer, 484 Prands Coronello, Governor of Kaxoa, 62& 



HmoucAL naaoL 

Fiaodi FhodMiB of Btem, King of Stem- 

FmudlMuii (OioraiuiiX Coont, tbe betzayer 

Frank AoemaoU, Dako of Aibata, tSO, 


FratTM MiUtta IbmpU (KiO^ts Tom- 

Fraxen, Clan of tbe, 886L 
Frederic of Anqwch, ^4 
Frederic Barboioan, emperor, 849, 89S, 

Frederic the Bttten, 80S, 519. 
Frederic of Bmen, 810, 896. 
Frederic lU emperor, 888, 889, 894^ 895, 

Frederic tbe Handaome, 688. 
Frederic, Goont of HohenaAeni, 517. 
Frederic IIL, emperor, 495. 
Frederic tbe Mild, 51& 
Frederic iV., Baigravo of N&mberg, 541. 
Frederic V., elector-palatise, 60OL 
Frederic, Duke of Bonabia, 89Su 
Frederic tbe Warlike, 6ia 
Frederic VIL, King of Denmark, S98L 
Fredesenda of lUateTille, 82L 
^/*M Commwiet of France, 807, 426. 
Freia, the Scandinavian goddefl^ 82. 
French Chivalry in Greece, 856, 856, 85a 
Fricga, BcandlnaTian goddeae, 82. 
FriQTuen (chnriaX single freemen, 290. 
FrlBlana (Frisii), 80, 1&. 
FrithbotA, 221. 

Frode, tho Norwegian rover, 219. 
Froissard, tlie chronicler, 826. 
FrottaOUnff, Code of Trondhiem, 297. 
Fjonboer, 298. 

Q«i«|iip4%n^ SMBdiing^^ 

Oabrielll Aynaslty of GnbUo, 618. 

Gelic (Celtic) Scots, 101, 219. 

Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of MUan, 609. 

Gallo-Bomans (Aqnitanlans), 164. 

Garciaa VI,, Ramirex of Navarra, 818, 601. 

Garcias tho ambassador, 600. 

Gardas Arista, first King of Navarra, 267. 

Oordar the Dane, 224 

Oardingi, Visigoth body-gnards, 126. 

6ra«toZ</i (Castellans), 152. 

Gaston IV., Count of Foix, 480. 

Gatelnsii, lords of Lesbos, 622. 

Oau-Grafen, 280, 247. 

Ganltier-Sans- Avoir, 808. 

Gau- Ver/a$9ung, Constitution of the Oai- 

lovingian territories, 170, 280, 247. 
Gavala, Genoese family of, 862. 
Oaveston, the minion, 484 
Gaya Ciema of the Tronbadonrs, 819. 
Gehurs (Anglo-Saxon peasantry), 290. 
Gem dPArmea of France, 608. 
George Podiobrad of Bohemia, 614 
Oeisa, King <.f Ilnngary, 258, 661. 
Golimcr tho Vandal, 140. 

GeoMrie tbe Vai 

6eoA«y de VDlehazdoin, Prince of Achala, 

6«olbey IL, Prince of Achaia, 858. 
George Gastriota, Princo of Albania, 61S; 

624, 68Sk 
Geone of Servia, 569. 
Geplde. Gotirie nation, 75, 80, 109, 13S. 
Genid ofKlldare, 429. 
Gerardo Giraldea, 577. 
Gerhard of Mainz, 404 
Gerfaaid (GeertX Count of Hcdatein, 878^ 

Gerhard, Coimt of BendsbnrK, 444 
Gennan ooioniea in Pmasia, 819. 

in Hungary, 881, 565, 561 
German Franks (AnatradansX 154, 247. 
Germanlcos Caesar, 75. 
Geriande of SuppUngenburg, 89& 
Gesalic, son of Alaric II., 124 
OeapannndMjtei^ or Couatiea of Hang»- 

ry, 258, 667. 
Ghasnavid dynasty, 276, 826 
Ghassanids of Edom, 20a 
Ghedymin, Grand Duke of Uttmanla, 884 
Gheldrian line of Nassau, 587. 
Gherardeschi dynasty in Tuecana, 41& 
Ghibellines. 897. 
Ghisl, fiunUy of the, 859, 8n. 
Ghorid dynasty, 276, 826l 
&A«^to<, Mohammedan sectarians, 27a 
Giaoomo IV. Grispo, Duke of Naxos, 622. 
Gian Galeazzo ViscontI, Duke of Mihm, 

Glazi-Ch<n)on, Fetchene^an tribe, 254 

Oicken, banditti of Lahore, 275. 

Gilbert, Connt of Provence, 8ia 

G*mUs, light cavahy in Castile, 699. 

Giovanna L, Qaeen of Naples, 665, 614 61SL 

Glovanna IL, Queen of Naples, 614 615. 

Ginddi family on Naxos, 622. 

Giovanni Gnalberto, 420. 

Giovanni V., Crispo, Duke of Naxos, 622. 

Ginstiniani, fiunily of the, 859, 610, 622. 

Godar^ heathen priests in Denmark, 29a 

Godfred, King of Jutland, 190. 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 808, 810, 814, 827, 885. 

Godfrey of Hauteville, 821. 

Golden BvU of Charies IV., 6ia 

Golden BuU of Andreas II., 665. 

Golden Hoide of Kaptchak, 885. 465. 

Gomez (Don), founder of the Order of Al- 
cantara, 817. 

Gondemar, King of Bunrun^dy, 119. 

GonfiOonUri, 410. 

Gontran, King of Orleans, 146, 148. 

Gonsalez Zarco, 686. 

Gonzaga dynasty of Mantua, 414, 611. 

Gordons, clan or the, 286. 

Gorm the Old, King of united Denmark. 
190, 222, 292. 

Gorm, Prince of Denmark, 226^ 

GoeU, Russian official 226. 

Gothi TetraxibB, in Crimea, 92. 

Gottschalk, the crusading Priest, 814 

G(>tt8chalk, the Vendic chief, 29& 



Ckvnnifty, tho King's 8lav«r, 484 

Grajkn (OoaDt8),?9, 118» 280, 247. 

6raham (Sir Robert! the regicide, 480. 

w^an cort^ high tribunal at Naples, 614 

Grand Comneniaa dynasty of Trebizond, 
868, 874, 626. 

Grand Company of Sluggards {\ea Tard- 
venns), 469. 

Grand Oompany of the Catalans and Al- 
xnogavars in Greece, 8&5, 694 620,682. 

Oraiuiqfourg in Lorraine, 529. 

Grants, clan of the, 286. 

Oraa-Gaaa (Gray goose) the Code of Ice- 
land, 29a 

Granos, Soman governor in Oftnl, 171. 

Gnys of Wales, 482. 

Grays rf Wexford; 480. 

Great Chant of the Magyars, 258. 

Great Ifeudatories in France, 468. 

Great Zupcme of Servia, 86& 

Gregory, Archbishop of Tours, 890. 

Gregory VII., the great Pope, 252, 809. 

Griffith, Prince of Wales, 292. 

Griinaldl family, 610, 622. 

Grimoaldns, Duke of Beneventiun, 186L 

Guelfo of Tuscany, 896. 

Goelfo of Bate, 896. 

Guelfo lY. Dake of Bavaria, 896. 

Goelfi, 896. 897, 407. 

Gaesues, (Bed Albanians), 624 

Gaelfic Confederacy, of Tuscany, 415. 

Gaida da Montefeltro, 410. 

Gnidt, Counts in the Casentino, 415, 416. 

Guildi in Denmark, 292, 295. 
in England, 290, 291. 
In Norway, 296. 

Guillen de Vinatea, 596u 

Guimar, Prince of Salerno, 821. 

Gnizot the historian, 807. 

GiUathing^ Code of Bergen, 297. 

Gundus-Alp, the Turk, 627. 

Gunhilde, Princess of Dennuurk, 289: 

Guntoghdi the Turk, 627. 

Gostavus Yasa, King of Sweden, 488. 

Guthrum the Dane, 221. 

Gypelea in Hungary, 561. 

Guy de ChattUon, 494 

Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, 848. 

Guy rGuldo) of Lusignan. 888, 84a 

Guy de la Koche, Duke of Athens, 855. 

Guy IL of Athens, 856i 

Guy de Penthidvre, 470. 

Guzmanes, flEunily in Spain, 5, 90. 

Gyla, Petchenegue tribe, 254 

Habsburg dynasty, 628. 
Hadji Geray of the Crimea. 63a 
Hadrian, emperor, 71, 78, 76. 
//ojwera, royal officers in Norway, 296. 
HafiUs^ Mohammedan students, 688. 
Haflz, the Persian poet, 277. 
Hagareans (Ismaelites), 200. 
Haireddin Barbarossa the Pirate, 622, 64a 
Hakim Beamrillah the Fatlmid Caliph, 280, 

I Hakon ibe Good, King of NorwAy, Saa. 
I Hakon Jarl of Norway, 22a 

Hakon lY., King of Norway, 296, 487. 

Hakon YIL, King of Norway, 29a 

Halfdan Swarte the Norwegian King, 228. 

Hamadaoid dynasty, 27a 

Hammadid dynasty, 888. 

BandeU>a Lov, Code of Sontli Wester 
Norway, 297. 

Hannacka, Mararo-SclaTonian tribe, 516. 

Hannibal the Carthaginian, 61. 

Hanno, Archbishop of Colocnet 810. 

Hans, Kine of Denmark, 4^. 

HanseaticConfederacy, 804, 878, 408, 54Bw 

Harald Blaatand of Denmark, 222, 292. 

Harold Godwinson the Saxon, 291, 293 

Harald Haardraade of Norway, 291. 

Harald Haarftger, King of Norway, 190 

Harald Hildetrand, King of Denmark, 190. 
Harald Harefod of England, 292. 
Harald Klak, King of Jutland, 222. 
Harclay (Sir Andrew), 434 
Haro^ family of Yiscaya, 690. 
Haronn-ar-Baschid, 198, 21S, 274 
Hashem IL Caliph of Cordova, 265. 
Hashem lY., Ommyiad, Caliph of Cordova, 

Hashish (intoxicating beverage), 864 

Hassan the son of AH, 279. 

Hassan Ben Sahab, the Assassin Prophet, 

Hassan-Ben-Buiah, the warrior, 277. 
Hassan-Ben-el-Tcrath, the Arab chiefl 259. 
Hassan the Zeirid, 83a 
Hastings, fiunily in England, 4da 
Hastings in Ireland, 480. 
Hatsheshim. See Assassins. 
ffaua-Oamthure (Priors), 8S0. 
jERn<ldcour of Jerusalem, 84a 
Hawkwood, English Condottiere, 60a 
Hay, family o^ 287. 
Haydukes in Hungary, 560, 56a 
H^ervar fiunily, o6a 
Hedevig, Queen of Poland and Lithuania,, 

Bied^ra (flight), of Mohammed, 201. 
Sleerban (fenoal army) of Germany, 247, 

of Charlemagne, 167. 

of the seven banners, 252. 
Beermeisierotthe Knights Swordbearers, 

Beime-JSTringla, or chronido of tho Norse 

kings. 219, 296. 
ffeld»fUyuoh-(Book. of Heroes), 77. 
Hellenes, 269. 
Heloisa, 892. 

Helvetian Confederacy, 64a 
Henrique IL of Castile, 6S7. 
Henrique, Count of Portugal, 574 
Henrique, King of Portugal, 679. 
Henrique tho Navigator, 682. 
Heniy I., the Fowler, 222, 247, 249. 
Henry L of England, 291. 
Henry I., King of France, 806. 
Henry L, King of Navarra, 601. 
Henr^ IL of Plantagenet, 886. 



Hemy IL, flmperor, 244 

HeiiTy IL of Lnsignaii, King of Cypnia, 

Heuy IIL, King of England, 491 

Henry IV^ emperor, KW^SO©. 

Hennr IT. of Lancaster, King of England, 


Henry V^ nf England, 468. 

Henry V^ emperor, 8u9. 

Henry VL of Germany, 895. 

Henry YL of Lancaster, 434. 

Henry Vll., Tndor, 488, 484. 

H^uT VIL of Loxembnrg, emperor, 4KI1, 

Henry the Great of Bnrgondy, 989. 

Henry of Besancon, Gonnt of Portngal, 818. 

Henry the Black, Duke of Bavaria, 898. 

Henry Bandolo, doge, 851. 

Henry of Hobenstanfen, 890. 

Henry, Count of Holstein, 444. 

Henry Percy, the Hotepur, 484 

Henry the Lion, 87T, 898. 

Henry the l>roud, 898. 

Henry, Prince of Scotland, 48& 

Henry Sinclair, Count of Oaittmesfl, 48T. 

Henry, King of Slavia, 298. 

Henry of Trastamara, 687, 689, 692. 

Hephtalites (White Hnns), 89. 

Heracliofl) emperor, 194 

I/gretofft lUriog, duke, 79, 187, 290. 

Hergler, noble Swede, 222. 

Herfbert, ArchMshop of Milaa, 406. 

Hermanftied, 120. 

Herman (Armlnlns), the Gorman Hero, 

Herman von Balk, Knight of the Teutonic 

Order, 879. 
Herman Gessler of Bnineek, 648, 662. 
Herman von Salza, Grand Master, 879. 
Hermanric the Goth, 90. 
Hermit of Ourlqae, 677. 
Hermandnrl, 81. 
Herod the Groat, 11. 
Uerredag4 (national diets in Denmark), 

Hemif Hydefad, the rebel chief, 448. 

Heruli, 81, 90, 127, 188. 

Hestii (Estyi, Estbonlans), a Finnic tribe; 

Hhaddesi, Sedentary Arabs, 900. 
Hidalsus (h^ofl de algo, Aragonese nobles), 

see Infanzonea, 696, 697. 
Highlanders of Scotland, 287. 
Himjarids In Arabia Felix, 200. 
lliongnu (Unns), S9. 
ilirdmand (royal court of&cers), 292, 

ffirdakraa, Norwegian Code, 297. 
l/oiih-DeutschsSpracfie^ (High German), 

Hohenloho, bouso of, 899. 
Hohenstaufen, dynasty of, 810. 
Hohenzollcrn, house of, 899, 641. 
Homeirids in Yemen, 200. 
Homes, border clan, 486. 
Honorius III., pope, 896. 
HoiirM, knights' tenures* 678. 
Uwiwks, Sclavonian tribe, 618. 

Horda-Knud of En^and, 28& 
B&rdere (royal treasnrerX 890l 
Homed Bretherhood of Heese, 64a 
Horn the Jute, 82. 
ffcr§6 Armor of the Saraoens, 82&. 
Hone-Thegn (Marshal), 290. 
Horvaths (Oroats), tn Hungary, 690. 
HMpitea Teutonici in Tnmsylvania, 68L 
Bo^l^Ual of Saint J<4m the Aimoner, at 

Jemsaleno^ 839. 
Hospitallers (^dgbtsV 839, 858, 862. 
Ho^K)dars of ^ePrindpaiities, 670. 
Hoascin, the M<diammedan Martyr, 207, 

Bdusekold IVoops of WlHiam the Con- 

quOTor, 291. 
Howards funily, 483. 
Howards of Caterlagh, 4da 
Hugh de Brienne, Lord of Ooltena, 85 a 
H^ C^t, King <tf France, 228, 280, 282, 

Hugh 0*BeiIly, 429. 

Hugh of Yermandois, 808. 

Hnhigu, the Mongol, 207, 274* 884* 687. 

Bulana of Poland, 44a 

Humbert IIL of Savoy, 4ia 

Humfrey de Hauteville, 82t 

Hungarians (XJgriX 93, 268, 814, 665, 660. 

Hunns, 89, 108, 149, 886, 686. 

Hnnold, DuJce of Aqultania, 188. 

Hnnyadi dynasty, 682. 

Hurtado de Mendoza, the historian, 804 

Hnas (John), the reforms, 6I4 615, 644 

Husaara in Hungary, 67a 

Hussein the Ghorid, 276. 

Hussites of Bohemia, 614 

Huu9-Karle, Begular Army of King Ga- 
nutei289. . 

HtMis^T%ing (municipal assembly In Lon- 
don), 291. 

Hyrcanians, 277. 

Iberian tribes on Mount Cauoosds, 185l 

/eelaitdic Sagas^ 22a 

Ibn Bosbd, the Arab Philosopher, 384 

Ibrahim-Ebn-Aglab, 213 

Ida, the Firebrand, 143. 


IlUkbar-«d-DauTah, Commander of Jera« 

salem, 832, 836. 
Ignez de Castro, 680, 681. 
Ignez Pires, 684 

Igor the Brave, Prince of Seversky, 804 
*IicavciTo<, Palatine troops of Byzantium, 
^ 286. 
*IK^X^ Byzantino oommandera'of the 

cavahy, 26a 
II Chans of Persia, 637. 
Ildobrandeschl dynasty in Tuscany, 415. 
Image Worshippers, and 
Image Breakers, in the Byzantine Empire, 

Imam of the Assassins, 864 
Imilda de' Lamberiazzi, 4ia 
Indo-Germanic race, 77. 



Indole King of the Soots, 220, 
It^nct^ of Portugal, 678. 
I^/ilTUlone8. Hidalgos iu Aragon, 695. 
Ingolf the Norwe^um, 224 
Ingulf King of Scotland, 292. 
Innocent III., pop& 86e, 8T7, 421. 
Irene, Empress of Constantinople, 896. 
Irneriiis, law doctor of Bologna, 410. 
Iron Henry, Count Hoistein, 878. 
Isaak AngelQS^ emperor, 861. 
Isaak Comnenas of Cvpms, 850. 
Isabel, Queen of Castile, 818, 602. 
Isabel of England, 896, 484^ 
Isabel of France, 471. 
Isabel of Huntingdon, 486i 
Isabel of Lorraine, 608. 
Isabella, Princess of Achaia, 856, 621. 
Isabella Borneo, 486. 
Ismael, the Samanid, 275, 
Ismael-Ebn-Djafer, tbe Arabian Psendo 

Prophet, 279. 
Ismael Sophi, the Persian ftnatic, 681. 
Ismailiyeh (Imaelites) see Aasaiwinfs 279, 

Isoun-Hassan tbe Turkoman chief^ 081. 
Ivan L,Kalita, 442, 467. 
Ivan Wasi^ewitch IL. 464, 688. 
Ivan UL, tbe Great, 466. 
Iveta, abbess, 840. 


Jacob of Motz, 404. 

Jacobites, 845. 

Jacobus de Porta Bavennate, 410. 

Jacqueline of Hainaut, 497. 

Jacqtterie of France, 807, 484. 

Jacques d'Aro, 486. 

Jacques van Artevelde, 467. 

Jacques de Bourbon, Count of La Marefao, 

Jacques de Bourbon, ConnStable, 469. 
Jacques IL, Count ofLa Marcl)e,49ft. 
Jagetlon, Duke of Lithuania, 888; 884. 
Jagellon djrnashr, 446. 
James, Duke of Baden, 688. 
James, Count of La Marche, 4Sa 
James L, Stuart, King of Scotland, 485. 
James IL, StuArt, King of Scotland, 485, 

James III., Stuart, King of Scotland, 800. 

James IV., Stuart, King of Scotland, 485. 

James V., Stuart, King of Scotland, 486. 

Jane of France, 461, 601. 

Janissaries, 627, 680. 

Jansen (Charles), abbot of Thingore Mo- 

nasterv, 296. 
Jarler tEnrla), 422, 2^S, 232, 290. 
Jayme L, K imr of Aragon, 112^1, B9?i, 699. 
Jajrme L, \\\n'^ or Mfljiirtjv 5l>a 
Jayme II., Kii]i: of Mxyrjftii, 4fifl, MS. 
Jayme II , Kin;; oi' AMit^-Ju aud f^icily, 699. 
Jayme E< 'J u-, ttui Trou baaour, 596. 
Jayme, Bi -tut uf Sicllv, C2<>, 
Jean d' AlLr^.^t, King tit Navanta. 601. 
Jean, Dul;.- Nf Kmbftnt, 407. 
Jean de In Mjirpln\ 4(W. 
Jean Thi<iJ^ry, Atdu^ub of Namur, 406L 

Jeanne of France, 461, 601. 

Jerome of Prague, 61^ 544 

Jews, Arabic mint-masters, 274 

Jews in Hungary, 661. 

Jews in Poland, 447. 

Joachim Ernst, Prince of Anhalt, 686L 

Joan of Arc, 479,484 

Joan of Bar, 488. 

Joan of Montfort, 470. 

Joan L, Queen of Naples, 602. 

Joan, the Papess, 262. 

Joan of Penthievre, 470. 

Joan of Somerset, Queen of Scotland, 48& 

Joao L, of Portugal, 679. 

Joao IL, of Portugal, 679. 

Joao lit, of Portu^, 679. 

Johanitza, King of Bulgaria, 668. 

Johannes L, Grand Comnenus, 874 

John Michez, the Jew, Prince of Naso& 

John Tzlmisces, emperor, 261, 824 
John L, Albert, King of Poland, 446. 
John Sansterre, King of England, 886, 484 
John IL, le Bon, King of France, 888, 464 
John IL, King of Bohemia, 465. 
John XIL, pope, 25L 
John XXII., pope, 610, 600. 
John, Count of Angoulemo. 494 
John Baliol of Gdloway, 482. 
John Baliol the Pretender, 485. 
John the Bold, first Duke of Burgundy, 

John "lIL, Duke of Brittany. 470. 

John the Fearless, of Bnrgundy, 494, 496. 

John IL, Duke of Calabria, 608. 

John Comyn of Badenocb, 485. 

John Dukas, Despot of Great Wallaohla, 

John Hunyad of Hungary, 6^. 
John, Duke of J&lich-Cidvee-BerK, 622i 
John of Katavas, Begent of Achau^ 62L 
John L, Duke of Lorrahie, 529. 
John McDougall of Lorn, 486. 
John of Monteith, the traitor, 486. 
John I v., of Montibrt, 470. 
Jolm L, Prince of Nassau, 687. 
John, CJonnt Palatine, 62L 
Jobn, lord of Passava, 868. 
John, Count of Penthidvre, 470. 
John de la Roche, Duke of Athens, 855. 
John of Sonabia, the Parricide, 662. 
John of Trocznow, 614 
John Dukas Yatatzes, Emperor of NicM, 

JoinviUe &mily, 486. 

in Naples, 614 
Jolante of Jerusalem, 895. 
Joma Vikinffers, 228, 296. 
Jongleurtt at Athens, 866. 
Jorkel Knudson, Marshal of Sweden, 442. 
Jornandes, the historian, 86, 89, 102. 
Joscelyn, Count of Coartenay, 847. 
Juan Perez de Bobledo, 691. 
Juan IL, King of Castile, 581, 587, 60t 
Juanna of Navarra, 601. 
Judith of Bavaria, 895. 
Judith, Queen of tbo Franks, 228. 
Juice* Otdenheiros^ 678. 



jQllftn fhe Apostate, 70, TL 

Jallan, Cotmu tbe Visigoth, 214 

Jalios Agriooia, 78. 

Julias CiBsar, 78, 240. 

JtuUdar of Aragon, 69A. 

Justiniitn I^ emperor, 85, 187, 189, 140, 

Jnstinos L, emperor, 85. 
Josuf-Emir, General, governor of Anda* 

los. 215. 
JydOce Lov (Code of Jutland), 292. 

Eabas-Sbemsil-al-Mali, the Dilemid sove- 
reign, 277. 
Eabvles, 97, 140, 646. 
Kadiars (Usbecks) on tbe Caspian, 198. 
Katssanie, Mohammedan sectarians, 279. 
Kallinikoa, Byzantine engineer, 262. 
Kalmanv (ColomonX King of Hungary, 

KfJo-Johannes, emperor, 258. 
Kalo-Jobannes, Grand Comnenos of Tre- 

bizond, 62& 
Eamic Bnlgarians, 802, 460. 
Xanffera, nobles among the Petcheneges^ 

Kanisa fiunily, 562. 
Kavyue6vt Byzantine house-tax, 262. 

Kara-Eoinlo, Black Horde of Tnrkomans, 

Earamathian Heretics, 274. 

Eara-Yoalonk-Khan, the Turkoman chidl 

Karelians, 442. 

Kapr(ipuiSfs (ennnchsX 262. 

Easachi, Turkish tribe, 226. 

Easim-Bel, Eaxamanian Prince, 680. 

Easimir the Great, 446, 562. 

Easimir IV. of Poland, 888, 446. 

Eathars (Eetzer), 565. 

JiTcuoiefea, Moorish police, 215. 

Eegen, Chan of the Petchen^e^ 254. 

Eelabid dynasty, 278. 

Eelawan, Mamlnke Saltan, 845, 865. 

Eenneth XL, Eing of United Scotland, 284 

Eenric, son of Cerdic, 104. 

Eers, Border clan, 486. 

Eettler (Gottbard), first Dnkeof Conrland, 

Key-Mldiers of Saint Peter, 821. 

Ehaled, Sword of God, 202. 

Ehowaresmians, 888. "" 

Ehowaresmid dynastv, 276, 826. 

KiekawuB (Mirror of Eings) of the DUe- 
mlds, 277. 

Eili<\j-AT8lan, Saltan of Kam, 824, 827. 

KXtifTOVpdpxctty Byzantine border ward- 
ens, 268 

Kmetons, Polish peasantry, 250. 

JCtUBsea (nobles among the Sdavonians), 

Knaves (sqaires) with military tenure, 290. 

Knights of Avie, 579. 

Knights of t^e Golden rieeee, 49& 

KiUghU nf ihA Bbr M 'Co m b, 681. 
KnighU RospUallera, 889, 841, 842, 848^ 

850, 888, 561, 562, 579, 618, 628. 
KnighU Y Saint Mary, 877, 879, 883, 64S» 

Knights of Sis Red SUenes in Hasria, 54a 
KnijjhtsqfiheRoss^wreath in Cloves, 631. 
Knights Sworditearers in Livonia, 877, 

879, 880, 884. 
Knights Templars, 258, 889, 840, 841, 842. 

848, 850, 8^ 54a 
Knights </ the Tkimips in Hessen, 540. 
Knights of the Wing, (^ Saint MichaO, 

Enad the Great, 221, 282, 289, 291, 292. 
Enad IV. (Saint Canute), Eing of Den- 
mark, 298. 
Enad Y., Eing of Denmark, 292. 
Enud Lavard (Lord), first Duke of South 

Jutland, 292. 
Koentg,Konge, Eing, 79, 167. 
Eolokotronis (Theodore) of Earitena, 85a 
Eoloman (CalmanvX Eing of Hungary, 26a 
Kongespeilet (Emg's Mirror) of Eing 

Sverre, 297. 
Eorbeas, Paulidan chief, 266. 
Eorboga, Saltan of Mossoul, 885. 
Eoreishites of Mekka, 202 
Eosmas, Athenian Pseudo-Prophet, 26a 
Eossath (Louis), 555. 
Eotaibah, Arabian general, 212. 
Eothb-ed-Din, great Shah of Ehowareeni, 

Eouri, Eorsi (Eourshani), 805. 
Erakovians (Polos), 818. 
Krai (Servian Eing), 107, 824^ d6a 
Kreis Obersten, Commanders oi the Ger> 

man Circles, 517. 
Kriwe, Sdavonian pontifi; 806. 
Eriwltchi, Scla^onian tribe, 192. 
Emmpen (Otho), Danish general, 429. 
Eublai-Chan, 686. 

Enmani, 193, 254, 281, 815, 853, 555, 660. 
Eumanian Language, 815. 
Eunigunde of Hohenstaufen, 895. 
Eunitza of Welf; 89a 
Eunz of Eaufungen, the Eidn^per, 519. 
Kovpff6ptSy Byzantine skirmishers, 262. 
Eutnen, chan, 561. 

Eutschko, the Boyard of Moscow, 457. 
Eutnrgari (tribe of Huns), 109a. 
Euvrat, the Bulgarian, 149. 
Eymri (Cimbri), 77. 
Eyriales, Finnic tribe, 801. 

La Cerda family, 587. 

Lacys in Meatb, 480. 

Ladislaw L, Eingof Hungary, 815. 

Ladislaw IIL of Hungary, 555. 

Ladislaw Y. of Hungary, 566. 

Ladislaw YI. of Hungary, 528, 555. 

LadisUw YIL of Hungary 555. 

Logman, president in Iceland, 29a 

La Hire, the general, 484. 

La Jwne JFrance in Greece, 86a 



La Marcli:, Doke of ddves, 489. 

Lamtanite ehiefe, 674. 

Lanca-law of the GossackB, 451. 

Lancie (men-at-arms <tf the Italian 
princes), 414. 

Ldndamman^ judge and sovernor, 540. 

LatulOftg (Code) of Sweden, 801. 

Landsthlng (provincial diets in Den- 
mark), 292. 

Lamkn^chU (pikemen of GermanyX ^^^ 

Lambertazzi, family ot^ 410. 

Langobardi (Longobardi), see Lombard& 

Langoschi dynasty of Pavia, 414. 

Laplanders, 223. 

Laras, family in Castile, 690, 697. 

Lwiecks (class of the assassins), 861 

ImHh Church in the Morea, 856. 

Littin Clergy in Constantinople, 825. 

LaVn language in Hangary, 814. 

J>a Toar d'Anvergne family, 492. 

Lnugmandy law man, or Jndge, 487. 

Loara de Sade, 6ia 

LHuriston, general, 664. 

Laval, h(»u8e ot 607. 

Law-Thing of Bergen, 297. 

Lazar Brankowitch, King of Serria, 666. 

Lazi, tribe of Mount Caacasns, 185, 874^ 

League of GoUes Hdu^y 661. 

League vf the Orisons, 651. 

League of the Ten Jurisdictions, 651. 

Ledfonsn (cowards), 80. 

Leif-Ericson, the viking, 221 

Lettian Language, 884 

Lcttic tribes, 226, 802, 805. 

Leudea (Lcate, Frankish warriors), 118, 

I4iechs (Poles) 107, 191, 260, 812. 

Librum oen&tu Danicb^ 878. 

Lidea (serfe), 79, 118, 247. 

life-guards^ Yaraughian, 226, 262L 
, Persarmenian, 262. 

Chazaric, 262. 
Avario, 149, 262. 

Lith-fiMfu, the chosen cittzons from Lon- 
don, 290. 

Lithuanians, 107, 192, 226, 805, 452. 

Lithuanian dialeet^ 884. 

Litwani (Lithuanians), 192. 

Lives (LivonlansX WO, 226, 805, 877, 879. 

Lodbrokar Quiaa (dirge of King Begnar), 

Aoyd^fs (committee of counsellors), 262. 

Lombards (Longobardi), 82, 140. 

Lombard League, 406, 407, 412, 414. 

Lombards in Greece, 854. 

Leo the Armenian, emperor, 267. 

Leo the Isaurian, emperor, 268. 

Leo VI., emperor, 196, 263, 27a 

Leo yr.. King of Armenia, 849. 

Leo IV., pope, 252. 

Leo IX., pope, 321. 

Leo, Archdeacon of Palermo, 259. 

Leonardo II., Toccho^ Duke of Leucadia, 

I^eopold the Brave, of Austria, 528i. 

Leoiwld II., of Austria, 623. 

Laurcmburg line of Nassau^ 687. 

Lnskau, Burgomaster of Danzig, 468. 

Leutfirled, Duke of Alomanla) 160l 

Lenwigild, king, 223, 126. 

Libussa, Queen of Bohemia, 107. 

Xdcinius (Cains Valerius), 47. 

Llewellyn, the Welsh chiei; 482. 

Lollard, sectarians, 488. 

Lords of Articles in Scotland, 48& 

Lards qf the Isles, 2Se. 

Lords of Session in Scotland, 48& 

Loredano. the Venetian, 686. 

Lorenzo de' Medipi, 606, 612. 

Lothaire I., emperor, 22& 

Lothaire of Supplingenbuj^, 884 

Lotwani, Chudish tribe, 805. 

Louis, King of Aquitaine, 184. 

Louis le Debonnair, 189, 228, 28a 

Louis the German, 228. 

Louis II., emperor, 270. 

Louis IV., emperor, 517, 620, 527, 606. 

Louis the Child, emperor, 247. 

Louis, King of Burgundy, 246. 

Louis the Stammerer, 2^. 

Louis le Gros, King of France, 806. 

Louis IV., d'Outre-mer, B^ing of France^ 

246. o -, 

Louis le Faineant, 281. 
Louis le Jeune, King of France, 806. 
Louis VIL. King of France, 386. 
Louis VIII., King of France, 502. 
Louis IX. See Saint Loui& 
LouiB X., Hutin, King of France, 461. 
Louis XI., King of France, 488, 508, 609L 

609, 653. 
Louis XIL, King of France, 48a 
Louis III., of Ai^ou-Naples, 60a 
Louis of Bavaria and Brandenburg, 517, 
Louis le Bon, Duke of Bourbon, 469. 
Louis de Bourbon, Count <tf Vendome, 

Louis L, Duke of Bourbon, 499. 
Louis the Bearded, Elector Palatine, 48a 
Louis the Great, of Hungary, 526, 555, 661, 

Louis IL, Postbumus of Hungary, 56a 
Louis Duke of Savoy, 611. 
Louis de Tr6mouillo of Champagne, 48a 
Louis, King of Tilnacria, 69a 
Lofiffeldetf place of assembly in Iceland, 

Zow German dialect, 77, 295. 
Lulsohe Recht (law of Lubeck), 877. 
Luitprand, Bishop of Cremona, 261, 260. 
Luther (Martin), the groat Beibrmer, 6ia 

Luzembui^an dynasty, 511. 
Lupus, Count of Vasconia, 184 


Macbeth, the usurper, 29a 
McBurghs in Mnnster, 430. 
Macdeans, clan of the, 286. 
McDermots of Connaught, 480. 
Mac Donalds of the Isle.% 286. 
Macdonalds of Glencarry, 286. 
Macdougalls of Lorn, 286, 436. 
Macgregors, clan of tlie, 236. 
Machiavelli (Niccolo), the Florentine his- 
torian, 416, 654, 6ia 



IbckenzieB, clan of tbe, 88& 

Macpllereon^ clan of the, 88A. 

Magna Chartti UbericOumy 48& 

Magnentlua. 47. 

Magnus DrungaHu^^ ffenenl anny ixi- 
specter of Byzantiam, 262. 

Magnoa the Oood, of Norway, 292, 896i 

Magniu Li^beter, King of Norway, 297. 

Magnus L, Ladalaaa, King of Sweden, 489. 

Magnus, Prince of Dennuffk, 292. 

Magyars. See Hungarians. 

Maiden of Norway, heiress of the Boottiafa 
crown, 288. 

Maid of Orleans, 478, 479. 484, 48«. 

Malahaton (Treasure Woman), wife of 
Osman, sultiUi, 628. 

Malatesta dynasty of Bimini, 414, 6ia 

Malcolm II., King of Scotland, 286. 

Malcolm III., Kenmore, 286i 

Malcolm lY., King of Scotland, 486. 

Malek-Sbah, sultan, 826, 864. 

Malek-Adcl, sultan, 888. 

Malger of HauteviUe, 821 

MaUum (National Diet), 79, lia 

Malo-Russians (Bussinians), 451, 660. 

Mamai-Chan, the Tartar, 466^ 68a 

Mambour of Alsace, 497. 

Manfred of Aragon, 620. 

Manfl^ of NapTes, 895, 416, 614 

Manft«di dynasty of Faenza, 414, 618. 

Maniatcs (Mainotts), 269. 

Mankbemi (Dfolal-ed-DinX 829. 

Manny (Sir Walter), 470. 

Manuel Comnftnus, emperor, 825, 861. 

Manoel the Great, of Portu^ 579. 

Maro()marmi, 75, 81. 

Mardi, 277. 

Margaret, Queen of Denmark, Norway, 
and Sweden, 878, 488. 

Margaret of Anjou, 484 

Maigaret of Flanders, 468, 496. 

Margaret of Hohenstanfen, 886, 519. 

Margaret of Huntingdon, 486. 

Margaret Manltasch, 517, 525. 

Maigaret of Nenilly, heiress of AcoYa, 868. 

Margaret of Norway, 288, 485. 

Margaret of Oldenburg, 800, 487. 

Margaret of Scotland, 485. 

Margraves (Border Counts), 247. 

Maria II., da Gloria, of Portugal, 584 

Marino Dandolo, 859. 

Marini family in Naxos, 622. 

Maijory of Annandale, 485. 


Mark Sanudo, Duke of Nazoe, 859. 

Maronitea. 845. 

Marsiac, Ireneb nobles in Naples, 614. 

Martin tho Elder, King of Aragon and Sici- 
ly, 699. 

Martin the Younger, King of Sicily, 699. 

Martin V., pope, 544 

Martinus do, Gosi, 410. 

Mary of Auvergne, 501. 


Mary of Hungary, 666. 

Maiy of Limoges, 470. 

Mary of Sicily and Athens^ 620. 

Massagetos, 88, 826. 

Masnri, PoUah tribo, 250. 

Matthias Cervinu^ King of Hnncaiy, 524^ 

Mathilda, wife of William tho Oonqneror, 

Mathilda of Antlocb, 896. 

Mathildia, Countess of Tuscanj, 25£i, 811« 

Maud of Hainault, Princess of Achaia, 856w 
Manro-Bulgari (Black Bulgarians), 269l 
Manrushms, 97, 140. 
Mayfleld reviews of the Franks, 171. 
Mayores Domiis in France, 79, 154 

in Castile, 589. 
Maxentios, 66. 
Maximilian L, emperor, 628w 
Maximin, 84. 
Maxim OS, 47. 
Mazovian Poles, 818. 

Meyas Aot;{, Byzantine high admiral, 26^ 
Meinhard, Bishop of Livonia, 877. 
Mdr-ed-Din, Arab historian, 888. 
Meianctbon the Beformer, 518. 
Meiek, Sultan <tf Damascus, 888. 
Mellaa, the Armenian, 266. 
Melingi, Sclavonian Tribe in tbo Morca, 

196, 269, 856, 858. 
Melissenda, Queen of Jerusalem, 888L 
Melloe lamily, 584 
Melo of Bari, the Greek, 821. 
Mendicant Order, 422, 
Mendozas fiimily, 590. 
Merchant Adventurers in England, 488L 
Menezes family, 584 
Merdavidsh, the Dilemid conqueror, 277. 
Methodius, Greek misBionary, 195. 
Meeoeutareef Moorish Councillors, 216. 
Michael IIL, emperor, 196, 266, 278. 
Michael the Stammerer, emperor, 259. 
Michael the Paphli^nlan, emperor, 82& 
Michael VIIL, Fabeologna, emperor, 858, 

Michael Angelos, Despot of Epirus, 861, 

Michael II., Despot of Epima, 86& 
Michael Borissowitsch, Duke of Twor, 460l 
MleczlBlav, Duke of Poland, 250. 
MUUary Xribunea of Venice, 271. 
MUitary Republic of the Ordor of SainI 

John of Jerusalem, 886. 
Milosch Kobilawitch, 666. 
Mindag, Grand Duke of Uthuania, 884 
Minnea&mgere (Troubadours), 77. 
Minos, King of Crete, 89. 
MinetrOe in Greece, 855. 
Mirdites, Albanian tribe, 624 
MiaH DonUnici (imperial envoys), 160. 

167, 247, ' /' ♦ 

Mithridates, Xing of Pontna, 22. 
Mobeds, Persian Magi, 9& 
Msso-Goths, 90. 

Moez-Ledin-niah, the Fatimid, 280. 
Mogul (Great), of Delhi, 689. 
Mohammed, tbe prophet, 194, 197, 201, 222. 
Mohammed Abn-Abdallah, of Moroocoi 

Mohammed I^ Sultan, 627. 
Mohanuned It, Al-Amia Abbasid calipb, 


Ul» iURlUAjL JQ^KJl. 


Mohiunmed IL, the Conqaeror, soHao, 

eee, eio, eis, 620, 627, esi, esa 

Mobamined IIL,Motas6em, eighth Abbasid 

cfUiph, 274. 
Mohammed Moktasi Beamrillah, caliph, 

Mohammed Abnbekr-Ebn-Baik, the first 

Emir Al Omrah, 274. 
Moban^med L, Ebn-al-IIamar, of Granada, 

Mohammed, Shah of Khowaresm, 276. 
Mohammed-al-Ikhshid, the Egyptian chie^ 

Mohammed, the last Taherite, 27ft. 
Mohammed IIL» the last Ghorid, 275. 
Mohammed, Moluk of Morocco, 646. 
Mohammed Yemin-ed-Daula, the Ghama- 

Tid, 276. 
Vioipdpxo-h Byzantine colonels, 262. 
Molathemin (veiled Arabs). 884 
Moncada (Guillen de), senesdial of Gatala- 

nia, 818. 
Mongols, 815, 838, 626. 
Mcmkg Hospitallers at JeroBalem, 888. 
Monothelites, 845. 
Montasser. the last Samanid, 276. 
Montefeltri dynasty of Urbino, 4H ^8. 
Montfort, French family in Naples, 614. 
Morabeths, in Africa, 884. 
Moravians (Slavi), 812. 516. 
Mordwins, in Bossia, 198, 802, 460. 
Morlachs (Sea Wallaohs), 568. . 
MorlairSy Scottish mayors or vicars, 288. 
Morosini, family of; 828. 
Mortimer, the Paramour, 484. 
Mosca Lamberti, 416. 
Mossen Jordi, the Poet, 596. 
Mo88-troop«r8 of Scotland, 286. 
Mosta Abulkasem, Caliph of Egypt, 882. 
Maley IL, Hassan of Tunis, 64a 
Muley Abnl, Hassan of Granada, 604 
Mmdskienk (cup-bearerX 290, 296. 
Murad L, sultan, 566, 867, 627. 
Murad IL, sultan, 569, 027. 
Mnriella, Conntess of Hauteville, 821. 
Muromens, Finnish tribe, 226, 802. 
Musa £en-Nasair, 218. 
Mufitapba, Tarkish prince, 627. 

NadcT'Ispan (Count PalaUne), of Hun- 
gary, 814, 555. 

Nadsd, family, 562. 

Napoleon Buonaparte, 883, 884, 452, 458, 

Narses, the Ennuch, 187, 189. 

Nassau-Orange familv, 537. 

Nassir-Daud, emir of Kerak, 888. 

Nennlns, the historian, 102. 

NeH (Blacks), of Florence, 416, 420. 

Nerio I.. Accii^noli, Duke of Athens, 620. 

Nerio II., Acciajnoli, Duke of Athens, 620. 

Nestor, Russian historian, 804 

N estorian Christians, 96,. 845. 

Neville, Earl of Warwick, 484. 

Niccol6 degli Acdijuoli, general of Naples, 


Nlccolb Acoli^aoli^ banker of Florezite, 
620. ^^ 

Nioetas, the historian, 858. 
Nicetas of Tarsus, governor of Syracuaei, 

Nicephorus L Logothetes, emperor, IIT. 
Nicephorus Fhocaa, emperor, 261, 824 
Nicholas IIL, pope, 410. 
Ifiebelunffen Lied {song of the Nlebelou* 

gen heroes), 77. 
Niels Nicholas), King of Denmark, 292. 
Niels Ebbeson of Norreriis, 878. 
Nigel Bruce, 486. 
i^(*«< (Venetian), in Crete, 859, 
Nordmcend (Norwegians^ 85, 228. 
Normans in Greece, 824^ 825. 
Norman chivalry, 298. 
Norman pilgrims in Italy, 821. 
Noronhos, family. 584 
North Frisians, 294 
Nwrwegia/fh Skjalde (bards), 228. 
Nunho Alvares Pereira, constable, 581. 
Nuno Fernandez, Count of Castile, 256i 
Nour-cd-Din, the great Atabdk, 880. 
Nynias, the Briton, lOL 


Oatazid, dynasty, 645. 

ObeidaUah, the Fatimid, 2ia 

O'Bimes family, 429. 

Obotrites, Vendlc tribe, 82, 296. 

Obri, see Avars. 

O'Brians in Mnnster, 480. 

O'Carrolls in Loath, 48a 

O'Connors in Connaught, 219, 480. 

Octavlan Augustus, 88. 

OdeU-bbnd^ (freisholders), 118, 228, 48T, 

Odin, the Allf^er, 82. 
Odo, Count of Savoy, 246. 
Odoacer, King of Italy, 127. 
O^Flairts of Connaught, 480. 
Offii, King of East Anglia, 14a 
Oghus, Turkish Chan, 82a 
Ogle, the regicide, 484 
Okba-Emir, organizer of the Arabic em- 
pire in Spain, 215. 
Okailid dynasty, 27a 
O'Kelleys of Connaught, 480. 
Olaf Kyne, King of Norway, 296. 
Olaf Skotkonning, King of Sweden, 282. 
Ol f Trr'T '-. <i.>n, King of Norway, 219. 
on Man yv^ Liie mountain, 210, 84a 
Oli^lku fjimilj, 452. 
Ol^'if Qtimei c»f Russia, 226. 
Oli^?pd, Grjinil Duke of Lithuania, 46a 
O'Mavli-H t*r <; mnaught, 480. 
Oiii. : I . »8ty of Caliphs, 198, 816, 
O*^^ >order clan, 480. 

O'N jlan, 210, 480. 

Oi%;».»li, J>ii4tsty of ForlL 414, 6ia 
Order (military), of Aviz, 579. 

of Cahitrava, 8ia 

of Christ, 579. 

of Danebrog, 877. 



of thoGolden Fleecy 4M. 

of the Hoepltal, 889, 856, 8«2, 661, 

562, 618, 6S8. 
of MonteaiL BJa _ 

of SAlntMwy, «n, 87», 888!, 648, 

of tbe Sword, 860. 
of the Bword Bearera, 879, 880, 884, 
of the Temple, 839, 856, 643, 677, 

of the Wing of Saint Michael, 679. 
(monastic), of Vallombtoea, 4ia 

OrdABo IL, King of GothU (Leon), 255, 

Orginaky fomilf, 452. 

Orkhan Sultan, the lawgiver, 627. 

Ornold Spiorlngk, Flemish knight, 497. 

Orslnl, Roman ftmilf, 618. 

Orszag, Magyar fiunllv, 562. 

Ortenbarg, hoaae of, 896. 

Ortok, saltan, 808. 

Ortok Bel, Turkman ehlef, 82& 

Osgood, sheriff of Llncobi, 221. 

Osman (Othman), sultan, 627. 

Osorios, family in Leon, 590. 

Ossetes (Circassians), 90. 

Ostmanner (Danes), 100, 288. 

Ostphalian Saxons, 17& 

Ostrogoths, 75, 127—182. 

Oatrogothio architecture, 180. 

Othman, caliph, 206. 

Otho the Great, 218, 247, 24S, 250. 

Otho II.J emperor, 250, 270. 

Otho III., emperor, 250, 252. 

Otho IV., emperor, 895, 467. 

Otho I., King of Greece, 858. 

Otho, Bishop of Bamburg, 686^ 

Otho of Brandenbaig, 617. 

Otho of Burgundy, S^5. 

Otho de la Boche, grand aire of Athene, 

Ottocar IL, of Bohemia, 898^ 

Ottomans^ See TurkSb 

OTooles, mountain clan, 480. 

Ouvidorea, In Portugal, 578. 

Ovidiua^ the Soman poet, 81. 

Pachecos de AcuSa, family of Castile, 59a 

Pachymius, 11. 

Palavidnl family, 611. 

Paia-da-ooroa (crown landsX ^8* 

PalfTy family, 662. 

Palnatoke, the founder of Jomsborg, 295. 

Pandaeta of Justinian, 410. 

Pandulph, Iron-head, Duke of Benevento^ 

Pangkratukaa, Armenian chief; 9M. 
Pariks^ serfs la Cyprus, 850. 
Parthians, 277. 
TlaroiKtoi tht^ovxoi (eunuch courtiers,) 

Patzinakita (Patzinaka, see Petchenegee), 

PauUcian sectarians, 866^ 666. 

Pasd, oountd In Tal d'Amo, 416. 

Pedro I., of Portugal, 680. 

Pedro L, of Aragon, 818. 

Pedro IL, of Aragon, 691. 

Pedro IIL, of Aragon, 428, 697, 698, 699. 

Pedro IV., of Aragon, 698. 

Pedro the Cruel of CasHle, 667, 591, 602. 

Pedro O>elho, 680. 

Pelasglans, 77. 

Pelayo the Visigoth hero, 217. 

PeoM, peasantry in Portugal, 678. 

Pepin, son of Charlemagne, 149, 187. 

Pepin of Herlstal, Mtuor Domus, 164 

Pepin-le-Bre^ King of Prance, 154^ 267. 

Percys of Northumberland, 488. 

Pereiras, family, 684. 

Perkin Warbeck, 429. 

Perkunas, the Thunder God of the Lithu- 
anians, 8S4. 

Parpers (gold Byzants), 850. 

P^perii on Cyprus, 850. 

ntpKraoxpaKTiOf Byzantine income afr* 
sessments, 262. 

Petcheneges (Petchlnegues), 193, 218, 268, 
254, 802, 815, 825, 661, 66a 

Peter the Bulgarian, 568. 

Peter the Great, czar, 457. 

Peter de €k>artenay, Emperor of Bomania, 

Peter von Hagenbach, the bollifl; 689. 

Peter the Hermit, 808, 825, 885. 

Peter, Count of Saroy, 41& 

Petrarch, 6ia 

Petrus Bavonnas, the professor, 585. 

Pezagno (Manoel), admiral, 578. 

PfaMbdrger, 402. 

PfiaU-grafen (Comites Palatini), 167. 

Phanariota of Constantinople, 670. 

Philip L, King of France, 806. 

Philip August, King of France, 806. 

Philippe-le-Long, King of France, 461, 469. 

Philippe IV., le Bel, King of France, 898; 

Philip of Eyreux, King of Navarra, 601. 
Philip of Hohenstaufen, emperor, 8^ 
Philip the Handsome of Austria, 623. 
Philip the Bold of Burgundy, 465, 468, 49S. 
Philip the Good of Burgandy, 495, 497, 498. 
Philip the Generous of Hesse, 640. 
Philip of Nassau, 519. 
Philip of Orleans, 465. 
Philipp of Valois (VL), King of Prance, 

461, 601. 
Phitippa, Queen of Denmark, 444, 489. 
Phllippa, Queen of England, 434 
Phellm McGenis, 429. 
PhirflBsL See Warffiger. 
Photlus, Patriarch of Constantinople, 278L 
Plast the Peasant, first Duke of Poland, 

Plastlan dynasty, 250. 
Plchl, dynasty of Mirandola, 414. 611. 
Piccinino (Nlccol6), the Condottiere, 608L 
Plots, 102, 284 

Pierre I., Duke of Bourbon, 499. 
Pierre d' Aubnsson, grand master, 628L 
Pii, dynasty of Carpi, 414, 611. 
Pimenteles flimily, 590. 



Tl\ayio<p^\cuc€s, Byzantine rear-^arda, 

Phintaeenct dynasty, 291, 426. 

Plat-Dtutche Sprache (Low Ctennan dia- 
lect), 77. 

Plusso, the Vende, 295. 

Podebusk (Sir Henning), 64& 

Polaks (Poles), 107. 

Polieni, on the Dniester, 192. 

Polemona dynasty In Pontos, 28. 

Polenta, dynasty of Ravenna, 414. 

Polotzchani, Slavic tribe, 826. 

Polovtzi See Knmani. 

Poraponlns Leetus, 600, 

Ponces de Leon family In Andalasia, G90. 

Ponsic French family in Naples, 614. 

Fcradine (Polish tax), 8ia 

Portocarreros, family in Castile, 690. 

Po8adnic8, Servian, farmers, 667. 

Posadnic (maire) of Novgorod, 804 

Pospolitd Husemii^ fondal army of Po- 
land, 250, 8ia 446. 

PmUani, Syrian descendants of the Crusa- 
ders, 268, 84a 

ProfedM% Aiiffustaliay 16, 

PriT t deft marchanda in Paris, 461 
Primaa JliapaniarHm^ 698. 
Primislav III., of Bohemia, 895. 
Pricker 8y border cavalry, 481. 
Procopins, Hussite general, 615. 
Pr&weditoriy Venetian governors, 56a 
Prussians (Pruczi), 802, 805, 879. 

Qnadi, 75, 81. 

Quaina, Finnic tribe, 225, 801, 442. 

Qolrini, ISunily of; 859. 

Rabites, Moorish border-riders, 258. 

Badoslovnie'ICnigt register of nobility, 

Radul the Black, Prince of Moldavia, 570. 

Radzivil family, 449, 852. 

Raitzi (Servians), 824, 86S, 560. 

Rainulf, Norman chiet 822.. 

Bakoezy, princely fScunily of Transylva- 
nia, 665. 

Ralph, lord of Kalavryta, 858. 

Ramiro, the Monk, King of Anigon, 8ia 

Randolph, the Bold, 486. 

Raonl, Duke of Lorraine, 529. 

Rascians (Servians), 196, 

BatAsherren, 402. 

Bavhi^iUer, 644. 

Raymond of Saint Gllles, Count of Tou- 
lonse, 808, 826, 827, 885. 

Raymond II., Count of Tripolis, 864. 

Raymond III., of Tripolis, 845. 

Raymond Berengar IL, of Baroelona, 819. 

Raymond III., Count of Barcelona, 8ia 

Raymond Berengar, IV., Count of Barce- 
lona, 243, 2.57, 818, 417. 

Raynald of Chatiilon, lord of Kerak 848. 

Recchiaris the Visigoth, 12a 
Recken (adventurous warriors), 79. 
Rectors of tbe Lombard league, 409, 412. 
Reding of Biberegg, 552. 
Re/eeks^ class of Assassins, 864. 
R^ar Lodbrog, Danish sea>king, 190. 
Reichs-Kammer-OericMi high tribunal 

of the empire, 547. 
Reineke Fuche^ Saxon poem, 77. 
R6ne le bon R&L, of Aqfou-Naples, 60a 
R6nd IL, Duke of Lorraine, 490, 60a 
Rettoriy presidents of the Ragusan repub- 
lic, 664 
Rhenish confederacy, 404. 
Rhodes, knights oi;r862, 618, 628. 
Richard Coeur de Lion, 888, 886, 
Richard IL, King of England, 484 
Richard the Good, Duke of Normandy, 821, 

Ricliard de Clare (Strongbow) invader of 

Ireland, 28a 
Rlchemont, Count oi; 47a 
Ricae-Ebmena^ 678, 
Ricoe Hombres, 689, 595. 
Rigaduge i^^etA of nobility and clergy in 

Denmark), 48a 
Rike- Jarl (yarl of the realm) 225. 
Rigemoder (general diets in Denmark), 

Rigeraady state council, 48a 
Ringold, Grand Prince of litlmania, 806. 
Repuarian Franks, 80. 
RiOershaft, feudal knighthood, 247. 
Robert L, King of France, 806. 
Robert I., King of Scotland, 482. 485. 
Robert IL, Stuart, King of Scotland, 486. 
Robert lit, Stuart, King of Scotland, 485. 
Robert Stuart, Duke of Albany, 485. 
Robert of Bui^ndy, 806. 
Robert de ChampUtle, Prince of Achaia, 

Robert of Clermont and Bourbon, 499. 
Robert, Count of Flanders, 803, 385. 
Robert Guiscard, the Norman Duke, 28a 

Robert Curt-Hose, Duke of Normandy, 

808, 827, 886. 
Robert, Count of Paris, 82a 
Robert de Tremouille, lord of Chalan-> 

Robertsons, clan of the, 28a 
Roderic, last king of the Visi-Gotbs. 197. 
Roderic O'Conner, King of Gonn&ught, 28a 
Rodrigo Ponce de Leon, 604 
Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar el ad, 817, 820, 884 
RodnU; English bishop, 281 
Rodwan the Ortokid, 880. 
Roger of Hauteville, Great Count of Sicily, 

Roger L, King of Naples and Sicily, 286, 

Wd, 824 888, 648. 
R(^er Deslau, Commander of the Catae 

lans, 620. 
Roger de Flor, Catalan general, 629. 
Roger de Loria, Catalan admiral, 424, 59a 
Roeiers (Pedro), 696. 
Roi9 Fainiants, the Idlers, 164. 
Roland, Count of Brelagne. 184 
Rolf Ganger, the Norman, 28a 



Boman Franks (Westiandeni NeoBtrians), 

Romanoff dynasty, 45A. 
Bomannfl Diogenes, emperor, 894. 
Bomaaldoa, Duke of BeneTentom, 186. 
Rofls (Rowiaos), 226l 
Roese^ clan of the, 28«, 485. 
Ro990«nMte ^feudal serylce), 8TT. 
Botharia. King of the Lombards, 1691 
Bozolani (Boasians), 90. 
Raooones In Spain, 128. 
Rudolph of Balm, the regicide, 6M. 
Rudolph Brun of Zfirich, 541^. 
Rudolph, Count of Tran^nrane Bnigundy, 

Budolph IL of Burgundy, 94«. 
Budolph IIL, King of Burgundy, 946. 
Budolph, Count of Eriach, 658. 
Rudolph of Habsbnrg, 896. 
Budolph of Souabia, 810. 
Bngians, 81. 

Bumani of Transylvania, 88, 661. 
Runic InseriptionA, 223. 
Buric, the Jute, 82, 226, 258. 
BuBconi, dynasty of Como, 414 
JiuMian armiet and warfare, 456i 
Russian, literature and art^ 804. 
Buasian clergy, 226. 
Bussniaks (Knssians), 198. 
Bussinians, 803, 451. 
Bustan, tlie Persian hero, 212. 
Buthenians (Bussniaks), 808, 461, 560. 


Sa'ady, the Persian poet, 277. 

Sabean Arabs, 200. 

Sachsenspi^ffd (Saxon Mirror), 77. 

Sagudatffi, Bulgarian tribe, 269. 

Saint Augustine, 62, 817. 

Saint Austin, the Apoetle of the Anglo- 
Saxons, 221. 

Saint Benedict, 817. 

Saint Bernard, 892. 

Saint Bonii^tce, 166. 

Saint Columba, 100, 141. 

Saint Canute, King of Denmark, 298. 

Saint Cnthbert, 190. 

Saint Denis, the Apostle of Gaul, 181. 

Saint Eric, King of Sweden 225. 

Saint Eusebius, 11. 

Saint Francis of Assissi, 422. 

Saint Gallns, 175. 

Saint Hilarion, 11. 

Saint Jerome, 11. 

Saint John, the Almoner, of Alexandria, 

Saint John the Baptist, 889. 

Saint Jodut of the Saxons, 810. 

Saint Lazarus, 840. 

Saint Louis, 648. 

Saint Maron, 845. 

Saint Mark, 814 

Saint Martin, 181. 

Saint Olaf, King of Norway, 282, 296. 

Saint Olympius the Painter, 804 

Saint PaUa&us, 101. 

Saint Fantaleon, 897. 

Saint Patrick, 100. 

Saint Paul, the Apostle, 289. 

Saint Peter, the ApoeUe, 239. 

Saint Remigerins, 111, 

Saint Bomualdus, 420. 

Saint Bule the Moreoto, 288. 

Saint Sabaa, IL 

Saint Stanislaus, 812, 450. 

Saint Spyridon, 267. 

8alah-ed-Din (Saladin), the great Sottas 

280, 880, 865. 
Salian dynasty, 896, 687. 
Salian Franks, 80. 
Salioes, 81. 

Samanid dynas^, 275. 
Samsam-ed-Danla, the destroyer ot the 

Karamathian heretics, 279. 
6ancha,;princes8 of Castile, 265. 
Sancho I.,^ing of Portugal. 578. 
Sancho IL, King of Portoeal, 577. 
Sancho Bamirez, King of Aragon, 818. 
Sancho IIL, King of Castile, 816. 
Sancho, Prince of Castile, 817. 
Sancho, King of Mayorea, 598w 
Sancho IIL, el Mayors King of Navarn, 

257, 81& 
Sancho YL, King of Navarra, 601. 
Santa Helena, 87. 

Santa Bermandad^ police of Castile, 690i 
Santa Kunigunda, 460. 
Santa Paula, U. 
Sapieha fomily.459. 
Sapor, King of Persia, 185. 
Saporogian Cossacks, 451. 
Saracens, 94, 200. 
Saracen armature, 274 
SarmaUan (Sdayonic), tribes, 77. 
Sarolta, Hungarian princess, 258w 
Sasaanid dynasty, 206. 
Saniomatians (^vmatn), 8a 
Savelli, Boman fkmily, 618. 
Sayoy, house of; 246, 418, 611. 
Baxo Grammaticus, the Danish historian, 

Saxon dyn8stie^ 618. 
Saxons, 78, 82. 105, 154. 
Sbandm (Itolian exiles), 420. 
Scanderbeg. See Georgioe Castri%>tiu 
Bcandinavian Crusaders, 887. 
Scandinavian tribes, 77. 
Saara^ Soharen (mercenary troops), 187. 
Scenitffi Arabs, 200. 

Schaaseh, the Bohemian secretary, 606. 
Scherlf^ dynasty of Morocco, 645. 
Schiere deUa Morte (Milanese troops), 40a 
Schirm- Vogtei, imperial vicariate, 548. 
Schwepperman (Siegfried,) 527. 
Schwertritter in Livonia, 880, 881, 884 
Seir-ger^a (sberifE;) 290. 
Sclavonian invasions and settlements in 

Greece, 196, 269. 
Sclavonian tribes In Hnnguy, 560. 
Scots (Scoti), 101. 

Scott (Sir Walter), lord of Buccleuch, 436l 
Scottish tribes and dans, 101, 287. 




Scythians, 828. 

Sea-Wallachians (Morlachs), 668. 

S^t-kinga, 85, 144. 

Sebastian of Portugal, 579, 588, Mfi. 

2^3a(i-T((s (Augnstas), 862. 

Pcbec-Thegin ofOhasna, 275. 

Sectarians la France, 876. 

Seidij^, Mohammedan sectarians, 279. 

Seid-Oataz of Morocco, 645. 

Seif-ed-Danla of Mossnl, 27& 

Seif-ed-Din, Ghorid conqaeror, 27& 

8el(^ak, Emir of the Torks, 826. 

Sekljukian Turks, 274. 

Selim L, sultan, 866u 

Sclim IL, sultan, 622. 

Komgalll, 805. 

Seneschal of Sweden, 801, 

Septimus Severus, emperor, 78. 

Serlon of HantevlUe, 821. 

Sorverians, Sdavonic tribe, 19& 

Seven Peers of Cbampi^e, 888. 

Seven Tribes of SclaTonians, 196. 

Sforza Attendolo, the Oondotttere^ 614^ 616. 

SgoUaga (liegemen), 101. 

Shaname (The Kings), eplo poem of Fer- 
dusi the Persian, 27& 

Shane O'Toole, 429. 

Sharakalem (Saraoena, chlldr«i of Ibe 
East). 200. 

Bheik-al-Dlebal (Ancient of the Moon- 
tain), 864. 

Shlrkuh the Kurd, 880. 

Sinmet, feudal estate in Turkey, 627. 

Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem, S^ 

Sicambri (Franks), 80. 

Sicilian vespers, 428, 424 

SigefHed, English bishop^ 289. 

Siegfried, Count of Luxemburg, 248. 

Sigeward, English bishop, 282. 

Siegfried von Feuohtwangen, grand mas- 
ter, 88t 

^eUandsJke Lov (Code of Sealand), 292. 

Sigebert L, King of Anstrasia, 145, 147. 

Signora of the Mack Bobs in Yenico, 607. 

Skyi>etar6. See Albanians. 

Silihdara, picked cavataj of the Turks, 627. 

Sigismuno, emperor, 880, 611, 562. 

Siglsmund L of Poland, 446, 458. 

Sigismund IL of Poland, 446. 451 

S^mund, CkMint of Tyrol, 628. 

S^noria in the Italian ]£epublics, 414. 

Si^nrd Jarl, the high priest, 228. 

Sigurd Bing, King of Sweden and Den- 
mark. 190. 

Sigurd Snake-eye, King of B^^nmaik, 19a 

SU^ntiaHi, imperial officers, 262. 

Bileslans (Slavi), 8ia 

SUures, tribe in Wale8,.108. 

SUvas, family in Portngi^l, 684 

Simeon, Bulgarian chief, 824 

Simon de Montford, 484 

Sinclairs, dan of the, 286^ 

Sineufl, the Jute, 22& 

Sipahis, feudal cavalry of the Ottomans 

SlBcbut, King of the YisigothB, 12& 

Siward, Earl of Northumberland, 292. 

Blxtus rV., Pope, 600. 

Skaaningers, the inhabitants of Scania, 899L 

SkcMMks Lov (Code of Scania), 292. 

Skjold, son ot Odin, 82. 

Skjoldunger, dynasty of, 86. 

Skrit Finns (Finns on Skates), 86, 

2icov\icar<{pe5, Byzantine ou^Kwta^ ii6a, 

Slavesiani, 196. 

SUvlc nation^ 77, 88, 117, 188. 

Slavini, 91, 260. 

Slaro-Finnic racea, 107. 

Sloyeni (Slavi), 107. 

Slovensi, Bciavonian tribe, 226. 

Slowaks, 616, 660. 

Snorro Sturleson, the historian, 219, 298. 

Soffivid dynasty, 276. 

Solaree, feudal estates, 57a 

Solomon, King of Hungary, 566. 

Somerset fiimUy, 488. 

Sorabian Slavi in Saxony, 149. 

Sophi of Persia, 687. 

Sorabo-Serbians, 187. 

Sorabo-Yendes, 107. 

Souabian league, 404, 628, 644 

Sonsas &mily, 584 

^pahis. SeeSipahis. 

Spencers of Wales, 482. 


£Uadtr0eht of the Hanse, 402. 

Staflbrd (Sir Humphrey), 484 

StaiUr0 (marshal and standard-bearorX 

Stanleys family, 488. 
Starotta (earls) of Poland, 446. 
Sten Bture the Elder of Sweden. 48a 
Sten Sture the Younger of Sweden, 48a 
Stephanla, the Roman widow, 252. 
Stephanos, Athenian commander, 826. 
Stephen L, King of Hungarv, 26a 
Stephen It of Hungary, 566. 
Stephen, Count of Blois, 291, 80a 
Stephen Boistla)^ the Servian chief; 824 
Stephen Douschan, Krai of Servia, 863, 872, 
Stephen, Yoivod of Moldavia, 57a 
Stephen IL, pope, 154 
Stewarts, clan of the, 28a 
Stewarts of Athol,m 
Stewarts of the Mjurch, 287. 
Stilicho, the Boman general, 61, 65. 
Stockholm, massacre o^ 488, 440, 446. 
8toolkinff& 22L 
Strand-FriiBians, 80, 878, 401. 
Straniacks, Moravian slaves, 516. 
^TpOTTiyoiy Byzantine commanders, 262. 
Strategopulos (Alexins), Greek general, 858. 
Stuart (Walter), ancestor of the dynasty, 

Snero (Don), founder of the Order of Al« 

cantara, 817. 
Suleyman, the Sel4)nk, 824 827. 
Suleyman Shah-Ben-Kaial, the Tartar, 627. 
Suleyman II., sultan, 562, 686. 
Suleyman Pasha, 627, 68a 
Suethones (Swedes), 85, 549. 
Suevi (Sonabians), 81, 128, 126, 15L 
Sunknrtekin, the Ognsian, 627. 


mffroRioAL niDSX. 

Bnomif <n Flnnlsnd, 442. 

Suiianif on Moont Lebftnon, 84fi. 

Sarreys family, 498. 

Svante Store, administrator of Sweden, 

Svear, Svenskar (Swedes), 85, 144 
Sverre, Kinfr of Norway, 296. 
Svian (Swedes), 801. 
Swnrtoslav, Grand Bake of Boaala, 226 

Swan-KnighU of Brandenburg, 617. 
Swantevit, the war-god of the Vendes, 

107, 296, 8n. 
Swatoplnk, Prince of Moravia, 616. 
Swen<( the Crusader, Prince of Denmark, 

Swend Estridson, King of Denmark, 292. 
Swend Fork-Beard of Denmark, 289. 
Swend Orathe, King of Jutland, 292. 
Swinthila, King of the Visigoths, 128. 
Sword-BrotherB, military order of Li- 
vonia, 805. 
Swiss Confederacy, 648. 
Swiwt toarfare, 554. 
Syf^ns, Roman general, 110. 
Syamaiti, 805. 

Syrukalpei, Petcbenegae tribe, 254. 
Szaszoks (foreign colonists), in Hungary, 

Szeklers, border tribe of Hungary, 268, 

659, 561. 
Ssdiagyi, Magyar nobles, 662. 
Sdachikes, feudal nobiUty in Poland, 


Tacitus, the historian, 78. 

Taharite dynasty, 276. 

Taher, last chief of the Soffarlda, 276. 

Taher, Arabian general,' 275. 

Talbot, lord, 479, 487, 498. 

Talbots of Waterford, 480. 

Tamerlane. See Timur-Chan. 

Tancred of Hsuteville, 286, 821. 

Tancred the Norman, Prince of GaUlee, 

808, 827, 885, 848. 
Tartc-Ben-Zeyad, 218. 
Tarlati, counts of the Val dl Chiana, 416. 
Tasso (Torquato), the Italian poet, 827. 
Tavastians, 442. 
Tcherkasslan Cossacks, 462. 
Tcherkassians of Mount Caucasus, 816. 
Tchermessians of Mount Oaral, 460. 
Tcbermessians of Kasan, 460.) 
Tejaa, King of the Ostrogoths, 189. 
Tckely (T5koly), Count of; 665. 
TetraxiUn Goths, 91, 185. 
Totzel, doctor of Numberg, 605. 
Teadelinda, Queen of the Lombiurds, 162. 
Teutonic knights, 805, 877, 559, 661. 
Thamar, Byzantine prineess, 874. 
Thangbrand, missionary of Iceland, 298. 
Tharapilla,^odof the Esthonians, 877. 
Thassilon, Duke of Bavaria, 149, 176, 250. 
Theodebald, King of Austrasia, 145. 
Theodebert I., 105, 146. 
Thoodebort 1 1., King of Austrasia, 146. 
Tbeoflbiir of Lorca, 215. 

Theodoric the Ostrogoth, 127. 
Theodora, Byzantine empres^ 266w 
Theodore Lascaris, Emperor of Nicteai 

851, 870. 
Theodore, Despot of Epirus, 854. 
Tbeodosius, count, 78. 
Theodosias the Great, emperor, 8, 4, 52. 
Theodosius the Younger, emperor, 11. 
Theodosius, the Monk of Syracuse, 269. 
Theoktistos, Byzantine general, 196. 
Theophania of €k>nstantinople, wife of 

Otho II., 261. 
Theresa Lorenzo, 579. 
Thiebault L, King of Navarra, 601. 
Thierry L, King of Austrasia, 118, 145. 
Thierry II., King of Burgundy, 145. 
Thierry of Bidderford, grand master, 843. 
Thiwea (serfe), the untiree class of the 

Anglo-Saxons, 290. 
Thing (public assemblies), 801, 877. 
ThomasPalaoologus, Despot of Patraa, 621. 
Thora tlie Fair, the love of Hakon, 228b 
Thorwald Ericson, 224 
Thrasamond the Yandal, 184. 
Thur (Tor), the war-god, 82. 
Thyra Danebod, Queen of Denmark, 222. 
Tilly, Count, Bavarian general, 520. 
TLmar, Turkish fiefe, 627. 
Timur-Chan (Timurlenk, Tamerlane), 865, 

Tiveral, Sclavonian tribe, 195. 
Tocco (Charles), Duke of Leucadla, 860. 
Tocco (Thomas) Count Palatine of Ophft- 

lonla, 872. 
Tocchi, noble family of, 860, 621. 
T<»hrul-Bei, Turkish ^ultan, 274, 826w 
Tbledos, fiamily of Castile, 590. 
Torflnn, the Norwegian, 224 
Tostig, the Saxon, ^1. 
Totilas, King of the Ostrogoths, 189. 
To^\9o», Byzantine camp baggage, 262L 
TovpfidpXO^ Byzantine commanders of 

the light cavalry, 262. 
Tournaments at Athens, 855. 
Toxides, Albanian tribe, 624 
TVotttf (seife), 223. 

Tristao vas Texeira, the navigator, 586. 
Troila, King of Ovledo, 217. 
Trmtoadoura, poets at Provence, 286, 819. 
Trow>ere9i poets of Normandy, 286. 
Truvor, bromer of Buric, 226. 
Trajan, emperor, 88. 
Tnktamisch, Mongol prince, 688. 
TuluBid dynasty, 280. 
Turco-Magyar tribes, 559. 
Turoopoules, 632. 
Turkomans (Trachmens), 826, 276, 62(V 

681, 687. 
Turks, Oghusian, 826, 627. 
Ortokld, 825, 828. 
Osmanli, 627-684. 
Seli^ukian, 825. 
Turonl, 81. 

Twartko of Bosnia, 665. 
Tyr-Conells of Ulster, 480. 
T^rr-Oens of Ulster, 480. 
Tysaskoi (vice-governor) of Novgorod, 804 
Tzakonians (Lakonians) in the Morea, 86& 

HiarromcAL index. 


Uars (Avars of Mount Cancasos), 149. 

ITberto Viaconti, 414, 

TJbaldini, eounts in the Mogello, 415» 41 & 

Uberti, counts in Toscana, 415. 410. 

UcUUlArSy free proprieton, 4S7. 

n«rl (Hungari), 96. 

Ulphilas^ bishop of the Visigoths, TT. 

Ulric von Jungingen, grand master, 8S8. 

Ulrfc, Count of Wtirtcmberg. 528. 

Uplandie code of Sweden, SOL 

Urban II., pope, 80a 

ITrius. Chan of Kapscbak, 638. 

Urraca, Queen of Castile, 816. 

Uraina, shield-maiden, 190. 

UmUca, old laws of Catalonia, 819. 

Usbeck Tartars, 689. 

Uturguri (Hannish tribe), 108. 

Uzi, Tartaric tribe, 254, 281, 815. 


VcBringer (Yaranghians), 79, 226, 262, 289, 

Vagrians, 295k 

Valands (Kumanian rovers), 815. 
Valences in Wexford, 480. 
Valens, emperor, 80. 
Valentlna Visconti, 494 
Valentipian L, 4,7 7a 
Valhalla (Scandinavian Paradise), 82, isa 
Valois-Angouldmo dynasty, 494 
Valois-Orleans, dynasty of; 488, 494. 
Valvassors, with military tenure, 298, 
Vandali, 81, 90. 
^ Astengi, 80. 
Therwlnsi, 90. 
Varanghian body-guard in 0>nBtantin(»ple, 

226, 262, 82& 
Varani, dynasty of Gamerino, 414, 168. 
Varini (Vami), 81. 
Vasoo de Gama, 581, 641. 
Vasconoellos ikmily, 584 
Vrlasoos. fomily in Castile, 590. 
VieliM-Kwu (grand prince of Lithuania), 

f endes, 82, 192, 227, 295, 526. 
Vendi (Veneti), 91, 295. 
VendilL See Vendes. 
Vendome, Count ot^ 478. 
Veneti (Sciavonians), 91. 
Venieri fiunily in Nazos, 622. 
Vioe-ComitM (viscounts or baiHffe), 280. 
Vifcmske Lov, code of Viken, 297. 
ViHnffer (sea-rovers), 82, 85, 144, 221. 
VUlaiM (gude-men), 286. 
Villaret (Fulco de), grand master, 862. 
Visigoths, 75, 90. 

kingdom of the, 128, 124^ 125. 
ViaigotMo Code, 123, 819. 
VUherlags-Bet (military code) of King 

Canute, 292. 
Victor Capelio, Venetian admiral, 684 
Victoria, Queen of England, 896. 
Volvod^ «hie& of the Magyars, 258. 
governors of Poland, 446. 

I Vos van I>elf k, fiie Flemish knight 49T. 
Viaoonti, dynasly of Milano, 414^ 0011. 


Waiblinger^ party of, 897. 

Waldemar I. Enudson, King Of Denmark 

Waldemar II., the Victorious, 294 
"Waldemar IIL (Atterdag), King of Den- 
mark, 830. 
Waldenuur L Bb*ger8on, King of Sweden, 

Waldemar, Prince of Sweden, 440. 
Waldenses, 892. 

Valid L, Ommyiad caliph, 2ia 
WalieSy Saracenic governors, 168. 
Wallace (Sir William), the Scotch hero^ 48fiL 
Wallachians in Greece, 855. 
Wallacks, in Bohemia, 516. 
in Hungary, 661. 
Wallenrode, grand master, 8S8. 
Walter, Count of Athole, 485. 
Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athena^ 856, 

Walter of Eschenbach, the regicide, 652. 
Walter Furst of Uri, 562. 
Walter Pennyless, 808, 827. 
Walter de Rossleres of Acova, 858. 
Waives (Kumanian robbers), 815. 
War of the Boses, 488. 
Warrdffer (Scandinavian warriors), 79, 

Wamefried (Paul), the Lombal^ hLstoriao, 

Waml, Saxon tribe on the Elbe, 105. 
Weilburg-Kassau family, 687. 
Wolatabes, Sclavonic tribe, 188, 296, 617. 
Welfa, family of the, 896. 
Weliki Z'lpan (grand duke) of the Croatia 

Wenceelaus of Bohemia, 895. 
Wenceslans, emperor, 511. 
Wendes, see Vendes. 
Werner, German Condottiere, 606. 
Werner StaufRscher of Schwyz, 668. 
Westphalian Free Courts, 648. 
Westphalian Saxons, 178. 
Wicliffe (John), the reformer, 488. 
Wielunzani, Polish tribe, 260. 
WilMde of Billung, 896. 
William of Apulia, Norman hlstorlaa, 

William IL, Duke of Aq^taine, 289. 
William, Archbishop of Tyre, 825. 
William the Bad, Mng of Naples, 822. 
William the Conqueror, 286. 
William of Hanteville, 821. 
William of Holland, emperor, 400. 
William IV., Count of Holland, 497. 
Williano, Duke of Jiillch-Berg, 688. 
William the Lion, 481. 
William I., Long-moord, Duko of Nor- 
mandy, 287. 
William ofLuneberg, 896. 
William the Middle, of Hesee. 540. 
William of Montferrat, 418. 


William tbe Pton^ Ooimt of AuTeqpMk 

William de la Boche, Xhike of Athens, 85Ql 
William Rnftia, King of England, 291, 48i. 
William, King of Scotland, 4S&. 
William Tell, tbe Archer, 295. 
William of Tbnilngia, 61& 
William of Ylllehardoin, Prlnoe of Moiea, 

Willougbbys fi&raily, 488. 
Wiltzes (Welabites), SdavoDlan tilbe, ISS, 

296, 617. 
WiniHed, see Saint Bonlfkoe, 171 
Wtslanti, PolUh tribe, 250. 
WUena-gemott the diet of the An^o-Saz- 

Witenea, Grand Dake of Lithn«Qi8, 884. 
WHowd, Dnke of Lithuania. 446. 
WUachfuH Kolota (the alum bell) of 

Novgorod, 804. 
Wittelsbach dynasty, 628w 
WitUkind the Saxon, 174^ ISt 
Wlachs (Wallachs), 88. 
Wladimir L, of Bnssia, 226, 802. 
Wladialaws II., Leketek of Poland, 446. 450. 
Wladislaws IIL, of Pobmd and Hungary, 

Wodan (Odin), 82. 
Wolfing, C!ount of Tirrol, 688. 
WolMed, English bishop, 288. 

Tacnb-Ben-Lelth, the flist of tbe BoflStfldflk 

Yahya al-Kadir, Tyrant of Yalenda, 88a 
Taroelay, Prince orBoasia, 80^ 

YasBl, Turkish nomades, 886. 

Typ^r wvp (Greek fire), 268. 

YAena, CShlneee dynasty, 686i. 

Yeidegerd, Persian king, 207. 

Ynritngar dynasty, 85, 144. 

Yobmde of j^nx, 470. 

York dynasty, 488. 

Tw€pKtpcurrai, Byzantine flank-aqnad- 

Tr^fnrtpa (Byzantine gold dollars), 208. 
Ynry Dolgorukl of Susdal, 804^ 467. 
Ynssnf Ben-Taxfin, 816, 884. 

Zaber-Chan, 109. 

ZiUulngen, house oi; 896^ 896, 588. 

Zainah, the Jewish maid, 202. 

ZaJbon y Ottaw, Servian Ck>de, 567. 

Zapolya dynasty of Transylvania, 660» 

Zehioman (bailifrv, 118. 

ZemainU, landholders in Poland, 446. 

Zenghi, atabek of Mossoul, 880. 

Zenobla, Queen of Palmyra, 11. 

Zehid dynasty in Africa, 259, 88& 

Ziad (Dfiemld) dy 

Ziadetallah I. of 6 

Zaanld dynas^, 644." 

Zlngani, Hindoo tribe in Hungary, 661. 

Zlsca, the Hussite general, 514 

ZoSi, Empress of Ck>nstantinople, 825. 

Zoroaster (Zer-dnsht), 96, 209. 

Zoulus (GeoigeX Great Chan of CSiazarla 

Znltan, King of Hungaxy, 254 
Zmilgas fimdly in Leon, 690. 

Id) dynasty, 277. 
. of Magrab, 259. 


The Numbers indicate the Paragraphs, 

A sbo, in Ftonland, 801, 442 

bishopric, 489. 
Aalands Islands, 225. 
Aar, river, 528, 549, 658. 
Aargan, in Boreandy, 248, 260, 612, 628, 651. 
Aarhuns, 222, 294. 
Aba-TJjvar, oomitat, 558. 
Abbatb VilU (Abbeyille), 232, 807, 496. 
Abdera, 80. 

Aberbrothoc, abbey, 287. 
Aberoom caatle, 43ft. 
Aberdeen, 287. 

college, 485. 
Aberfraw in Anglesea, 108, 482. 
Abrinca. See Avrancbes. 
Abus (Tyne), river, 7a 
Abnthur. See Bntera, 322. 
Abydos, 22, 268, 629. 
Acarnania, 860, 619, 621. 
Acerenza, 186, 822. 

archiepiscopacy, 617. 
Acerni, connty o^ 822. 
Achaia, principality, 886, 862, 619. 
Aohen. See Aix-la-CbapeUe.. 
Achova In the Morea, 196, 858. 
Achris (Ochrida), ci^ital, 824. 

lake, 624 
Acincnm (Bada), 45, 47. 
Acre (Accon, PtoIemaisX See Saint Jean 

d'Acre, 842. 
Acro-Corlnthufl, 40, 867. 
Actinm, 88. 
Adala, 629. 

Adana in Gllicia, 266, 827, 849. 
Addua, river, 180. 
Aden, 8, 208. 

Adjerbeldjan (Atropatane), 209. 
Adl^ mines of^ 578. 
Adige, river, 52, 414. 
Adramyttian gnH; 268, 
Adrani, connty, 599. 
Adria, 158. • 

Adrianople, 80, 186, 682. 
uEa. See Tripolis In Africa. 61. 
JSgeri, lake, 562. 
.^Egina, bishopric, 866. 
ifigyptns Propria, 16, 
^lia Capitolina, 11. 

^mathia (ITpper Albania), 86, 624 
JSmilia, province, 58, 152. 
JB5nus (Inn), river, 182, 161. 
-<Ethllnga-eig (Athelney), 221. 
JStolia, 860, 621. 
Ai^hanistan, 275. 
Africa Propria, 60. 
Agad^z, connty cX, 818. 
Agadlr in Morocco, 646, 
Agathopolis in Thrace, 852, 68a 
Agde, bishopric of, 191, 892. 
Agen, dty, 898, 47a » 

bishopric of; 891, 510. 
Agenois, province, 893, 47a 
Aggershnns, 44a 
Agmoonrt ( AzinoonrtX 478. 
Agirra castle, 599. 
Agram, bishopric^ 571. 
Agriculture in Old Eo^and, 290. 
Agrigento, 699. 
Abwaz, 211. 
Alaccio, 610. 

Ajalon in Mount !Bphrahim, 8^ ' 
A}aB (Oiazza) in Cilicia, 849. 
Aldlndchlk (Cyzicns), 629. 
Ailah (Akabah), 202, 887, 842L 
Aile, barony, 4ia 
Ainegol (Mirror Se§). 62& 
AIn-Shames (HeliopolisX 866. 
Ain-es-Snltan, at Jericho, 340. 
Ainos (Ainon), 269, 868, 62a 
Alntab, castle, 846, 681. 
.Aire, territory, 147. 
Aiz (Aquse SextisB), 69, 246, 508. 
Aix-Ia-Chapelle, 171, 246, 532, 544 
Alznaddin, battle-field of, 204. 
Akbnk, 62a 
Alderman, 670. 
Akova, barony of, 196, 85a 
*AKp67ro\is of Constantinople, 7, 

Akhissar, 629. 
Ak>Liman, castle, 862. 
Akschai, 629. 

Aksher (FhUomeHon), 827, 629. 
Alabanda, 264, 629. 
Alacab, 591. 

Ala^ja-Hissar in Servta, 566. 
Alamnt (Vulture's nesti castle o£ 861 
Alaschebr (PhiladelphiaX 629. 



Alsvt, province. 857, 818, 688L 

Alba FooentiA, 6«, 424 

Alba Oneca or BabnriA. See Belgnda 

Alba Petra, 624 

A 11)8 Specula (BlaDchegarde), caette <^ 840. 

Alba Tranaylvaniee, bishopric, 571. 

Albania, 88, 8«0, 619, 624, 685. 

Albano, bisboiHic, 616. 

Albanon, fortress, 624. 

Albara, castle oi; 846. 

Alborracin, 607. 

bishopric, 600. 
Al-Batayeh on the EuphxmtaB, S79. 
Albavcin at Granada, 604. 
Albenga, 610. 
Albigse. See Alby. 
Albigensis Pagns, district, 147. 
Albigeois, visconnty ol^ 242. 
Albon (Danpbiny), connty ol^ 889. 
Albox, border castie, 604 
Albret, viscounty of; 242, 481, 605. 
Albnera, 692. 
Albuquerque, 681. 
Alby, county, 117. 248. 

bishopric o^ 891, 498, 510. 
A1cal& de Hesares, 58a 
Aldmtara, caatle oi; 817. 
Alcazar-al-Kebir, 682, 64& 
Alcazar-do-Sal, 676, 681. 
Alcazar-es-SegBir. 682. 
Alcobaca, abbey, 581. 
AlcobiUaa, 69a 
Alcoll, fortress, 699. 
Alcozer in Valencia. 820l 
Alcoutim, castle, 682. 
Alcoy, castle, 604. 
Al-Djesirah (Mesopotamia). 206. 
Al-Dschezair. See Algiers. 
Alecrrete. 681 

Alemania, duchy, 160, 176, 250. 
Alemtejo, province, 674, 681. 
Alen^on (AJendo), county, 286, 898. 

duchy, 490, 505, 60a 
Alenqucr, 681. 
Aleppo. See Halep. 
Alerik, in Corsica, 58, 610. 
Alesatia. See Alsace. 
Alessandria della Paglia, 412, 609. 
Alessio (Liasus), 624, 685. 
Alcth in Languedoc, bishopric, 510. 
Aletri, bishopric, 61a 
Aletum (Saint Malo), 157. 
Alexandria, in Egypt, 16, 194, 206, 866, 506, 

Al-Faghar, province, 575. 
Alfarrobeira, river, 681. 
Algarve, kingdom, 678, 582, 683, 646. 
Algezlras, 691, 608. 
Algiers, 888, 644 
Algorrabilas, 592. 
Albania (Al-Hamam, the ancient Artigi 

Juliensos), 604 
Alharabra, palace at Granada, 604 
Aliacur, 577. 
Alicante, 591, 69a 
Alicata, 589. 
AljnbaiTota, 679, 681. 
Al-Kasar-Ibn-Abu-Dania, province, 576. 

Alkmaar, 497. 

Allier (Elaver), river, 469. 

Allnbiah (Lubieh>,on the hi]]aorHattln,84& 

Almada, 578, 581. 


Al-Mankeb (Almuflccar), 604 


Almeida, castle, 580. 

Almeria, 818,598, 604, 

Almina, 582. 

Almona r Altmuhl), rivw. 109, 109 K 

Almoural, 574 


Almufiecar. See Al-Mankeb. 

Al-Nedjed, central Arabia, 200. 

Alnwick, 481, 484 


Alpes Maritime, 69. 

Alpheoa, river, 85a 

Alsace, 175, 895, 486, 497, 529, 589. 

Al-Sared (Sarepta), 846. 

Altavilla (HautevilleX 286. 

Altai, mount, 885, 686, 63a 

Altdorf in Uri, 652. 

Altenbuig, castle, 519. 

Altenstein, castle, 449. 

Altinum, 62. 

Altmark, 898, 617. 

Altmuhl, river, 172. 

Alto-Pascio, castle, 420. 

AltUKens (EorkatchX in Khowaresm, 276 

Aluta, river, 254, 815, 569, 561, 570. 

Alverca, 681. 

Alzarquia, defile, 604^ 

Alzontia (Alzette), river, 24a 

Amalfl, duchy, 163, 270, 821. 889. 

archiepisocpacy, 617. 
Amanus, mount, 14, 204, 266, 846L 
Amasia, 28. 264, 68L 
Amastris (Amastra), 874, 626. 
Amathufl (limaaolX 267, 850. 
Ambar, early capital of the Abbasid caUpboL 

Amberieuz, castle, 600. 
Ambeig, 521. 
AmbianL See AmiensL 
Ambrncian gnli; 88, 869. 
Amelia, bishopric, 6ia 
America, discovery of; 224 
Amfingen, near Mliihlbacb, on the Inn, 587. 
Amida (Diarbekir), 18, 205, 681. 
Amiens, 114^ 288, 807. 

county of, 888, 496w 
bishopric of; 890. 
Amlscfi, In Pontos, 874^ 626i 
Amitemum (Amitemo), 56. 
Amol, on the Cao^ian, 209. 
Amorgoe, island, 860. 
Amphipolis, 269. 
Amphissa (Salona), 269. 
Ampurdan, county, 597. 
Ampurias; 184, 248. 
Amsterdam, 497. 
Anafo, 582. 
Anagnia, 422. 

bishopric, 6161 
Anaphi, island, 861. 
Anas (Gnadiana), river, 65. 



Anatolico In Acarnanio. 607. 
AnazarbuB (Anavarza) in Armenia, 14^ 849. 
Anchialos (AhlaU), 688. 
Ancona, 1{», 811, 422, 618. 

bishopric, 616. 
Ancyra (Ankyra). Bee Angora. 
Andakieh, m Syria. See AntioclL 
Aiulalosla, (Andalos), 65, 216, 258, 231, 816, 

834, 688, 691. 
Andectis, connty oi^ 896, 525. 
Andegavi. See Angers. 
Andelaus (Andelot), 147. 
Andinitza, defile, 878. 
Andorre, valley, 248. 
Andria, coanty, 822. 
Andravida, capital, 858. 

bishopric, 867. 
Andros, island, 859, 622. 
Androussa, 8S8. 
Angcrmanland, 441. 
An^ermanna Elv, 225. 
Angers, city and bishopric at, 111, 288, 890. 
Angeln, in Schleswig, 84^ 222. 
Anglesca, island, 800. 
Angora, 27, 865, 680, 689. 
Angouleme, county, 148, 240, 893, 472. 

bishopric, 891. 
Angoomois, coanty, 240, 472, 494. 
Angra. bishopric in Terceira. 685. 
Angus, coanty, 287. 
Anhalt, principality, 586. 
Anjoo, connty, 288, 887, 894, 465, 486. 

duchy, 602. 
AnisibuK (£n8), 250. 
Anisus (Ens), river, 165, 161. 
Annaberg,519. ^ 

Annandale, viscounty, 287, 288. * 
Annecy, lake, 244^ 418. 
Ansbacb, 641. 
Antakia (Antioch), 204. 
Antalia. Soe AtUlia. 
Antequera (Antikira), 604. 
Antibaris, archiepiscopacy, 671, 624 
Antibes, ancient Dishopric, 892. 
Anti-Lebanon, meant, 11,887. 
Antinoe, 16. 
Antioch in Syria, 12, 194, 204, 281, 886^ 846, 

Antlochia Pisidiffl (Ak-Schehr) in Fhrygla, 

19, 264, 827, 629. 
Anti'Paros, island, 861. 
Anti-Taurus, mountain, 266. 
Antwerp, 403. 

Anversa la Normanna, 821, 615. 
Anverskov, abbey, 298. 
Aosta (Augusta), bishopric, 401. 
Apamca (Famieb), 12, 264. 846. 
Aphrodisias (Kis-Liman), in Oilicia, 266. 
Aphroduias (Gheira), in Garia, 21, 264 
Ajwllonia In Bithynia, 264 
Apollonia in Cyrenaica, 17. 
Apollonia in Epirns, 279. 
Ai>ollonia in Macedonia, 269. 
Apollonia (Sizeboli), in Thrace, 626, 68& 
Appenzel, canton, 650. 
Apsos, river, 624. 
Apt, bishopric, 892 
Apulia (Puglla), province, 67. 
duchy, 82L 

Arras, bishopric, 880. 
Aquffl Grani. See Aix la Ghapelle, 171 
Aqu» SeztiflB (Aix), 69, 147, 244 
Aquila, in tbe Abruzad, 615. 
Aquileja, 52, 81. 

archbishopric, 606, 617. 
Aquinum, coanty, 822. 
Aquincum (Acincum), 47. 
Aquisgranum. See Aix la Obapelte, 171. 
Aquitania. 68, 112, 154 228, 240, 887, 471. 
Aracena, 691. 
Arad, comitat, 668. 
Aral, lake, 687. 
Ararat, mount, 208. 
Arabia, 200. 

Arabian empire, 158, 197—212, 274 
Aragon, county, 257, 817. 

kingdom oi; 244 291, 818, 594 097, 

Arak, Ancient Media, 210. 
Aral, lake, 276. 826, 687. 
Aran (Georgia), 20a 
Arar (S&one). river, 70. 
Aranno (Orange), 129. 
Arayolos, county, 584 
Arbedo, battle field, 609. 
Arbe, island, 828. 
Arbia, river, 420. 
Arblay, baronv, 506. 
Arborea, province, 828, 599. 

arcbiepiscopacy, 617. 
Arcadia in Peloponnesus, 196» 621. 
Arcadia, in Egypt, 16. 
Arcadiopolis, 269. 

Archipelago (Nazos). duchy, 886, 618, 622L 
Arcona, in Biigen, 107, 295, 877. 
Arcos, county, 689. 
Ardennes, forest, 246. 
Ardmacha (Armagh), 100. 
Ardres CasUe, in Galaisis, 482. 
Arelate (Burgundy), kingdom, 246^ 889^ 

Arelate (Aries), metropolitan see, 892. 
Arelatensis Provincia, 129. 
Arevaci, in Spain, 128. 
Arevalo, 590. 
Arezzo, 405, 416, 419, 612. 
Arga, river, 184 
Argathelia (Argyle), 101. 
ArgaBus, raoun^ 26,' 681. 
Argelata, county in Bomagna, 410. 
Argenta, countv, 422. 
Argentina CHvitas, Argentoratom (Stra8»> 

Argolis, 196. 
Argonne, forest, 486. 
Ar^os, city of, 40, 269, 856, 858, 607, 621. 
Arjona, 587. 
Arjona, duchy, 588. 
Arkadia (Cypariasia), city, 866. 
Arkenholme, in Eskdale, 288^ 486. 
Aries, city, 69, 246. 
Armagh, 100, 819, 429. 

archbishopric ot, 288. 
Armagnac, faction,476, 484, 494 
Armagnac, county, 242, 478, 481, 505, 608. 
Armenia Antiqua, 25, 95, 208, 266. 
Armenia (Oilicia), kinjsdom, 886, 849, 640. 
Armorica (BrittanyX 70, 111, 148, 146 167. 



Armorieaiiiu TnetaB^ 61. 

Amaafc-IIUAlbantoX 685. 

Arnedo, 600, 

Arnheni, 497. 

Arosia (Aarbans), bisluvrio, 288, 294 

Arrcbste (Arras), 282. 

Arachova, 190. 

Arran, island^ 487. 

Arra.% 496. 

Aniuf, in Palestine. 84& 

«\rta in Epiroa, 607, 621, 686. 

Artasia, castle, 846. 

Artaxata (Arpek), 96. 

ArtoLs, county, 898, 485, 496. 

Artopolion, in Constantinople, T. 

Artornish, castle, 886^ 

Arva, coinltat, 557. 

Arvema (Alvemia), province, 147. 

Arvernos (GlermontX 112, 117. 

Arzen-Kum (Erzeram\ 206. 

Arzilla, 582, 645. 

Asafi, 582, 646. 

Asa-gaard (AzofX 86. 

Asbargli (Asciburgiom), 71. 

Ascalon, in PalestSie, 204, 886, 841. 

Ascanian, lake in Asia Minor, 827. 

AschaflTenbui^ 618. 

Aschersleben, 586^ 

Ascalom, ooontir, 822. 

Ashbnna. See Usbon. 

Ashby-canal, 484 

Ashmnni, In Egypt, 366. 

Asia Propria, 22. 

Asiana Dicecesia, 18. 

Asinelli, tower in Bolcena, 4ia 

Asker-el-Serramenra, WJ7, 274 

Asmlld, convent, 294 

AspalatbuB. Bee Spalatro, 4(L 168L 

Aspendos (ManavgatX 19. 

Aspahan. See Ispahan, 210. 

A&ramosata, in Mesopotamia, 266. 

Assandnn (Assingdon), on the Store, 289. 

Aasiasi, on moant Apennines 422. 

bishopnc, 616b 

Assnan, In Egypt, 866. 
Astorac (Astrac), comity, 242, 481, 606. 
Astacus, 265. 

Asterabad, on the Caspian, 209. 
Astl (Asta), 51, 405, 411, ^4, 611. 
Astorga, bishopric, 598. 
Astrakan, Chanate, 456, 460l 
Astara, 422. 

Astarias (Laa), 217, 255, 816, 588. 
Ataquines, 592. 
Atel (city of BalangiarX 198. 

(Volga), river, 90. 
Aternus (Pcscara), river, 56, 168. 
Ath, 497. 

Athana (Aden), 8, 20a 
Atboy, convention of; 288. 
Athenai, in Asia Minor, 874 
AUiens, in Hellas, 40. 

duchy, 886, 856, 862, 694 618, 619, 

Athesls (Adlge), river, 62. 

Athos, mount See Hagion Oroe, 269. 

AUenn, 690. 

Atlas, mount, 140, 884, 682, 64& 

Atlith (CasUe of the PilgrimsX d42. 

Atmeldan (UippodromeX at CcHirtantino- 

pie, 688. 
Atre, biahoprie, 891. 
AttiSia (Satalieh), 19, 267, 629. 
Atdca, in Bellas, 269, 855, 684 
Attignv, district, 888. 
Attingbaube-n, county, 64B, 
Attinfacnm (Attigny), 181. 
Atora. See Aire. 
Atoris (Adoui), river, 242, 891. 
Auch (kluaa), 68, 112, 471. 
Andenarde, 497. 
AogBbnrg, 250. 

biahoprie, 401. 

republic, 402, 644 
Augusta Emerito (Merida), 124 
Augusta, county in Sicily, 699. 
Augusta Yermanduorum (Saint Quentin^ 

Augustnnm, in ConstaAtin(»Ie, 7. 

Augustamnica (Angostanice), 16u 

Augustodnnmn. See Anton. 

AuKQStowa, 448. 

Auon CUiciua, 14 

Aumale, county, 490. 

Anniz, coonty, 241, 478. 

Aurea Yallis, monastery, 881. 

Aurar, 470. 

Aurftliannm (Origans), HI. 

Auriquinm. See Oorique. 

Ausslg, 615. 

Auseoa, in Astnria, mountain, 217. 

Aussone, 497. 

Aoster (Austrasia PzopriaX 168L 

Austerlitz, 167. 

Austflrdinga, east frith of Iceland, 299. 

Aostraaia (Osteireich), 147, 164, 163, 171. 

Austria (in LombardyX 152. 

Austria, archduchy, 179, 850. 899, 628, 628. 

Austria Begni (Yenetia), 158. 

AuBtnnom (AutonX 288. 

Auihie, river, 474 

Autissiodomra. See Auzerre, 166, 888L 

Aoton, 70. 

bishopric, 892. 
Auvergne (Alvernia), coonty, 840, 887, 

duchy, 600. 
Auzerre (AutiasiodorumX 116, 288, 497. 

bishopric of, 891. 
Avaria or emi^ire of the Avars, 149. 
Avaria(Hunnia), province of Charlemagne^ 

Avaricum (Boui^es), 68. 
Avars, Tartaro-Hannish nation, 98, lOOl 
Avarus (Evre), river, 116. 
Avellum coonty, 822. 
Avoiia See Avignon, 
Aversa (Atella), coonty, 822. 
Aveanee, 497. 

Aveyron, river, 242, 47a ' 
Avignon, 119, 147, 246. 602, 618L 

bishopric, 892. 
Avila, 688, 590, 698. 
Avoata (Aoet^ doohy, 41& 



Avrancbw (Al>rfiica), 111, 147, 4M, 

bishopric of. 890. 
Ayosiik (EphesuB), 22, 629. 
Averbe, ooanty, 697. 
Aybar, 602. 
Ayamonte, 677. 

marqnlsate, 688. 
Aydone, county, 690. 
Ayllon, 690. 
Ayr, coanty,28a 
Aytona, barony, 697. 
Axelhons, cflsU<s 898, 646. 
Azadir, 682. 
Azamor, {^2, 
AzevedoQ, 684 
Azof (Asow, Asagaard, Tana), 86, 610. 

sea of (Palos Maeotls), 610. 
Azores, islands, 678, 689. 

Ba'albek (Heliopolls), 279, 344^ 689. 
Bab-cl-Abnab (Detvend), 96, 208. 
Babylon (Cairo), 866. 
Babylonian Irak, 208. 
Bacs, county, Hungary, 4R, 660L 
Bacs, comitat, 667. 
Badajoz, 8S4, 676, 668, 09a 
Baden, county, 897. 

margnyia^ 688. 
Badenfeld, Baxony, 174^ 
Badcnwciler, 688. 
Badia, desert, 200. 
Badon-Hill, near Bath, 10& 
Badsha. See Beja. 
Baena, county, 688w 
Bietica, 65. 

BsBtis (Guadalquivir), river, 66. 
Baeza, 604 

Baffa, lordship in Syria, 844. 
Baffo (Papbos), on Cyprus, 860. 
Bagdad (city of peace), on the Tigris, 274 

Bagnaoavallo, county, 422, 607. 
Bagnarea, bishopric, 616. 
Bahr-Akabab, gnlf of the Red sea, 202, 640. 
Bahr-Alakdar (Persian gulf). 208, 211. 
Bahr Chozar (Caspian sea), 20a 
Bahr-el-Fars (Persian gulf), 211. 
Bahr Kendan (Lake SpanteX 209. 
Bahr-Kolzom (Red sea), 200. 
Bahr Nitesh (Pontus Euxinns), 208. 
Bahr-Tenls (lake of Menzaleh), 866. 
Bahrein, on the Persian guUl 208. 
Bi^azld, 20& 
Baibnid, defile oi; 874 
Biukal, lake, 686. 
B(^oca (Bayeux), 111. 
Baireutb, Ul. 
Bakony, forest, 667. 
Balanea, castle, 864 
Balangiar (Astracan), 19a 
Balastro, bishopric, 600. 
Balatos, lake, 667. 
BSle. See Basle. 

Baleares Inanlte, 66, 189, 161, 216, 259. 
Balesh. See VelezrMalaga. 

Balkb (Bactra), 218, 876^ 885. 

Balkan, mountains, 06& 682. 

Ballenstedt, 686. 

BaltoSas, 692. 

Bamberg, bishopric, 249, 899, 40L 

republic, 402. 
Bambyce, 12. 
Banat of Temesyar, 662. 
Bangor, bishopric, 108, 43a 
Baqfaluka, 666, 686. 
Banias (Paneas), casfle, 844. 
Banias (Yalenia), castle of the Aesasfiins, 

Bannockbum, battlefield of, 486. 
Bar, duchy, 486, 629. 
Bar-Ie-duc, capital, 486. 
Bar-sur-Seine, castellanv, 497. 
Baranyyar, comitat, 667. 
Barbana (Bojana), river, 6. 
Barbastro, 81& 
Bari>iAno, county, 422. 
Barea (Cyrenaica), in Aftloa, 64a 
Barcellos, 680, 684 
Barcelona, city, 408, 697, 

county, 184 848, 857, 888, 697. 
bishopric, ^00. 
Bardnona. See Barcelona. 
Bardenea, monastery, in East AngUa, 48a 
Bardone (Bard), castle, 4ia 
Bari (Barium), in Apulia, 270, 82L 614 
Bamet, battiefleld, m. 
Bamim, province, 812. 
Barrois (duchy of Bar), 486, 608, 689. 
Bars, comitat, 667. 
Barth, 87a 

Barida, district in Pmsria, 880. 
Baa, county in Sardinia, 699. 
Bas Yalais (Lower Wallis), 66L 
Basantello, 262, 270. 
Basatha. See Baza. 
Basentina, river, 270. 
Basilicata, province, 288, 870. 
Basle, bishopric, 401. 

city, 404 648. 

canton, 66u. 
Bassano. 414 608. 
Basse Marche, conntr if; 889. 
Bassiny, lordship, 629. 
BasBorah (Basrah), 207, 279. 

Batova Castra (Paasau), 71. 
Batavian Island (Holland), 71. 
Batalha, convent, 681. 
Bathalius. See Badajoz. 
Bathonia (BathX bishopric, 48a 
Batbys, in Lazica, 626. 
Battle-Abbey, on the field of Hastings, 89L 
Ban, in Bchleswie, battle of; 444 
Bautzen, peace of, 809. 
Bavaria, 149, 164 161, 176, 

duchy, 260, 809, 898, 622, 687. 
Bayeux (B^oca), 111, 490. 
bishopric of, 890. 
Bayonne, bishopric of, 891. 

city, m. 
Baza, 604 

Bazana, district In Lombardy, 407, 
Bazas, bisboprie, 891. 



Btermviiooan^. 248, 478,494 _ 

Beato Mmria de MeiUerlo, monartery, 890. 

Beaton'» Mill, 438. 

Beaacaire. 4ea 

Boftuce, 487. 

Bdauge, Seigneniy, 418w 

Bea^joIAi^ seignioiy, 500. 

BeftnmoDt county, 490, 494. 

Beaavais, city o^ 807. 

bLnbopric d, 888, 890. 
aeiffnioiy, 28&. 
Beanvaisla, 4^, 

Bcbbanbareh (Bamborough), 148. 
Bedr, battle ot, 903. 
Besia. SeeBeJa. 
Behrine Straits, 400. 
B«^a, 078, 581. 
Beilan-Boghaa, 846. 
Beira, province, 580. 

Beit-Allah (Huose of OodX at Mecca, 20t 
Beit-el-MokkadasL See Jeroaalem, 204, 

Beirut, 844, 

Beisan (Scythopolia), barony at, 84a 
Bekes, comitat, 55a 
BeUd al DJebail (Media), 210. 
Belad Laun (Armenia), 206. 
Belatha, province, 577. 
BelbclB, 860, 
Belch. See Elvaa. 
Belem, near Lisbon, 681. 
Belestina. 878. 

Belfort (£s Shakif), castle, 844. 
Belfast, 429. 
Belglca, 71. 

Belpade (Singidanum), 84, 814, 258, 660. 
Bella Stella, monastery, SOa 
Bellac, capital, 289. 
Bellarad, bishopric, 571. 
Bellesme, county, 286, 
Belleville, seignenry, 473. 
Bell^, bishopric, 892. 
Bellinzona, valley o^ 654. 
Bellosana, monastery, 89a 
Belluno, 607. 

Belograd (Zara Vecchla), 668. 
Bolokome, in Phrygla, 628. 
Beludshistan, 687. 
Belvoir (Elis), 856. 
Belvoir (Kaukab), castle Gt, 848. 
Belz, principality, 451, 668. 
Benacus Lacos (lago di Gard^X ^^ 
Benchor, monastery, 141. 
Beneamia (B6arn), 147. 
Bcneyento, 57. 

arcblepiscopacy, 617. 

duchy of, 152, 186, 261, 821, 

422,444,618. ' 

Ben-Hinnom, valley, 888. 
Benthem, county, 642. 
Berat (Beligrad), 624. 
Berdha'a (Bakavi), on the Caspian, 208. 
Uercgli, comitat, 558. 
Berezina, river, 452. 
Bergamo, republic, 409, 607. 
Bergen (province in N^way), 448. 
city, 228, 408, 44 J. 

Beigen, in HalBMit SeeMoni. 

Beigomnm (B^gamoX duchy, 102, 408L 

Berkeley, castle, 484 

Berlad, river, 570. 

Berlanga, in Castilo, 690. 

Berlin, 898s 517. 

Bemou, 617. . 

Bembura, 686. 

Bemo, city, 400. 

canton, 649. 
Bemer Alps, 649. -* 

Bemicia (Northumberland^ 104^ 148L 
Bemstedt, 517. 
Beronea, in Spain, 123^ 
Berri, county, 288, 466, 480, 491. 60a 
Berwick, city and county, 288, 481. 
Berytus, Beirut, 11, 844 
Besa (AntinoeX in Egypt, 16w 
Besanpon (Yesontio), 71, 246, 894^ 496L 

arcbbishopric, 401. 
Besaestadir, 299. 
Bethania, near Jerusalem!, 840. 
Bdthenoourt, 478. 
Bethlehem, near Jerusalem, 11. 
Bethlehem, near London, 484 
Bethlehem, in PcxiugaL See Belem. 
Betshean, (Tell Beisan), 11, 848. 
Bevem, 497. 
Bezalu (Gomii BifmldenBis, Besal&l county 

244, 818, 697. 
B6zicrs, 124, 167. 

county, 818, 498. 

bish<»rio, 892. 
Blala, 452. 

Biarmeland (Permia), 86, 226w 
Bihar, comitat, 658. 
Bibbiena, on mount Apennine, ^t^ 
Bid, 561. 
Blelograd, 467. 
BJelosersk, principality, 468. 

republic, 459. 
Bies-Bosch, 497. 
E^eshezk. principality, 460. 

Btgha, 629 * 

BIgorre, county, 242, 47& 

Biledshik (Belokome), in Phrygla, e98L 

Blllakos, river, 265. 

Biminacium (Oradlstie), 84 

Binasco, 408. 


Bldrkd, in Sweden, 190. 

Bjorgwinn (Bergen), 228. 

Bira, castle, 846. 


Biscaya, 257. 

Bisinfanum, 270. 

Bistriz, comitat, 669. 

Bistritza, xiver, 670. 

Biterrao (B^ziers), 124, 167. 

Bithynia, 28, 827, 870, 628. 

Bitnriges (Bituricie). See Booncea, 681 

Bizerto. See Hippo-Zarytos, 2ia 
B\axfpycu, palace In Constantinople, T, 

826, 351, 865, 688. 
Blachia (Thessaly), 824. 
Blackheath, near London, 484 

OBoeaAFmcAi. wdex. 


BlMkenbnrg, In Btxony, 810k 

Black Bussia, 402. 

Blackball, near London, 484. 

Blancalanda, monaateiy, 890. 

Blancbcgarde, castle, 841. 

Blankenbnrg, county, 542. 

Blavet, river, 470. 

Blekinga-«7, on the Baltic, 222, 292. 

Blektnge, province of Denmark, 222. 295, 

Blendonbnrg, capital, 562. 
Bloia, oonnty, 288, 888, 491, 492, 505. 
Bloreheath. 484. 
Boandus (Boyne), river, 100. 
Bubbio, 412, 418, 609. 
Bobruisk, 462. 
Bobry, 462. 
Bochnia, 450. 
Bocholt (Buchholz), 174. 
Booo, cape in Sicily, 5& 
Boden-see, 176, 896. 
Bodonitza, nuu^rraviate, 865, 868L 
Bodrog:. river, 658." 
Bodrogb, comitat, 557. 
Bofaeim (Bohemia), SO, 107. 
Bohmer Wald (Bohemian forest), 25a 
Bohmish-Brod, 615, 
Boeotia, 196, 269. 

duchy, 886, 865^ 862, 594, 618, 619, 
Bogesund, 489. 
Bohemia, 80, 107. 

duchy, 250. 

kingdom, 829. 

electorate, 518, 514. 
Bojoaria. See Bavaria. 
Boiohcnnm (BofaemiaX 81, 107. 
Boitro (Innstadt), 48. 
Bojano, county, 822. 
Boioduram (Innstadt), 48, 182. 
Bokhara, 212, 275. 886. 
Bolghar Dagh, Cilician pass, 266, 681, 640. 
Bologna, 153, 408, 410, 618. 

archbishopric, 617. 
Bona (Hippo Begins), 62, 218, 822, 64a 
Bonna (Bonn), on the Rhine, 71. 
Bononia (Boulogne sur mer), 18U 
Bononia. See Bologna. 
Borbetovagus (Worms), 71. 
Bordeaux (Burdigala), 68, 112, 115, 241, 
408, 471, 481, 484. 

episeopal see, 510. 
Bordelals, district, 481, 484. 
Bordshila-el-BaljuI, 604. 
Borgland, 294. 
Bonssow, 452. 
Bormida, river, 412. 
Borna, 619. 
Bornhoved, 876, 877. 
Bornholm (Borgnnderholm), island, 81, 

222, 292. 
Borough-Bridge, near Burton, 484. 
Borsod, comitat, 658. 
Bosnia, kingdom, 868, 568, 565. 

Turkish Elalet, 685. 
Bosna, river, 168, 666. 
Bosna-Serai, 685. 

Bosphoroa (Tbradaa), T, 88S. 
Boephorns (Taurian), 226. 
Bosphoros (PantlcapoBum), dty, 870, 8T1> 
Bosporus. See Bosphorua 
BoBtra (Basra), 11, 204. 
Bosworth, 488, 484. 
Bothfeld, in Saxony, 810. 
Bothnian Gnli; 301. 
Botrion, in Syria, 845. 
Bouillon, duchy, 489. 
Boulogne, county, 232, 468, 484. 
Bourbon, seigniory, 288, 469. 
Bourbon PArchambaud, seigniory, 288, 499. 
Bourbonnais, duchy, 469, 500. 
Bourgea (Bituricaj), 68, U2, 116, 806, 888, 

viscounty, 288. 

bishopric, 891. 
Bovianmn, finstaldate, 152. 
Bovines, in JPlanders, 467. 
Boyne, river, 100. 
Braavalla, batUe-fiold of, 190. 
Brabant (Lower Lorraine), duchy of, 897, 

Bracara. See Braga. 

Braclaw, province in Lithuania, 462. 

Braga, 66, 266, 580. 

Braganpa, city. 580. 

duchy, 584 
Braino-Yale^n, county. 489. 
Brancaleone, county, 422. 
Brandenbuig, margraviate, 89a 
electorate, 518, 517 
, bishopriC|,401; 
Branitzowa, fortress, 868, 566. 
Brannlbor (Brandenburg), city, 517. 
Branzholm (Branxome), oojrder-castle, 28a 
Brassa, island, S2a 
Braunsberg, 449. 
Bray, in Ireland, 429. 
Brechin (Brechinum), suflhigan of Bt 

Andrews, 287. 
Breda, in Brabant, 497. 
Bregentz, lake of (Boden-See), 896. 
Bre|;etio (Szony), 47. 

Breidfjord (western coast), of Iceland, 299. 
Breisgan, 897. 
Bremen (BremenX city of; 174, 222, 810, 

Bremen, archbishopric, 401. 
Brescia, 406, 409, 607, 609. 
Breslau (WraslauX 250, 812, 516. 
Bresle, river, 236. 
Bresse, lordship, 418, 468. 
Bretagne (BrittanyX county, 287. 

dnchy, 470, 486. 
Br6tigny, 462, 464. 
Bretland. See England, 282. 
Bridge, castle at Antioch, 846. 
Brie, county, 468. 
Brieg, 516. 

Brienne, in Champagne, 48a 
Brignais, 469. 

Brindisi, in Puglia, 862, 607, 614 
Britannia Bomana, 78, 111, 
Brittany (Brctagne,'tbo ancient Armorioal 

146, l67, 2287887. 
Britonoro, county, 422. 




Brixen, bishopric, 401 

BrixU (BresciaX dueby ot, 152. 

Brumsebro, treaty o*; 441. 

Brundolo, castle, 603. 

Bruniberg, 449. 

Bruchinin^ qaart«r of Alexandria, 16. 

Uriinn (Br'noX capital, 516. 

Itrugea, 807, 408, 4^, 496. 

Bninanbargti, near Lincoln, 221. 

Bninkeberg, battle of; 440. 

Brunnen. in Schwyz, 552. 

Brunswick-L&neborg, dachy, 893, 522, 588. 

Brunswick, fireetown, 402. 

Brasa (Proaa), la Bithynia, 851, 264^ 027, 

Bruttinm, proTince, 57. 
Braxelles, 497. 
Bryneich (Bemida), of Nortbomberiand, 

Brzesc, province, 449. 

city, 452. 
Booclench, border castle, S88L 
Bach, captalat o^ in Gnyenne, 484. 
Buda (AcincnmX 45, 47. 
Buda^Pesth, 88, 149, 258, 562. 
B&dingen, county, 542. 
Budja, in Africa, 888, 644. 
Bndmn, Ualicamassos, 21, 860, 629. 
Bug, river, 812, 449. 
Buffey, county, 418, 468. 
Buitrago, 590. 

BouKoAfWK, palace in (Constantinople, 7. 
Bukowina, province, 451, 559. 
Bulair, castle, 682. 
Bulak, in Egypt, 860. 
Bnlga (Yoln), river, lOa 
Bukarest, 570. 

Bulgaria, kingdom, 195^ 824, 808, 867, 563. 
Bulgar-Ili, Turkish province, 568, 685. 
Bnonctinvento, in Tuscanv, 420, 511. 
Burcbana (Purcbena), 60C 
Bnrdigala (Bordeaux), 68, 240. 
Burdigalensis Pagus (district of Bordeaoz), 

Boren, on the Beins, 810. 
Bui garia, district, 407. 
Burgas (Debeltos), 688. 
Bnrglannm (Borglandi in Jutland, 222, 294. 
Burglen, in Uri, 552. 
Buwos, city and county, 256, 58S, 589, 590, 

Burgunderbolm (Bombolm), 81, 222. 
Burgundia Ci^urana, 228. 
" Trasiarana, 228. 
*♦ Minor, 896, 400, 548. 
Boignndise, regnum (Arelate), 246. 
Burgundy ^Burgund), kingdom, 148, 154, 

157, 182, 218, 888. 
Burgundy, cmnty of (Franche oomtd), 

288, 468, 485, 496. 
Burgundy (Bonrgogne), ducby o^ 289, 806, 

898, 465, 485, 496. 
Burgundy (Upper). See Franche 0)mt6. 
Buria, castle, in Palestine, 848. 
Bamabadsbe(TroyX 269. 
Burzenland, district, 559, 561. 
Busontinua, river, 57. 

Bnsk, city fa Poland, 451 

Bwta Gotkorum (Oallomm) battlefield, 

Bnka'a, valley of Baalbek, 845. 
Buttauf; valley in Galilee, 84& 
Bate, island, 487. 
Botera, principality, 599. 

Bnthrinto, 607. 

Byblus (GebaU), 845. 

Byzacena, province, 6L 

ByzacinmjKabes), 61, 218. 

Byzia, in Thrace, 858. 

Byzantiam (Constantinople), 7, 186. 

Byzantine empire, 158, 218; 261, 281, 824» 

868, 870, 618, 625. 
Byiantino monoments, 68SL 

Ca'aba, at Mecca, 201. , 

Cabadonga, grotto, 217. 

Gabes, near Tonis, 648. 

Gabilonam (Ch&lons sur S&one), 119. 

Gabira (Sebaste), 25, 681. 

(}abo Tormentom, 586. 

** deBoa£speranca,586. 
Oabnl, in ZabnUstan, 257. 
Cadiz, 408. 

** marquiaate, 588. 
Cadarcinas Pagus (Cadurcom). See C«- 

hors, 117, 147. 
CSaen, 484, 490. 

Caerleon upon Usk, capital of Wales, 108. 
Gaermarthen, 108. 
GaSrmardon, monastery, 488. 
Gaesarea, in Africa, 2ia 
Gsesarea ad Argaeum, 26, 681. 
Gnearea, in Palestine, 11. 
** Barony, 842. 
Gaesarea, in Pontus, 874 
Cassarea, in Thessaly, 269. 
Gsesarea (Yacur). in Mauritania, 68. 
CaBsaiaugusto (Zaragoza), 184^ 257. 
Gaesarodunum (Tours), 70. 
Ca&rta^ casUe oC 846u • 

Gaffia, in Crimea, 871, 610, 622. 
Gagli, bishopric, 616. 
Cagliari ^Gabalis), 53, 699. 

** archiepiscopacy, 617. 
Gabon, ooanty o^ 248, 47a 
•« bishopric 891, 510. 
CiTcjis, Tiver, 9*4 
CaUijtit^ ^Ctttitntiti»]a), diocese, 220, 887 

Cfljolnm <Giu;taK lOL 

QalabrU, rr.-. . T, 162. 

(L;li L:-l.:^rlia,)272. 
*' diu'Liy. !2^l, 821. 

Ctilflla atiiiS). H 'l**^, 4T4. 

♦^ (CnlBictlii). ciiiiHty, 488. 
Cfllnris (i.-fltfUari), i\^ 
CBlalabeUola, MiDiity, r»99. 
CaUtayiUl, 818, m, 507. 



Gahtnya, et^Oe, 814L 

Calecnt, in India, 641. 

Cal^sia, district, 484 

Caliphate of Bagdad, 274 

Caliphate of Egypt, 281. 

CallirrhoS (Edeasa), tn Mesopotamia, 18. 


Calpe, 197, 215. 

Calvary, at Jerasfdeim, 889. 

Calvi, 610. 

Calycadnns (Seleph), river, 449. 

Camaldoli, monastery, 490. 

Camaraeom (OambraiV114. 

Camarata, ooonty, 599. 

Cambral, coonty and city, 807, 467. 

bishopric, 890, 401. 
Cambria, kingdom, 108, 148. 
Campagnadi Soma. 618. 
Campaldino, battlefield ot, 420. 
Camerino, bishopric, 616. 
Campania, district, 57, 422. * 
Campen, Hansetown, Mb, 
Campillo, treaty of; 594. 
Campo Santo, of Pisa, 417. 
Campi OotMd, on the Daero, 216. 
Cananor, kingdom. 640. 
Canaries, islands, 579. 
Gandia (Crete), 859, 607. 
Candida Casa (Hwitemel 287. 
Canea, in Crete, 859. 
Canche, river, 474 
Gangas de Onis, 265. 
Canna (Canns), coanty, 8221 
CanosSA, castle, 261, 811. 
Cantara, castle, 599. 
Canterbury (Dnrovemnm), 78, 221, 
Cantr^ or districts in Wales, 482. 
Cantwarabnrgb (OanterbtiryX 104 221. 
Cantware, Gantia (Kent), 104 t 
Caonrcin. See QaercL 
Caonis. Bee Cahom 
Capaccio (the ancient Pawtam), 57. 
Cape Finisterre, 217. 
Cape Yerde, islands, 678, 686. 
Capitanata, Greek province, 270, 822. 
Capo d'lstria (lasttnoDolls), 187. 
Cappadocia, 26, 266, ffi7, 628. 
Capri^a, island, 417. 
Capsia, In Africa, 822. 
Ci4>ua, city, 57, 186. 

" archiepiscopacy, 617. 

** gastaldate, 152. 

" principality, 257, 821, 822. 
Cara Dagh, in Syria, 846. 
Caravaggio, 609. 
Carcassona (Carcassonne), 124^ 818, 2i 

county ol, 242, 818. 

bishopric, 892. 
Carchis (KerkeriX Island, 822, 699, 648. 
Cardiga, castle, 579. 
Cardona, viscounty, 497. 
Carcntanum. See Carinthla, 178. 
Carta, in Asia Minor, 21, 870, 629. 

^*!S5*«St(^^™^«")> <l«»<*y» 178, 260, 81 

ostf, 525, 526. 
Carlat, county, 594 
(^arlingfurd, 429. 



» bishopric, 488. 
Corlovingiao, canal in Franconla, 17& 
Oariovingian domains, 281. 
Carlovingiou empire, 154 
Carlsbad, springs, 515. 
Corlstein, cnstle, 516. 
Carmel, mount, 8^. 

Camiola (Krain), duchy, 899, 522, 62S, 626. 
Camotis (Ghartres), 111. 
Camuiftum (PresburgX 47. 
Carpathian, mountain, 76, 109, 812, 886^ 

555, 560, 670. 
Carpentras (Carpentoracte), 129. 

bishopric, 892. 
Carpi, principality, 606, 611. 
Carrara, in Tuscan v, 41& 
Garrick, county, 287. 
Carrick, castle, 288. 
Carrickfergus, 429. 
Canrion, battlefield, 266. 
CariJiage, 60, 140, 194 2ia 
Carthago Nova (Garthagena), 66, 124 
Oarthaginiensls, provlnda, 66L 
Carthmell, monastery, 48& 
Cartslacus (Quierzy), 181. 
Casalecchio, ooun^, 410. 
Casentlno, 416, 416, 420. 
Gashel, bishopric, 288. 
Caspian Sea, 276, 826, 686, 683w 
Caspius, mount, in Tabaristan, 277. 
Cassandria, 269, 652. 
Caflsel, in Flanders, 467. 
Cassel. capital in Hesse, 540. 
OastelDo, viscounty, 597. 
Castellon, 598. 
Owtalooa, 820. 
Castellanuire, in Sicily, 699. 
GastigUone (ChatillonX 4ia 
Castle of David (Tower of HippionsX 88& 
Castle Dangerons, 486. 
CasUe of the Pisans (HippicnsX 88a 
Castello Ferentlno, 4&i. 
Gastello del Uovo, at Naples, 424 
Castile, kingdom, 256, 281, 811, 817, 687, 

CSastoreia, in Macedonia, 858. 
CaStres, county, 480. 

" bishopric 510. 
Castro-Giovanni (Enna), 822, 609. 
Castro, county in Aragon. 697. 
Castro (on Li^ Boteena), bishopric, 616w 
Castro-Tomese, castle o^ 366. 
Castro-Marim, castle, 682. 
Gastrum Album, in Hungary, 662. 
Castrum, duchy in Tuscany, 152. 
Gatalanni (Ghfiilons snr Mame), 117. 
Catania, 599. 

Gatherlough (Gariow), county, 288. 
Cattaro, gulfof;568. 
Caucasus, mount, 8, 77, 87, 90, 92, 207, 8S6» 

Caucaland (G^rpathifin rangeX 90. 
OavadoDga, Abbey, 266. 
Cazubia, province, 812. 




Geo, in OastUe, 690. 

OebeniM Mons (G6TeimMX16& 

CeiU6, in Stcil/, OM. 

CeUa, If ver, S65. 

CeldwCMUca (Central Gaul), 70. 

Cembalo, in Crimea, 871. 

Cenia, mount, 51. 

Centena (Hundreds), aabdivision of Carlo- 

▼ingian terrltonr, 170t. 
Cephalonia, islAnd, 27a 

« dnohv, 860, 621. • 

Gephifliafl, river in Bceotiat 866, 6M. 
Gerdana, Beigneonr, 248, 818. 
Cerdlcsforda, 101 
CerasuB, in Pontus, 28w 
C^igo (CytberaX island, 8S0. 
Certosa, convent, 000. 

Cetius Mons (Kalemberg), 48. 
Cettina, river, 187. 

Cento (Septum), 128, S14, 668, 678, 688, 645. 
Cevennea, mounts, 460. 
Cbabarda, caatle, 246. 
Chnroneia, 269. 
Cbaipba, selgnenry, 843. 
Cbalandritza, barony, 857, 85a 
Cbalkidian CherBonese^ 269, 625. 
Chaibar, Jewish capital in Arabia, 202. 
Chalke, island, 862. 

Chalkls, fortress in Euboea, 269, 865, 869. 
ChAlons sur Marne (CatalauniX 17. 
" bishopric, 809. 

" county, 288, 497, 606. 

Chalons sur 84one (CabilonumX city, 119, 

« county, 289, 892, 497. 

Champagne (Champain), ooonfy, 284, 888, 

468, 484. 
Chantareyn. 8ee Santarem. 
Cbantoceaux, eek^eury, 466. 
Charnel house ofMorst, 654 
CbariopoliB, 682. 
Charollals, 499. 
Chartres (CamotiB), lit 

** county, ^888, 898, 491. 
** bishopric of, 891. 
ChAteau Dun, viscounty, 888, 491, 494. 
ChAteau-du-Lotr, 465. 
Chfttelard, castle, 600. 
ChAtean-Thierry, 489. 
ChateUts, the castles of Paris, 464. 
ChatiUon de P^rigord, battle d; 498. 
Chaamont, county, 806. 
Chaves, 680. 
ChazariA, 198. 
Chelb. BooBilves. 
Chelidromi, island, 860. 
Chelm, principality, 45L 
Cbelonatas, promontory, 858. 
Chenchii^ province, 675. 
Chendny, diet oA 446, 450 
Cherburg, 490. 

Cherlca. 8ee Xeres de los CaballeroflL 
li.(p<Taia tt(x% Byzantine walls at Ccm- 

stanttnople, 7, 688. 
Cheraon (C3her8o^eso, Sewastopol), 6, 109, 

864, 270, 871, 610, ^^'^ ^ * 

186, 270, 871, 6ia 
Cberso, island, 828. 
Chercz (Kertsh), 871. 
Cheviot hills. 286. 
Chiambery, 418. 
Cfaiablesa (ChablaisX 418. 
Chiamnonte, 699. 
Chiarenza. See Glareua. 
Chierasoo, 611. 
Chieri (CairiumX 411 
Chiliana (KielX capital 877. 
Chillon, castle, 244, 418, 661. 
Chimay, 497. 
Chlnon, castle, 479. 
Chintra. Bee Clntra. 
Chlny, county, 497. 
Chios, island, 22^ 862, 869, 870, 610^ 828, 

Chiaey, 476. 

Cfalomntzi (Castio-Tomflae), In Ella, 86a 
ChoAspea, river, 211. 
Cholm, territory, 460. 
Cborasmia, (Khowaresm), 27a 
Chorsun (abyra), 629. 
Chozim, 67a 
Christiania, capital, 44& 
Ghristiansand, 448L 
Christmemel, eastie, 462. 
Chrobatla, (Croatia) inrevlnce, 812. 
XovffOK^pas (€k)lden Horn), 7. 
OArpaomUium^ in Constantinople, 7. 
ChrytotricHniutn, 7, 262. 
Chulrke (Oortcl 219. 
Chulu, in Africa, 218, 
Chur (ColPel 60, 176^ 401, 66t 
Ciaoomo, cdbnty, 699. 
Clbalis (SvileiX 47. 
abyra, te9. 

Cicestria (Chloester), bishopric, 4Sa 
Cllida, 14, 366, 849, 680. 
CiUclan defiles, 204, 266, 846, 681, 640. 

straltB, 14. "^ "^ ' 
ClUey (CiUjrt, county^a 659, 663. 
OimhHoa Char9one9U8 Jutland), 7a 84 
Cimmerian Bosporus, 109. 
Cinarca, 610. 
Cinca, river, 597. 
Cintra, 677, 681. 

Circles, Kreis€ of Germany, 647. 
Cirencester, 221. 
Clrta (Constantina), 62. 
Os-Danubian Chxde, in Hungary, 667. ' 
Cistertian convents in Denmarlc, 29a 
Cis-Tibiscan c^e, in Hungary, 667. 
Cition, In Cyprus, 267. 
Ciudadela, 69a 

Ciudad Roderigo, bishopric, 69a 
dvUaa AwtrtcB (Forum Juliil 187. 
CivitasPaee. SeeBeia. 
Civitella, batUe ot^ 83L 
Clasanoeastcr (Chichester), 104 
Clairvaux, monastery, 892. 
Clara Insula, convent, 294 
plarendon, 484 
CUudlopolIs, 28, 265. 
CUusnra, Bmicti BaatUl, 867. 




aermoat (ClunaB Mons), 112, 117, 240, 46& 
biBb<^rlc, 891. 

coiintj, 806, 808, 888, 469, 488, 
016768 (Kleve), duchy, 522, 681. 
Clinnus (Glain), river, 116. 
Clonmel, castle, 429. 
Glontaii; battie ot, 288, 
CluniaoeDse Monasterioin, 288. 
Clus(B Francorum (Leaser Saint Bemaid), 

Glnsinm (CbinsoX dachy» 168^ 
Clyde, river, 288. 
Goalee, river, 8 IT. 
CobleDZ (Conflaentes), 71. 
Coca, 690. 
Gocbin China, 686. 
Godanas SinuB (Baltic), 75. 
C611d, in Brandeaban;, 617. 
Coimbra, 816, 674, 68a 
Colre (Chur), bishopric, 401, 651. 
Coesfeld, 408. 
Col de Panizars, 697. 
Colberg, 408. 

Colapis (Knlpa), river, 47. 
Golibre, seignory, 698. 
Goliseam In Rome, 811. 
Cologne (Koln), 71, 246, 402, 40a 

electorate, 618. 
Colonia Agripphia (Cologne), 71. 
Colosso, castle on Cyprus, 860. 
Ck>los8iB (CaioniB), in Fhrygia, 264. 
Column of Constantine, vS^ 
of Tbeodoaias, 688. 
Comana Pontica, 28. 
Camaroaa, in Portugal, 578b 
Combrailles, barony, 600. 
ComUatuSy counties, of Hungary, 814. 
Commagena (Asia Minor), 849. 
Couamacchlo, 168. 
Commanderies ot the military orders in 

the Morea, 867. 

of the Teutonic order, 881. 
Commingea, vlBoouoty, 818. 

county, 242, 478. 
Como, republic, 828, 412, 4ia 
Comom, 268. 

Compile (Compendium), 281, 484. 
Compsa, county, 822. 
ConUhure (Commanderies), 881. 
Concordia, 62. 

Cond^ city in Hainaut, 497. 
Condom, bishopric, 610. 
Conflana, county of, 818, 608, 609, 693. 
Confluentes (Coblenz), 71, 246. 
Congo, coast ot, 686. 
Cionnacia (Connaught), 100, 219. 
Cunsentia, in Calabria, 57, 822. 
Consoransis Pagus (district of Cons^rans), 

Constance (CostnitzX bishopric, 176, 401, 

411, 614, 644, 

lake, 176, 896. 
Constantia(ConstanzaX on Cyprua, 14 261; 

Coubtantiana, 269, 

GonfttBntlna(OirteX in Africa, 68, 648. 
Constantinople ^zaatiumX 7, 187, 194^ 

Oontad^ districts of Cyprus, 850. 

Coniado of Florence, 416. 

Convenas (Ciommingee), 147. 

Copenhagen, capital, 298, 408, 444, 646i 

Copper mines of Sweden, 440. 

CorSavia, county, 668. 

Corbeil, county, 286, 888, 694. 

Corbi(}a (Ck>rvey), monastery, 8901 

Ck>rbes, river, 67& 

Corbie, 496. 

Corcagla ((3ork), 219. 


Corcyra. See Oorffi. 

Cordova, 66, 124, 215, 218, 268, 687, 588^ 590« 

Corfinium, 56. 
Corfb, isUmd, 270, 823, 860. 
Corinthus, 40, 186, 269, 866, 620. 
Coria, 676. 

bishopric, 699. 
Cork, county, 219, 28a 
Comu GaiUcb (Brittany), 157. 
Cornwall, 106, 167. 
Coron. See Koron. 
Ooronovo, in Poland, 449. 
Correggio, principality, 606, 611. 
Corsica, 68, 189, 151, 828, 895^ 417, 6ia 
Cortenuovfl, battle 04 409. 
Oortona, 405, 612. 
Cos, island, 22, 862. 
Cotanda, in Spain, 818. 
Cottbus, 617. 
Cottiae, Alpes, 51, 14a 

province, 168. 
Ck>tyceon (Kutayah), 264, 629. 
Coucy, barony, 806, 488, 494 
Couesnon, river, 28a 
Coulogne, city and castle, 474. 
CourUnd, bishopric, 880, 449, 464. 
hereditary duchy, 454. 
Courtray (Kortryck), battle ot 467. 
Contancee, viscounty of, 286^ 82L 

bishopric, 890. 
Cracow, capital and province, 250, 812. 
Cranganor, kingdom in Hindoostan, 64L 
Cratda, in Asia Minor, 266. 
Crawford, 104. 
Cr6cy, 825, 464, 591. 
Oema, 406, 607. 
Cremona, 405, 409, 4ia 
CMpi, capital, 488. 
Greta (Candla), 89, 194, 251, 261, 26a 

duchy, 869, 6U7. 
Oimea, Chanate, 456, 460. 
Crimea (Taurian Chersonese), 6, 185, 194, 

270, 871, 610, 622, 68a 
Grispium (Cr6pi), 288. 
Croatia, province of. 260, 812, 814. 

Un^m of; 218, 260, 812, 814, 56a 
Ooja, capM and fortress, 624, 685. 
Crofvon lands of Romania, 8da 
Cruland, monastery. 221, 488, 
Caanad, coQiit«t, QOa, 


OleaMMB, 4m fhe TIgrts M, aor. 

CoenzaVKQTenka), 884, 588, 600. 
CnennvdbTii (OMnntrthen), 108w 
Ci4avia» proTince ot, 812. 

auchy. 449. 
Callen, in Bootland, 830. 
Calm, in Prnarfa, 822, 8T9, 880, 881, 449. 
Calznbach, 541. 

Onmberkuid, 108, 284, 999» 4SL 
Ciineo, 61L 

Carlo Haf; eatoary of tlie Baltic, 879. 
Carta. BeeCoria. 
CtiTzoIa, island, 82a 
Cydnoa, river, 14, 887. 
Cydadlan islands, 22, 268, 889. 
Cvdlaana, 264 

Cfyrntmbd or TaBeya in Wales, 482. 
Qypraa, 14, 194, 267. 

kingdom, 886, 800, 607, 610, 611 
Cyrene, 17. 
(^renalca, 17. 

Cythera (CerigoX idand, 22, 270. 
(^anad. bishopric, 571 
Ciartorisky, principality. 451 
Ciaslaw, principality, 451 
Czasniki, 452. 
Czeniagora (Montenegro), prindpaUty in 

▼oiTodat in Servia, 666. 
district in the Morea, 196. 
Ciersk, principality, 449. 


Dacia, 88, 84, 258, 661 

for Denmark, 107. 
Dagfie, island, 877, 880. 
I>ag6etenon. moant, 827. 
D^ame, 225, 801, 48S, 440. 
DaleU; river, 440. 
Dalibra, in Paphlagonia, 265. 
DaUsandnxs in Ciltcia, 266. 
Pahnatia, 46, 137, 194, 260, 272, 814, 568. 
Dalrlc on Locb-Awe, 486. 
Dalshmd, 849. 
Damanbar, 866^ 

Damascus, 11, 194, 198, 204^ 281, 887, 689. 
Damghan, in Taberistan, 209. 
Damietta, in Egypt, 866. 
Dammartin. county, 488. 
Damnonia, in Cornwall, 108. 
Danaster (Dniester), river, 88, 90. 
Dandaca, In Crimea, 92. 
Daoemark (Denmark^ 85, 144, 190, 218, 

281, 292, 428, 488. 
Danevirke (Danish Wall) in Sohleswig, 190, 

222, 249. 
Danish islands, 222. 
Danzig, 408, 449. 
Daphne, imperial palace at Constantinople, 

Dapfani, convent, near Athena, 8B8. 
Dara. fbrtress, in Mesopotamia, 18, 185. 
Darah, state, in Africa, 696. 
Paran, iaiaud, 862. 


Dardanos, 268. 

Darantasia (Modtier), 69, 401, 418. 

Daroea, 818, 695, 597. 

DaroB, seignory, on Mount Carmel, 849. 

Dascyllon, river, 268. 

Datia (Ibr Dacia, Denmark^ 107. 

DaaUan, 269. 

Da^hin6 (Delpfainatna), 808, 898, 465, 488» 

Dani^iB^ d^Auveigiie, 501 
Davoa, valley, 551 
Dawmat-al-Jandal, in Arabia, 902. 
Dax (Aqoib), a^tal, 242. 

bishopric, 891 
Debil (near Bi^azid), 20& 
Dee, river, 482. 
Deggendorl^ 527. 
Debeubartb (South Wales), 108w 
Deira, Northumberland, 104 148. 
Dejar Bekir (Diarbekir), 206. 

Mesr (Emt), 206. 



Delhi in Hindoostan, 276, 687. 
Delmenborst, county, 542b 
Delphi, 269. 
Demetrias. 269, 87a 

Denia, in Valencia, 820, 09a 
Dervend, on the Caspiai), 96, 208, 816L 
Derventer, 178, 24a 
Dessau, 586. 

Deutsch-Brod, in BobemliL 615. 
Deuteron, at Ck)n6tantinople, 85a 
Despotos, mount, 269. 
DiariMkir (Amida), 18, 206. 

sultanate of; 281, 82a 
Dibra, in Albania, 624 
DiiHifkt (Tigris), river, 207. 
Didymoteichos (Tymotikon), 858, 682. 
Die, capita], 49a 

bishopric 0^ 892. 

Habat (Atlas Minor), 582. 


Samantan, 604 

Tario (Gibraltar), 215, 591. 

DJedda, port of Mecca, 201. 
DlenicHe (Abdera), 80. 
Djesirah-al-Arab (Arabia), 200. 
Dien, island, 474 
Dieu d^ Amour, castle, 850. 
Digne (Dinia), 129, 

biahopric, 892. 
Dijon (Diviona), capital. 289, 46a 
DUem (Dhilem, GhilanX 209, 277. 
Dimetica (Wales), 108. 
Dimotika. See Didymoteichos. 
Dinarian Alps, 86S, 56a 
Dindymon, mount, 264 
Dinia (Digne), 129. 
Dioceses of the Boman empiret, 6L 
Diokaisareia, in Gappadoda, 266. 
Dionysopolis, 26a 
Diospolia (LyddaX 840. 



Dirlnil, ctfUe, M4. 

Disentis, abbey, 561. 

Distos, In Eaboea, 855. 

Ditmarskem 84, 877, 898» 488, 445, 588. 

Djumna, river, 275. 

Dmitrow, principality, 458. 

Dnieper, rhrer, 226, 254, 805, 884, 885. 

Dniester, river, 258, 254 

Doboka, comltat, 560. 

Bobrena, in the Morea, 196. 

Dobrodshe, on the Danube, 569. 

Dobryn, voivodat, 449. 

Dobrzyn, province, 449. 

Dodder, river, 429. 

D5fflngen, battle ot, 52a 

Dol, blsboprio, 89a 

Dollard, bay, 497. 

Dolnk, castle, 846. 

Dombes, seimionr, 500. 

Dome of Milan, 609. 

Domfront in Normandy, 490. 

Domremi, near Tool, 486. 

Donoratico, 599. 

D<«i (Thanais), river, 76. 89, 90, 254» 689. 

battlefield on the, 456. 
Dendremonde, 497. 
Donjetz, river, 802. 
Donzi, barony, 467, 485. 
Dordogne, river, 188, 498. 
Dora Baltea, river, 401. 
Doris, province, 878. 
Domacn, near Bade, battle ot; 668. 
Dorpat, bishopric and dty, 880, 882, 449. 
Dortmond, 408. 
Dortrecht, 497. 

DorylsBom, 264, 825, 827, 627, 628. 
DouDs, river, 468. 
Douglas, castle, 486. 

oonnty, 287. 
Dovre-Fjeld, 22a 
Doweir, castle, 84a 
Dragotha, 264. 

Drave, river, 45, 47, 48, 260, 559. 
Dresden, 247, 619. 

Dreox, county, 286, 846, 888, 481, 494. 
Dristra (Silistria), 867. 
Dresnec, in Bclavonia, 260. 
Drinon Albula (White Drin), river of Al- 
bania, 624. 
Drinus (Blade DrinX river, 6, 565, 566. 
Dronais, 475. 
Drucz, river, 452. 
Dsbesair, eialet of; 684. 
Dshnf'Garbieh (Delta), 86a 
Dubis (Dubs), river, 71. 
Dublin (Eblana), 100, 221.288, 292. 
Dttcatus JtOia (Schleswig), 295. 
Duchies in Lombardy, 162. 
D&na, river^a 805, 884, 462. 
Dueseford (Wexford), 219. 
D&ssoldori; 582. 
Duisburg, 408. 
Duivelaud, 497. 
Duilia (Dftren), 171. 
Dnlcigno, 624. 
Dumet-al-DjondoI, 202. 
Dumferline, 220. 
DmnMea, 288, 48a 

Dunbar, castle, 48a 

Dunblan, 287. 


Dundrum, castle. 429. 

Dungannon, casUe, 429. 

Dunkeldeu, 287. 

Dunkirk, 40^ 49a 

Duuois, county, 494 

Dunstafhage, castle, 286 

Duomo d'Ossola, 609. 

Dupplin, battle of, 48a 

Durance, rivw, 618. 

Durazzo (^m-hachiumX 88, 186, 279, 8M» 

Durham, palace, London, 484 
Durham, bishopric, 48a 
Durlach, in Baden, 58a 
Duracortorum (Bheims), 71. 
Durovemum (OanterburyX 7a 
Dyflin (DuWinX 100, 279. 
Dyppel in Schleswig, batUe of; 444 


achinm. See DurazEO. 


Eaglesford (Aylesford), 104 

East Anglia, 104, 148, 289. 

East Flanders, 497. 

East Gothland, 489. 

Eastern Lapmark, 441. 

East Indian conquests, 57a 

East Seazas (EssezX 104 

Eblil, mount, 842. 

Eblana (Dublin), 100. 

Eboracum (York), 7a 

Ebonja (Epoiedia, Ivrea), Lombard duoby 

marquisate, 246, 251. 
Ebroica (Evreux), 115. 
Eburodunum (Embnm), 69, 14a 

E<3.n, dvc.r, 292. 
EdoasjL, tn Mesopotamto^ la, S8G. 
county, 33a, 347, 3631 

Edinlmr^h (EdinX litift, 4m. 
EdjiifmdJibury, tiji>ciiiitanf, 43a 
Edrrnt' (Adrktioplo), IMj/(ia* 
Egii. ■ t^-^de. In PortugftU B*9h 
Eg ^« routine, bonier cuatle. 263. 
Egljirnl (Uekml), tPknd, 22^. 

Egrthiis. Seu i^utioeo., U% 30ii, SSTi, SftS, SatJ, MO, 641. 

Elaiiiii n, on tha Dannbo^ 544. 

Elt'l^^iVltl, 61 a 

Ei( Ji^raat, bialiofiirit', 4ftl. 

Ei.l.rii (iJJdcr), riv*r, ie7,£M. 

Eiii^fili'ifl. flbWj, ftD3 

Ei^tTil^urx, cOiuIiAt, 65T. 

El^^lt'ben, 519. 

Elfiv< r {AlHifT), rlv(!r, lU 

ElLiii, j!^laoc£. 4 IT, Ul. 

EllKi (Alhls), rlvdf, n, 7S, ftSS, 1D6l 

El-Bahftri (OoUb), 20(1. 

Elberfeld, 532. 


KIMog, 882, 449. 

£Ibira (Granada), 210. 

£l.Biren, near Jeruaalem, 840. 

Elboras (mount Gaacasiu), 20a 

Elche, 598. 

J^ Dibaghah, at Jemaalero, 889. 

Elena (Elna), 124 

Elensls, 269. 

El-Fandak, 604 

£I-Fo8Ut (GairoX 206. 

El-Hedjaz, 201. 

Ella, 190, 209, 860, 858. 

EL-Karkb, baza'ar at Bagdad, 207. 

£l-Ko<la. See Jemsalem. 

EUerdie (Paialey), 436. 

Else, capital, 248. 

bishopric, 892. 
Elster, river, 810, 519. 
Elosa (Anch), 68, 112, 2il. 
Elvaa, 5T6, 681i 
Elvend, mount, 210. 
El-Wahat, 206. 
Ely, 290. 

bishopric, 488. 
Ely O'Oarrol, 429. 
Embnm (Eboroduniun), 69, 246. 
Emesa, 11. 

Emirate of CordoTa, 197, 19a 
Emporium (GenoeseX at Ck>nBtaiitinopIe, 

Encolismensis Pasnia, 148. 

Engaddln, valley, 651. 

England, kingdom at, 218, 281, 282, 376, 

English conqnests in France, 475, 476, 477. 
Entre-Doaro-e-Mlnho, province, 680. 
Entre Tejo-e-Gnadiana, provinoe, 581. 
Eoforwic (York), 148, 221. 
Ephesua, 22, 268, 629. 
Epidam'OB (Fidaaro), 196. 
. Ephraim, mount, 885. 
Epinut 88, 860, 621, 624^ 685. 

despotat, 872. 
Epstein, coanl7, 642. 
'Ewrawipyiov (the Seren Towers), at 

Ck>n8tantinople, 7. 
Epte, river, 28i5. 
'Ewtrpoirot (cnropalates), 262. 
Erdelv-Grszag (Transylvania^ 656. 
Erekll, 628. 

Eresbarg (StadtbeigenX 174 
Erftut, M, 518. 
Erin (Ireland), 100. 
Erlau. bishopric, 571. 
Ermeland, district, ~" 

Ermings' Btrede, 22l. 

Erimokattron, castle, 855. 

Erzerum, 208, 631. 

Era-Gebirge, 78, 619. 

Erysima, in Clsppadoda, 266. 

Erythream mare (Indian ocean), 96 

Escalona, 590. 

Esdreelon, plain cd^ 848. 

Esia, Eana or Issra ((Mse), river, 18t 

Eskanderiah (AlexandriaX 206. 


Eaki-HIssar (Alabanda), 629. 

Esii-Karahlflsar (Bynnada), 629L 

Eskl-Sohehr. See DozyliBimL 


Espartel, cape, 682. 

Espila, 697. 

Espinal, 629. 

Earom, abbey, 298. 

Es-Sham. Bee Damasenai 

Es-Sham (Syria), Mohammedan provtoM^ 

Essex (Est-Saxonia), 104 
Esalingen, 644 

Estampes, visooonty, 888, 486. 
Este, marqnisate, 896, 606, 611. 
Esthland (Esthonla), 806, 877, 880, 454 
Estoi, 575. 
Estrollar, 602. 
Estremadnra (Spain), 68a 
Estremadora (Portagal)r 681. 
Ethandnn (Eddington), 221. 
£t-Tih, desert, 841. 
Etzelborg (Buda Pesth), 122. 
En, county, 806, 49a 
Enboea (Negroponte), island, 269, 366» 8611^ 


bishopric, 864 
Euripos, strait, 859. 
Enropa, province, 80, 269. 
Enrymedon, river, 19. 
Energetes, monastery of the, SSa 
Evreux (Bbroica), 116. 

county, 806. 894, 49a 
bishopric oi; 890. 
Evre (Avarus), river, lia 
Eyafjord (north land), of loeiand, 299, 
Eye-€K)thland, 85. 
Eyubid empire, 86a 
Exarchate of Bavenna, 168, 262. 
Exerica (Jeriea), duchy, &9a 
Exonia (Exeter), bishopric, 488. 
Extrema Durii (EstremadnraX 26BL 


Fabriano, county, 422. 
Feer-6er, 224, 800. 
Fffisula. See Fieaole. 
Fagaias, district, 669. 
Fidaise, 490. 

Falera (Falisl), bishopric, 6ia 
Falkenburg, 629. 
Falkirk, 486. 
Falkoping, 48a 
Falster. island, 298, 878. 
Falsterboe, castle, 645. 
Falun, 440. 
Famagusta, 860, 6ia 
Famieh, 12. 

bishopric, 616. 
Fannm Sancti Begnii (8L Andrews^ S 
Faramiah (Fehisiam), 20a 
Faro, in Algarve, 677, 68a 
Farringdon, 484 

Fars (FarsistanX in Persia) 211, 277, 9 
Fatimetic bian^ of the Nile, 866. 



FtivuAgay. loTdshlp, 418. 
Fangbard, river, la Ireland, 888. 
Faii0tinop<^ 266. 
Fe^ervar, comitate 669. 
Ferentino, 422. 

bisfaoprie, 616. 
Ferlorinm, battlefield of; 822. 
Fermo, arcblepiBcopocqr, 617. 
Femiburst, border casUe, 288. 
Ferrara, 168, 406, 6ia 
Fersala (PbarealusX 878. 
Fez, kingdom, 214, 645, 646. 
Fezenzac coanty, 242, 481. 
FichM Gebirffe (pine monntalnsX 78. 
JPidalgos, In Portugal, 677. 
Flesole, 66, 406. 
Fife, county, 287. 
Plgueras, fortrefls, 697. 
Filibe. See Pbilippopolis. 
Fineka,1n Lycia, 629. 
Finnland, 801, 442. 
Fjord, district in Norwj^, 19a 
f^orduDgar ^waids), in Iceland, 299. 
Flamborongn, cape, 148. 
Flaminia, province, 68. 
Flandere, county, 282, 898, 467, 486, 542. 
Flavia Caesariensis, 78. 
Fleetditcb, 291. 
Flensborg, 294 
Flevo (Zuider Bea), 80. 
Flodden Field, battle o( 485. 
Florence (Florentia), 65. 

arcbbisbopric, 617. 
county, 262. 
dncby, 462. 
repnblic 415, 416, 612. 
Florence, in Guyenne, 478. 
Fly-Tower, at Acre, 842. 
Fodewig, In Skaane, 298. 
Fo^a, Baracen colony, 424 
Foligno (Fulcininm), 618. 

biiboprlc, <(16. 
Foix, county, 248, 806, 47a 
Fontanetum (Fobtenay), battie oi^ 228. 

monasteiy, 890. 
Forbelet, castle in Galilee, 842. 
Forqualqnier, connbr, 246, 60S. 
Forez, county, 469, 600. 
Forli, 158, 406. 
Formigny, 490. 
Forum Arcadii, 7. 

Gonstantinl, 7. 

Julii (Friuli), dncby, 162, 187. 

Julii (Frejus), 69. 

Tbeodosii, 7. 
Fossalta, 410. 

Fossombrone, bishopric, 616. 
Foss-Wieg, 221. 
Foug6ro8, county in Brittany, 287, 898, 490, 

Fraga, battlefield oi; 818, 697. 

Fbance, kingdom, 218, 228, 281, 875, 886, 

428, 461. 
Franco (Isle de France), dncby, 286. 
Francbe-Gomtd (High Burguudy), 809, 

408, 490. 
Francbe Garde, castle, 844. 
Francia Antiqna (Franken), 229. 

I Fnnda Nova, 229. 
' OrientaMs, aw, 

Bhenensis, 249. 

I OrientaMs, 159, 249. 

Frandacum (Fronsac), 188. 

Franconia, ducby o^ 149, 169, 249, 809^ 

Frangipani, county, 422. 
Frankfort, on tbe Msdne, 544 
Frank mountain, near Bethlehem, 840. 
Frankiah. kingdom, 145, 147, 154^ 189, 22a 
Frascati, bishopric, 616. 
Fraxinetum, 21 a 

Fredeiida, in Jutland, battle oi; 444, 
Freiberg, in Baxony, 519. 
Freiburg, in Baden, 5da 
FreleBelchsUidte (Imperial cities), 61, 402L ' 

425,544 /» *i -* 

Frelsingen, bishopric, 401. 
Frejus, 69. 

bishopric, 892. 
Freqnento, county, 422. 
Fretum Gallicum (the channel), 71. 
Fresnada, village of, 8ia 
Freyburg, in Switzerland, 54a 

Canton, 660. 
Friedland, 617. 
Friesland, duchy, 258. 
county, 485. 
Fxlsic-Hai; estuary of the Baltic 879. 
Frith of Forth, 287. 
Frisia (Friesland), province, 166, 17a 
Friuli, marquJAate, 187, 252, 607: 

(UdineX city, 187. 
Fronsac, 49a 
Fulah (Faba), castle, 84a 
Fucecchio, lake, 421. 
Ffinf kirchen, 686. 

bishopric, 671. 
Fuente-Duefia, 690. 
Fnente-Segnra, 590. 
Ffkrstenberg, county, 642. 
Ffirstenfelde, convent, 627. 
Fulda, abbey, 177, 899. 
Funchal, 686. 
Fundi, county, 822. 

Fyen (FioniaX island, 86, 222, 298, 87a 
FyUcM- (districts), 228, 29a 

Gabala (Gibel), 84a 

Gaeldooh (the Highlands), 101. 

Gaeta. principality, 261, 821. 

Galatfi, suburb of Constantinople, 7, 861, 

859,871,610,622. *^ 

Galata, tower o^ 871. . 
Galati, castle in Arcadia, 85a 
Galicia (Galloecia), in Spain), 66, 255, 816, 

Galicia (Lodomeria), kingdom, 668. 
Galilee (Tiberias), principality, 34a 
Galindia, district in Prussia, 880. 
Galitscb, principality, 45a 
Gallsecia (Galicia), 66. 
Gallipoli. Bee KallipoUa. 
Gallfpoli, in Italy, 607. 



GaDowaj, lordship ot, 287. 

coQDtj, 288. 
QaJilmtiy province, 888. 
Oanda (GandX 181, 882. Bee Ghent 
Oandto, duchy, M8. 
Gandawyk (White Sea), 226. 
Ganges, river in India, 686. 
Gangra, 28, 266. 
Gap, bishopric, 892, 
Garb-Naath. See Granada. 
Garda, castle, 252. 

lake, 252, 608. 
Cku-darlke (Russia), 22& 
Garfiignana, district, 417, 612. 
Gargano, mount, 252, 822. 
Garigliano, river. See Liria. 
Garisenda, tower in Bologna, 410l 
Garizim, mount, 842. 
Gartempe, river, 289. 
Gascogne (Vasconia), 68. 

duchy, 241, 887, 471. 
Gate of Saint Stephen (Jerusalem), 88a 
Gates of mediaeval London, 484^ 
Gatinoi^ viscounty, 888. 
Gaudium Sanctn Mariie, monastery, 890. 
Omten {pagi, districts), 79, 280, 245. 
Gaularo^ near Trondl^em, 297. 
Gaure, county, 478, 481. 
Gauthiod (GutaUmd), 106. 
Gava (Gave), river, 242. 
Gaza, castle, 841. 

Gdansk (Danzig), city and fortress, 888. 
Gegio (G^on), 217. 
Gcldem. See GueMers. 
Gellheim, battle of; 511, 621. 
Gemersheim, 521. 
Geneva (JanaaX 119, 182. 

county of; 244, 889, 54a 
bishopric of; 892. 
Oenezareth, lake, 84a 
G^nin, castle, in Palestine, 84a 
Genoa, marUime republic, 828, 871, 414, 

610, 617. 
Gonussos, river, 624. 
Gepidse, kingdom of the, 122, 149. 
Geppingen, 895. 
Gera, on the Elster, 810. 
Gerace, county, in Sicily, 699. 
Geraki, barony, in the Morea, 857. 
Gerbes, island, 822, 599, 64a 
Gergovia (Clermont), 289. 
GERMAN Empire, 218, 228, 247-260, 876^ 

894—404, 511—547. 
German principalities, 63a 
Germania, 71, 76, 228. 
Gcrmanica, castle, 847. 
Gera, river, 47a 
Gestelenburg, county, 561. 
Ge8trikelan(^ 440. 
Getulia, 884 
Oliasna, 275. 
Ghemlik (Kibotos), 62a 
Ghent (Gand), 181, 288, 467. 
republic of; 888, 49a 
Ghilan, 277. 
Gianuli, island, 417. 
Gibelin (Beit-Gibrin), castle o£ 841. 
Gibraltar, 215, 591, 60a • 

Giengen, 527, 644. 

GigUo, island, 417, 611 
Gihon, vaHey, 88a 
G^on (Gegio), capital, 217, 266w 
Girona, duchy, 597. 

Glnigewo, 570. 
Gladsn " ' 

more Heath, 484 
Glandeve, bishopric, 898. 
Glarenza, castle, 856, 607, 621. 
Glams, canton, 549. 
GUiscuensis Provincia, Episcopal 8e« of 

Scotland, 287. 
Glasgow, city, 28a 

college, 485L 
Gleichen, county, 642. 
Glogau, 516. 
Gnesen (Gniesno), archbishopric, 260^ 81% 

Gnoyen, in Yendland. 87a 
Gobsenm, promontorium, 67. 
Godoland, on the Baltic, 90. 
Godosconzla, castle of the Gotha, 90i 
Ch>mor, oomitat, 55a 
Gorz (GurcaX bishopric, 401. 
C^ttingen, 810. 

Golden Bom, port of C!on8tantinopleL 9L 
"1" 610, 68a «^ -» -» 

G* 'iilEJi, fortri.tjis> iit'sr Tutds, 64& 
Goi^-tlio, Bt Junisttlcm, 3^0. 

Gt^rl^li^'[^ p^ciclpaJihr of, 611, 
G ►. li ll^]j«, cape, bf^ 5Sa 

Gi»n/in {fir-rs), wjunly, 525, 
QfiTinlii^ J rlnnJpQlity, 4^ 
QvriYtiti (kfliniirSoni}, In Crete, S9. 
GcrtvH {Scvt\A}, In ArcadSji, &*6,86a 

Grhln ^CtvitHb), Jtlnirdom, 217, 365. 

Gcibif .tUtea In Bpahi, 217. 

GoTliltind iGolbiai, 225. 4J59, 

Goihluad (Gultoud), Mha6, ^25^ 880, 44^ 

GothoUiunia (Catalonia), 86T. 
Gtoumay, baron3% 490, 494 
Gozzo, island, 599. 

Grade (VenloeX archiepiscopacy, 617^ 
Gradlsca, in Friuli, 62& 

Grafen-Ganen (Pagi), 167. 
Grafenstein, castle, 588. 
Grampian HSlla, 102, 287. 
Gran (Strigonium), 25a 

comitat, 557. 
Granada, 8ia 587, 590, 608, 604 
Grand Oommand^ries, 881. 
Grandella, plain, 424 
Grandpr4, county, 489. 
Graona ((irone), river, 28a 
Granson, 495. 
Grasse, bishopric, 892. 
Gratia Dei, monastery, 891. 
Gratzina, in Messenia, 85a 
Grandenz, 449. 
Gravina, county, 828. 
Great Saint Bernhard, 401. 
Great Wardein, bishopric, 671. 
Greek Empire. See Byxaatino Empire 



GTeeDland, 888, Sfd, 448 (addendft). 
Gronoble, 248, 460. 

blshoprie, 892. 
Oritzenat barony, 857. 
Grody border-eastlefl in Poland, 818| 448. 
Grodnisch, oonn^, 668. 
Grodno, 462. 
Grone, castle, 810. 
Groes-Oomthnrei of tlw Teatonic Ordor, 

Groasa^ Island, 828. 
Gruningen, 628. 
Griknwald, battlefield of, 888. 
Gmsia (Gmsinia), 208. 
Guadalete, river, 197. 
Goadali^aia, 816, 688, 600. 
Gaadalayiar, liver, 820. 
GuadalqnivirXBcBtisX riyer, 6^ 604. 
Gnadarraina (Diebal Scharrat),866, 688L 
Goadix, 098, 604. 
Goadiana, river, 68,816L 
Guelders, 497, 680. 
Gnesclin, castle, 470i 
Gustrow, 684. 
GnildhaU, in London, 291. 
Gnimaraes, capital, 6H 680. 
Guinea, 686. 

Gnipnscoa (Tpnsooa), province, 267, 688. 
Gnisnes (Gaines) 282,482,464,474 
Guldbrandsdaleh, in Norway, 228. 
Gnldholm, convent, 294. 
Gulland (Gothland), island, 444, 
Gnttenstein, castle, 524 
Gnyenne (Goienne), 898, 471, 481. 
Gozzerate, in Hindoostan, 661. 
Gwynedh (Venedoda),108. 
Gypsies* Island at Belgrade, 666k 

Habaknk. castle, 842. 

Habsbnrg (Habiobtsbnrg), castle, 628, 64a 

connty, 896. 
Habeal, in Esthland, 877. 
Hadaland, district, 190. 
Haddeby (Schleswl^^ 222. 
Hadrnmetam, 60. 
Haecbtngen, 541. 
HsBmlmonfl, province, 80, 269. 
Hnmimontia, province, 268. 
Hemns, monnt, 269. 
HaftU%^ Arab students, 6461 
HaAir^ord, batUe of, 22a 
Hagion-Oros (Athos), 269. 
Haghil Trlanda, 62a 
Halnant (Hennegau), county, 467, 486, 497, 

Halberstadt, bishopric, 401. 
" * CBeroa), dty, 204. 


urklsh principality oC 281, 887. 
HalikamaasoB, 21, 26T. 
Ualicz, HaUtch (Oalicia), prindpaUly, 802, 

Hallcz, Greek patriarchate, 671. 
Halland, in Denmark, 190, 298, 8Ta 
Halydon Hill, near Berwick, 484.- 
Halys, river, 266, 626« 


Hamab, 887. 

Hamaboxg (Hambarg), castle, 174, 

Hambiug, an^bishopric, 222, 247. 

hansetoKm 810, 877, 402, 406, 
Hamadan (Ekbatana), 210 
HamametjHadrametnmX 60, 218, 648, 
Hamath (Epipbania), 204 
Hamee, castie in Calaista, 474, 48a 
Hamid, province, 62^ 629. 
Hamlin, in Syria, 847. 
Hanan, coun^, 64^. 
Hanover, banaetown, 40a 
Hapebnig. SeeHabsbnig. 
Harab, moantains, 201. 
Handdsborg, castle, 29a 
Haraldsskov, forest near Boeskilde, 29a 
Earamut or Mohanunedaii sanolxuay at 

Jerusalem, 889. 
Harcourt, county, 490l 
Hardewyke, 497; 
Harem, castle, 846. 
Harflear, siege oil 478, 490. 
Harlem, 497. 
Harom, district, 569. 
Hairan, in Syria, 847, 681. 
Harrien, province, 877. 
Hartee-Berg (Mount Harz), 249. 
Haizbnrg; castle, 810. 
Hassia, landgraviate, 898, 640. 
Haut-falais, Upper Wallis, 65t 
Hantecombe, abbey, 4ia 
Haute Marche, county, 289. 
Hautevtile, casUe, 286, 821. 
Havel, river, 617. 
Havelberg, 617. 

bishopric, 401 
Hawarden, castle, 48a 
Hazseg, comitat, 659. 
Hebrides, islands, 219, 221, 286, 800, 481, 

Hebdomon, palace at Constantinople, 7, 68a 
Hebms (Maritaa), river, 85a 
Hecia, monnt, 298« 

Hedemark, district in Norway, 190, 22a 
Heide in Ditmarsken, 68a 
Heidelberg, 620, 621. 
Heiligberg^ county, 64a 
Helligland. See Helgoland. 
Heimsheim, 628. 
Heinsburg, in Beig^ 581 
Helgoland (Forseteland), 80. 
HelTas, 194, 269, 628. 
Hellenoi>ontns, province, 28. 
HeUenstedt, 627. 
Hellespontus, province^ 21 
Helligbo^ (Hdybrook), in Sdileswift 821 
Helsingalaiid, W^ 801,44a 
Helvetia (Burgnndia Minor), 182, 809. 
Hemmingstad, 446i 
Hennebei^, county, 641 
Hennebon, in Brittany, 470. 
Hennegau. See Hainaut 
Heptanomis, la 

Heptarchy (Anglo Saxon), 148, 281. 
Hendea (Perinthns), 80, 269, 869. 
Heiadea Ponttoa, 28, 874, 681 


HenMdeft, In YenetJa, 879. 
Herat, 918. 

Biarcwiiw Saltus^ T8. ^* 

Hereford, btehopric, 4SS. 

Ueriedalen, 228, 440, 441. 

Herlstal, cwUe, !<», 17L 

Hermanstadt, 661. 

Ifennitage, border castle, 488. 

Hermon, mount, 844. 

Hermits, river„21, 864 

Herndsand, 441. 

Utrredtr (hiindred8)Ji82, 290. 

Osrring-JisheriM in Denmark, 64BL 

Henitze, 29a , 

Hertfae insnla, 222. 

Herthe, valley of, 106. 

Herzegowlna (San SabaX prlndpaUty, 665. 

Hesse. Bee Hassla. 

Hevea, oomitat, 668. 

Hexham on the Tyne, 484 

Hlalteland (the SheUand Islands), 224 

fiibomla (IrelandX 100. 

HJemteland, 22& 

Hierasus (Pruth), 90. 

High Burgundy, free county, 468. 

JUfffUandii of Scotland, 220. 

Sighroadg in Poland, 818. 

Hli (lonaX island, 101. 

HUar, barony, 697. 

HildeeUeim, 249, 408. 

bishopric, 401. 
Hiltersried, batUe oi; 621. 
Himalava, mount, 687. 
Himmalaya, monntains, 197. 
Hiodmend. river, 212. 
Hindoetan, 276, 826. 
Hippica^ tower oC See David's Tower, 

*linroZp6i*jos^ the Atmeidan, at Constan- 
tinople, 7, 226, 262, 688. 
Hippo Beffiua, or Hippone (Bona), 68. 
Hira, on the Euphrates, 19& 

kingdom, 20a 
Hisn-el-Kasir, 676. 
Hispalis. See Bevilla, 66. 184 
Hias'r-ol-Akrad, castle, 846. 
His8> Sandfihil, 846. 

Hlade, in Norway, 22a 
Hledru (Leire), in Sealand, lOa 
Hochberg, casUe, 68a 
Hoddom, castle, 28a 
Hofktedt, 810. 
Hohenberg, 810. 
Hohenlohe. 452. 
HohenRtadTen, castle, 810, 89S. 
HobensoUem, county, 617, 641, 649L 
Hohls Oa8M, at KOasnacht, 668. 
Hoi born vineyards, 291. 
Holdoun Hill, near Melrose, 486. 
Holland, county, 24S, 400, 486, 497, 648. 
Holomucz (Olm&tzX 614 
Hollow Laoonla, 86a 
Holmgard (Novogorod,. 
Holstehi, county, 82, ita 894» 877, 896, 444 

Holswierd, 497. 

Holmn, episoopal see in lodancl, 899, 418 

Holy Sepulchre, at Jergsalem, 889. 
Holzatia, Holsten. SeeHolsteln. 
Homildon-HUl, 484 
Honein, valley, 802. 
Honfleur, 490. 
Honorias, province, 2a 
Honth, comltat, 667. 
Hordaland, district In Norway, 19a 
Horeb (Hor), mount, 11, 842. 
Horodloie. in Poland, 461. 
Horvath-Orszag (Sclavonia), 669. 
HoopAtium Sanon Johannl at Jarusalem, 

at Acre, 8^. 
House of Wisdom in Cairo, 880. 
Hoya, county, 642. 
Hradschin, at Prague, 616. 
Hradisch, 614 
Huelva, 687. 
Hnerta of Valencia, 820. 
Huesca, 818, 696. 

Bimdr^ia, Anglo-Saxon, 221, 290. 
Hungarla Nigra (TransylvaniaX 814 
Hungary, kingdom of; 218, 268, 287, 814^ 

Hunyad, comltat, 660. 

HusslnecK, 516. 

Hydrea (Idra), island, 869, 680w 

Hydrontum (OtrantoV 270. 

Hyhrima, 629. 

Hypata (Nee Patree), capitaL 269, 87a. 

Hymettus (Monte Matto), 68a 

Hypanis (Kuban), river, 92. 

lassos (As6m-Ealesi), clly In Carla, 96a 
Ibar, river, 664 
Iberus (EbroX river, 167. 
Ibelin, castle, 842. 
Ibn-Kasin, 676. 
Icauna (Tonne), river, 70. 
Iceland, 29a 

I-Colm-Kill, 101, 220, 286. 
looninm (EonlehX 19, 264^ 826^ 887, 687, 
628,680. /» . -» --^ 

Idanha-Yelha. castle, 679, bishoprie, 698. 

Idsted, battlefield of; 222, 444 

Iglau,614 ^ -^ -» 

Ikaros, island, 26a 

Illon (Troy), 26a 

lUa (Isle), river, 289. 

lUlberi (Granada), metropoUtan see, 594 

lUyricum, 82, 46, 182. 

Ilmen, lake, 107, 226,469. 

ImaQs (Emodus), mountains, 88. 

Imbros, island, 261, 269. 870, 871, 610, 681 

Immervad, battle oC 444 

Imola, 168, 406. 

Imperial cities, 71, 408. 

Inada (Thynias), 684 

Indian Ocean, 197. 

Indre, tifret^ 479. 

Indus, river, 197. 



Ingelhdm, ITl. 


Inn (AennsX river, 182. 

Inner-Szolnok, comitat, 669. 

Inni^l, Island, 286. 

Inoni, 628. 

Innstadt (Boiodurum), 4B. 

Inspruck, capital, 526. 

Insula SancU Jolii, dachy of, 162. 

Intramonti (Piedmont), principality, 418w 

Inver-bervy, 486. 

lona (cell of 8aint Gelumba), island, 101, 


episcopal see, 286. 
lo&nnina, in Albania, 360, 624, 685^ 
Ionia, in Asia Minor, 870. 
Ionian Islands, 860l • 
lonopolis, 266. 
los, island, 622. 
Ipek, patriarchate, 671. 
Ipore(Ua or £boreJa (Ivrea), 162, 246, 261. 
Ipsara. See Psara. 
Irak, 829. 

Irak-Arabi (Babylonia), 207, 829, 281, 268. 
Iran (Persia), 888. 
Iran, sultanate, 828. 
Irati, river, 184. 
Inninsevie, 174 
Ireland (Hibernia), 100, 141, 218, 288, 876, 

Irtisch, river, 68& 
Isitfa or Esna (Oise), river, 181. 
Isara (Is^re), mer in the Alps, 69. 
Isauria, 14, 827. 
Isenburg, county, 642. 
Ishbilia. SeeBevilla. 
Isle, river. 478. 
Isle de France, duchy ot, 806, 888, 464^ 

Isle-Jourd'ain, county, 478. 

Islington, 434. 

Isnikmid. See Nicomedla. 

Isnik. See Nicffia. 

Isny, 644 

Isonzo (Sontios), river, 62, 180. 

Ispahan, 829. 

I«parta, 629. 

I8schilli(l8anria), 640. 

lasel^ord, frith in Sealand, 106, 292. 

Istakhar (Persepolis), 211. 

Istambul (Constantinople), 688L 

Jstambul-Boghazi (BosphorusX ^^ 

Isthmus of Suez, 206, 

Istib (Stoboi), 88. 

Istria, 62, 187, 252, 60T. 

Istroe, city on the iDanube, 269. 

Italy, 49, 188, 189, 162, 168, 186, 186, 187, 

261, 252, 270, 271, 272, 821, 822, 828, 406- 

424, 606-617. 
Itbnmi, 628. 

Ithaka. island o^ 270, 860, 621. 
Itbapoiis, 269. 
Itius (CiOais), 78, 251. 
Ivrea (Iporedia, Ipor^a), marquisate, 261, 

Iwerskoi, monastery, 469. 

Jaca, county, 267, 695. 
Jacob's Fora, castle on, 844. 
Jadera (Zara), 168, 260. 

** archieiriscopacy, 671, 
Jaen, 587, 588, 690. 

Jsemboera-land (mining district), 226, 440. 
Jaicza, 665. 
Jaknbi, 21& 
Jantra, river, 660. 
Janua f Geneva), 119. 
Janua (Genoa), 158. 
Jaroslawj;>rincipality, 468, 668. 
Jaschy (Tassy), capital of Moldavia, 67a 
Jauer, duchv, 455. 
. Jaurium. bee Baab. 
Jays, county, 418. 

Jazartes (SUrnn), river, 197, 212^ 826, 689. 
Jazygea, 83, 45, 90, 660. 
Jedburgh, castle, 288. 
Jelez, principality, 458. 
Jellinge, in Jutland, 222. 
Jemteland, 441. 
Jerusalem, 11, 194, 204, 886. 

^ kingdom oi; 836-848. 
Jerven, province, 877, 
Jesi, bishopric, 616. 
Jezreel (Esdrselon). plain oi^ 848. 
Joigny, county, 489. 
Joinvllle, lordship, 489, 629. 
Jomsboi^ republic of pirates, 296, 877. 
Jotunheim (Finnland), 86. 
Joppe (Yafa), 204. 
Joeselin, 470. 
Jiilich-Berg, duchy, 582. 
Julian Alps, 62, 251. 
Jurburg, castle, 452. 
Jurumenha, castle, 577. 
Jnstlniaua Prima (Ulpiana), 86. 
Justinopolis (Capo d'Istria), 187. 
Jylland (Jutland), 82, 294^ 878L 


Kadesiah, 207. 

Kadmus, castles 864. 

EiLmthen. See Oarlnthia. 

Eainurion (Gortynal 89. 

Kahira (Cairo), 866. 

Eairouan, 198, 218, 280, 281, 888, 64& 

Kalsarieh, In Palestine, 204. 

Eaiserwiese, 527. 

Eaiserswerth, 810. 

Kalaat Jahasseb, 604. 

Kalamata, barony In Messenia, 866, 85T. 

Kalauria (Poros), island, 859. 

Ealavryta, barony, 857, 86a 

Ealemberg (Mons Cetius), 48. 

Kalendshan, castle, 864. 

Kail Kala, defile, 208. 

Kaliscb, province, 812, 449. 

Kalka, river, 804, 816, 886, 466w 

Kallipolis, duchy of^ 859, 629, 683. 

Kallnndboig, 298. 



lUoiDM, prtndpaUtj, 468L 

KalQga, 4S8. 

Kalrmn^Ni, idand. SOT, 868. 

Kama, river, 195^ 460. 

Kamienlec, 452. _ 

Kainp, plain in Holateis, 877. 

Kanain, castle, 864. 

Kandahar, 689. 

Kandura, 62a 

Kanobin, patriarchate, 846. 

Kanodflchl, 275. 

Eantarim. See Santarem. 

Kanthara-el-Seyt Bee Alctotara. 

Kijtchak, on the Volga, 886, 4B6» 688. 

Karabana, 680. ^ ^^ 

KararDenghiz (Black Bea>, 688. 

Karaman, province, 628, 680. 

Karasl, province^ 628, 629. 

Karakomm, capital of the Mongols, 885. 

Karitena, barony, 857. 

Earkis. See Carchia. 

Karlsbnrg, 662, 67L 

Karmath, 299. 

KarrsB (Charran), 205. 

Kart-Blrt, castle, 847. _ ^_ 

Kaaan, chanate gt, 456, 460, 68& 

Kasbek, 90, 208. 

Kasbln, 277. 

Kashgar, 687. 

Easimow, principality, 468. 

Kasaerea. See Cacerea. 

Eastalona, 604 

Kastellorizzo, 629. 

Eaatemoni, province, 626, 680. 

Kastroma, principality, 468. 

Katal, villages of the Petchegenes, 264. 

Kathay (China), 686. 

Kardtrrwov (Bosphonis), 7. 

Eatolimne, 610. 

Kattegat, 222, 294. 

Kanf beoren, 544. 

Kehef, castle on Mount Lebanon, 861 

Kelle, in Macedonia, 269. 

Kells, synod ot, 288. 

Kemnitz, mining district, 660. 

Kempten, 544. 

Kenilworth, castle, 484. 

Kenisa-el-Gorab, 676. 

Keos, island, 856, 622. 

Kerak, castle Ot, 842. 

Kerasos, 874 

Kerbela, on the Euphrates, 207. 

Kerkoporta (Circui^ate), at Constantino* 

Kerman, province in PersiiL 212, 628. 

Kermian, province in Asia Minor, 628, 629. 

Kerpen, 682. 

Kerry, county of, 288. 

Kesch, in Bukhara, 687. 

Keydany, province, 462. 

Kexholm, 301. 

Khelat, sultanate of, 828, 627, 681. 

Khodavend-Kiar. province, 628. 

Khorasan, 276, 826. 

Khowaresm, state o^ 276, 627, 687. 

Khozario Sea (Caspian), 70. 

I (Suaiana), 211. 

Kibi-Mesr (mmo Egypt), 20^ 86« 

Kiel, in Holstein, SH, 408. 

grand-duchy, 802. 
Kildare, county, 288, 429. 
Killdara, monastery, 141. 
Kildrummie, castle, 486. 
Kilkenny, 288. 
Klmolos, island, 861. 
Kincardine, 436. 
King'a Path, near Bergen, 29T. 
King's Crag, near Fife, 486. 
Kingshom, 436. 
Kinnesrin (ChalcisX 204 
Kidlen mountains, 228. 
Kiptshak, 276. 
Kirchberg, 627. 
Kirdkuh, castle of; 864 
Kirkwall, 4S1. 
Kis-Kunszag, district, 66a 
Kisil Irmak, river, 626, 681. 
KissoB (TshesmeX 629. 
Kitharizon, 266u 
Klagenfhrt, 626. 
Klausenbuiv, 662. 
Kliasma, river, 802. 
Kobi, desert, 687. 
Kockel, river, 661. 
Kodia-Ill, province, 628. 
K5nig8beis, city, 882, 408. 
K5nigsfelden, nunnery, 662. 
Korfis, oomitat, 550. 

river, 668. 
Kohestan, 277. 

Kolchis, on the £nphTate^ 266. 
Kolimbria. See Coimbra. 
Koiomleh, near Jerusalem, 840. 
Koloneia, fortress, 266. 
Kdos, comitat, 669. 
Kolosvar, 662. 

Komom. See Comom, 662, 667 
Koms, in Taberistan, 209, 277. 
KongeAae, river, 222, 296. 
KongagcMrd (royal residence), at Boe» 

kUde, 298. 
Kongfaelle, ibTtress^ 228. 
Kon^(Konieh). See Iconium. 
Konur, castle, 682. 
Koord, castle, 846. 
Koron, city, 196, 866, 868, 869, 607, 621. 

bishopric, 857. 
Koroneia, castle ol^ 866. 
Korselitze, Yendic settlement in J>nr 

mark. 298. 
Korsholm, castle, 801, 442. 
Korthoba. See Cordova. 
Kortryck (Courtray), 467. 
Knoc-tnadth, 428. 
Knowno, 462. 

Korecz, principalis, 461. . 
Ko^ island, 267, 862. 
Koseir, dty of, 866. 
Kosovo, in the Morea* 196. 
Koflsowa, in Servia, 867, 666, 868. 
KoMowo-Po\Je, 666. 



Kosns, In BfTpt, WL 

Konndoora, in the Morea, d66, 

Konrland, principality, 80{^ 

Krain. SeeCamiola. 

KrakoTa, province, 666. 

Krakau (Oaoow), 260, 818, 460. 

Knriewoa. 670. 

EnUowa, in Seryia, 660. 

Kramitze, 298. 

Krapak, mioant, 656. 

KraasoTa, oomitat, 668. 

Kraszna, comitat, 668. 

Eremsier, 616. 

Ercml, castle of Moboow, 467. 

Erogen (Etelnore), 298. 

Eronjstadt, in Transylvania, 661. 

Emschevacz, 666l 

Erzemieniec, city, 461. 

KubbO-M-Sukhrah (Dome of the BockX 

on Mount Moriah, 889. 
Enbina, principality, 408L 
Eaditze, 298. 
Enklilo, comitat 669. 
Ensenacht, castle, 662. 
Enfiitein, fortress, 627. 
Efbrfin-el-Hattin, 889, 848. 
Enfah, 207, 274 
Eala'at-Anosor, 256. 
Enmania, 816, 660. 
Ennobitza, defile, 669. 
Eur (Cyrus), river, 208. 
Enrdistan, 20& 
Kurkendsh, 276. 
Eur-Saohsen, 898, 618. 
EuBtryn, province, 812. 
Enitenbeiv, 616. 

Eybistra, 266. • 

Eyburg, county of, 896, 698, 648, 649, 668. 
Eyllene (Glarenza), in EUs, 86a 
KvK\<»fiioy (Seven Towers), at CJonstan- 

tinople, 7, 68& 
Eypsellae, 682. 
Eyrialand, 442. 

Kyriala (Carella), in Finnland, 228, 801. 
Eyriala-Bottn (Finnic Gulf X 226, 801, 878. 
EythnoB, island, 622. 

Laaland, island, 298, 87a 
Labeatis Lacas (of Scodra), 6, 86, 624. 
Labnta, mount, 277. ^ 

Lacedtemon (Sparta), 196, 269, 866, 867, 

858, 607, 626. 
Ladoga, lake oi; 226, 801. 
Ladon, valley of the, 86a 
Lafnitz, river, 666, 
Lagenia (Leinster), 100, 219. 
Lagoons of Venice, 272, 60a 
Lagos, in Algarve, 682. 
Lagosta, island, 664. 
Lahn, river, 687. 

La Mancha (Manxa), 816, 668, 692. 
La-Marche, county, 240, 469, 480, 489. 
La-Marche, in Brittany, 89& 
Lambeth Moor, 484. 
Lambro, river, 407. 

Lamego, 816, 680. 
Lamia i^ituni), 269, 866, 879. 
Lampsakoe, 268, 629. 
Lam^r, castle, 279. 846, 864 
Lamtuna, desert of, 674, 646. 
Lanark, county, 28a 
Landen, castle of; 162, 171. 
Landau, 644 

Landes, in Gascogne, 481. 
Landscrona, on the Neva, 442b 
Landshut, capital, 898, 627. 
Langeland, island, 878. 
Langholm, border oastle, 28a 
Langres, bishopric of; 892. 
Languedoc county, 470, 480, 49a 
Laodicffia, in Phiygia, 20, 264^ 629. 
Laodlcsea, in Syria, 846. 
Laon, city, 114 807, 489. 

" county, 281. 

« bishopric, 888, 890. 
Laos (Aous, Voioussa), riyer in Albania, 

270, 624 
Lapmark (QainlandX Sa 
Largs, 487. 
Larissa,89, 87a 
Lamaca (Eition), 860. 
La-Soche-Derien, 470. 
Las Navas de Tolosa, 691 
Lateran, in Bome, 8ll. 
Latium Yetus, 6a 
La Tour, seigneury of, 889, 
La Tour d'Anvergne, county, 601. 
La Trappe, monastery, 890. 
Lattes, seigniory, 698. 
Lauder-Bridge, 48a 
Laudun, seisniory, 602. 
Laudunum (Lnon), II4 181. 
Lauenberg, in Pomerania, 686. 
Lauenburg, on the Elbe, county, 877. 

duchy, 68a 
Laupen, 668. 
Laureacum (Lorch), 4a 
Laurembnig, 687. 

AavpfoKor, palace in Constantinople, T. 
Lausanne, 244 400, 418, 64a 

** bishopric, 401. 
Lausitz (Lttsatift), 812, 6ia 
Laval, 607. 

Layellnm, county, 822. 
LavemA, monastery, 422. 

Lazica (Colchis), 62a 
Leblda, in Africa, 64a 
Lebus, 517. 
Le$a, castle, 679. 
Lechfield, 268, 
Lectoure, viscounty, 241. 
** bishi^c, 891. 
Leftro (Leuctron), castle, 86a 
Leghorn, 40a 
ZegaHoneSy districts of the Oariorloglan 

miMi, 170. 
Legnano (Llgnannm), 406. 
Lehister (Lagenia), lOa 
Leipzig, 619. 



L6ti«,10«. 190.9291 

Leitha, river, 8H<iM. 

Lemui, lake, 00. 

Lemberg. See LeopoUs. 

Le-Mans, bishopric oC 890. 

Lemnofi, ialand, 22. 861, 859, 870^ 871, 010, 

Lenczyc proTinoe, 812, 449. 
LenzbnnL county, 890, 548. 
Leon, kingdom, 218, 265, 281, 687, 688, 690, 


city of; 81, 817. 
Leondari (TeligoeU), in the Morea 86a 
Leonina CivUoB (sabarb of Borne), 262b 
Leopolia, 461, 608. 

•' archiepiacopaoy, 671. 
Lepanto. See rianpactoa. 
Le-Pays-Cbaitrain, 476. 
Lepontine Alps, 651. 
Lepta Magna (Lebida), 01. 
Lerida aierda), 818. 886, 696, 697. 

** Dish<»ric, 890. 
Lero, island, 802. 
^ Lesboe, island, 22, 851, 862, 870, 022. 
Lescar, bishopric (^ 891. 
Lesina, island, 828. 
Lesser Burgondy, 889. 
Lethmborg (Leire), lOOw 
Leuchtenbenr, 621. 
Leacosia (Nicosia), 207, 860. 
Leakas (Lencadia, Santa Maura), 270. 

'^ duchv, 800, 019, 021. 
Leawarden, 497. 
Leyden, 497. 
Leyria, 574, 677, 68t 
I/ewes, 484k 

Llburnia (Dafanatia), 40, 187. 
Libya, proyince, 17. 
licbfleld, bishopric, 488. 
Lichtberg, county, 1S4&. 
Lichns (L«ch, riveri 101, 26& 
Liebaa, 882. 

Ll^e (Lfittich), bishopric, 400, 497. 
Liegnitz, 812, 610. 
Lieve, river, 407, 
Idger (LoireX river, 165. 
Llgeris (Liza, Lys), river, 181, 407. 
Llgny, in the Barrels, 488. 
Llgaria (Cisalpine GanlX 61, 168. 
Liimf jord, 82, 222. 
Lika, conniy, 568. 
Lilybceum (Marsala), 58, 181. 
Liniburg, county, in Lorraine, 400, 497, 

Limbnrg, county, in WArtemberg, 642. 
Limerick, 219, 28a 
LimfS DanicuSy 222. 
Limss SorabiciUy 249. 
Limevan, castle, 429. 
Llmisso (Limasol), 860, 802. 
Limmat, river, 662. 
Limoges, viscounty of, 240, 472. 

*' bishopric, 891. 
Limosin, province, 114, 898, 472. 
Lincoln, bishopric, 488. 
Llndau. on the lake of (Donstance, 544 
Lindonholm, castle, 488* 

TJndlirfkmcs monaeteiy, 290^ 488. 
Lindorca, abbey, 480. 
Lindoe, on Bhodea, 802, 028. 
LlnkOping, bishopric, 489. 
Lippe, coxmty, biH. 

riVM^, 7«K 

Lippeepring, 174. 

Lipto, ooo^t, 657. 

Liris (GarigUano), river, 107, Ola 

Lis, river, 681. 

Lisbon (Lisboa), 408, 577, 661. 

u patriarchate, 66a 

bishopric oil 890. 
Lissa, Island, 828. 
Lissos. See Aleasia 
Litany (Leontes), river, 844 
Lithuania, grand duchy, 802, 806, 870, iSt 
UUorals of Dalmatia, 50a 
Livadia, castle in Greece, 85a 
Turkish Sanc^ao, 084 

Livonia, 805. 877, 879, 454 
Llvomo (Leghorn), 828» 420, 012. 
Livadia, province, 034 
Lixbona. See Lisbon. 
Llandafl; bishoprio, in Wales. 488. 
Llery, county, 697. 
Loches, city, 479. 
Loch Etach (Lake Nealli), loa 
Loch Leven, castle, 48a 
Lodeva (Loddve), 124 49a 
Dishopric ot 392. 
Lodi (LaudaX repnbUc, 828» 406^ 408» 412. 

Lodomeria (Halicz), 461, 60a 
Ldban, 449. 
Lowen. See Lonvaln. 
Lowenstein, county, 642b 
L(»lano, county, 410. 
Lqfa (Uipula LausX in Andalusia, 004 
Lomagne, viscounty of, 241. 
Lombard Einfidom. 162, 186, 851, 811, 40a 
" duchy of Beneventum, 186; SSI* 

252, 27a 
Lombardia Minor, 180, 27a 
Lomb^ bishopric, 510. 
LomelUno, countr, 40a 
liomnicza, battlefield o( 6ia 
London (Londinium), 71, 78, 40a 

•* bishopric 48a 
Longobardia Minor (Terra dl BariX ISa 
Longomeria, 660. 
LonguevlUe, counts, 494 
Lorch (Laureacum), 48. 
Lorraine, duchy o( 228, 240, 400^ 608, 82!^ 

Los Toros de Gulsando, ova 
Lothian, 292. 
Lonl^ 577, 68a 
Lonth, 429. 

Lou vain (Leuva), 248, 497. 
Lonviers, 490. 

Lower Lorraine (Netherlands), 629. 
Lowicz, principality, 449. 
Lowlands of Scotland, 287. 
Lowton, in York county, 484 



Lublin, Qnion-act at, 448, 46pi 

Lubosj province, 812. 

Lucania, proylnce, 67. ' 

Lncca, in Tuscany, 158, 405, 416, 419, 60«, 

Lncaa (Lnoca)^ in Saxony, 619. 

Lnceria (Liicer«), 57, 186, 261. 
Saracen colony at, 4StL 

Lnceme, 628, 649. 

Ln(on, bishopric, 510. 

Labeek, 295, 877, 898, 402, 408, 5^ 646. 
bishopric, 401. 

Luneburg^ free town, 402, 408, 588. 

Luneville, 629, 

LMtich. See Li^ge. 

Llitzelburg. See Lnzembiug. 

Lugano, lake of, 654, 609. 

Lugdunensifl I.— IV., provinces, 70l 

Logdunum (Lyons), 70. 

Lugo, bishopric, 698. 

Luimech (Limerick), 219. 

Lukoml, province, 462. 

Luleaa, 441. 

Luna, county, 697. 

Lund, in Skaane, 222. 

Lundegaard, arcbiepisoopal see of Den- 
mark, 298. 

Lundensis Provinda, 222, 293, 489 addenda. 

Lundenwyc (London), 104, 291. 

Lunistana (Lunigiana). district, 418, 417. 

Lusatia (Lausitz), 260, 809, 812. 

Lusitania, 66. 

Lutetia Parisiorum (Parish 70. 

Luxemburg, county, 248, 897, 400, 488, 

Lychnidus. lake, 824, 624, 

Lycaonia, 19, 886, 680. 

Lycia, 20, 827,629. 

Lydda, in Palestine, 840. 

Lydia, 21, 870, 629. 

Lyndinissa (Wolmaf), battle of, 877. 

Lynne, in Lincoln county, 484. 

Lyoe, island, 876, 877. 

Lyonnals, ooun^, 469. 

Lyons, city ot, TO, 182, 809, 469. 

archivescovate, 893. 

eounbr o^ 244^ 889, 469. 
Lys, river, 467, 

Hacali>, in Lombardy, 609, 

Macedonia, 86, 87, 194, 269. 

Kaoerata, bishopric, 616. 

Machou, banat of, 666. 

Macon (Mascon), county, 289, 486, 497. 

bishopric of, 892. 
Macra, river, 417. 
Madeira, isUnd, 578, 582. 
Maderaelo, 690. 
Madrid^O^argarita), In Castile, 266^ 816, 688, 

Madrigal, 592. 

Madrofio, 604. 

Mteandros (Mend^r^), river, 20, 264, 269. 

Mffilarn, 106, 190, 222, 440. 

Manus (Mayn), rlver^ 71, 163, 249, 260. 

Maen, oariOe in Palestine, 84S. 


Magdalona (Maguelonne), 124, 157. 

bishopric ot, 892. 
Magdeburg, 249. 

archbishopric, 40L 
Maglay, fortress, 685. 
Magliano, bishopric, 616. 
Magne6iaJ68, 629. 
Magnum Varadlum. See BeHarad. 
Magontiacum (Mainz), 71, 171. 
Maryyovpa, palace in Constantinople, 7. 
Ma^eb ifWestem Africa), 218, -214, 281, 

Maguelonne (Magalonpe), 124, 157. 
Magyar-Orzag (Hungary), 268, 814, 656. 
Mahadia (Kidrouan), kingdom, 281, 823, 

Mahadia, dfy near Algiers, 644 
Mahan, in Khbwaresm, 627. 
Mabel, at Nazareth, 848. 
Mahon, port, 66, 598. 
Maillezais, bishopric, 610. 
Maina. See ManL 

Maine, county of, 288, 887, 898, 466, 486, 602. 
Mainz (Magontia), 71. 

archbishopric 249. 
electorate, 618. 
Makran, province in Asia, 212. 
Makryplaghi, mount in Aj-cadia, ^1. 
Makri, in Lycia, 629. 
Malabar, coast of, 586, 641. 
Malaga (Malakka), 604. 
Malaspina, margraviate, ^8, 699, 611. 
Malatesta, county, 422. 
Malatia (Melitene), 25, 887, 842, 681. 
Maledictus Mons (Lesser Saint Bembard), 

Malik See Amalfl, 
Malamocco (Madamaucnm),' 272, 608. 
Malazkerd, 824. 
Malea, promontory, 269, 868. 
Malines, 497. 

Mallorca (Mayorca), kingdom, 698k 
Malo-Jaroslawez, 468. 
Malo-Bussia (BLalitch), 80a 
Malta (Melita), ishud, 822, 699. 
ItCalva. river 44 

Mambedsh (kierapolisX 12, 846, 847. 
Mamistra, 849. 
Man, island, 224, 800, 481. 
Manza. See La Mancha. 
Manffia Tower, in Siena, 418. 
Mangona, county, 416. 
Mani (Maina), 196, 269, 86& 
Mans (le), 116, 288, 807. 
Mansea (manors), subdivision of Carlo- 
Mavingian territories, 17a 
MansourKb, on the Nile, 866. 
Mansura (Scindy), 212. 
Mantes, county, 488. 
Mantua, 405, 412. 
Maqueda, 316, 690. 
Marasch, Germanlcla, on Mount AmamUk 

Marathon, 825. 

Marca AnoonensiN 811, 422, 618. 
Marca Andegavensis, 180. 



lena, nonnerj at Jeroflalem, 

Marca ATailea, 187. 

Marca Bohemioa (NordnuX 188L 

Morca Hiapa&lea ( Gothte), 164 

Marca OriontaUa, 179, 188, 8B0, 62& 

Marea Navarrensia, 257. 

Marca SliasTrk, 949. 

Marca Sorablca, 188. 

Marca Trevlflaiia, 414 

Marca YasconeDslB, 174 

Marca Windoram (Windlwhe Mark! 188> 

Marbaig, ca|}ital, 618, 54a 

March (MoraTaX river, 8H 559. 

Marchfeld, 890, 524 

Mardana SOva (Black forest), 78. 

Marciant^llB, 81, ISa. 

Mardin, saltaaate ot 281, 828. 

Mare Cantabricom (Bay of Biscay), 25S. 

Maregard, castle, 84«. 

Maremme of Tuscany, 417, 418, 612. 

Marps VMorava), 88, 824, 666. 

Mariazell, 526. 

Marienbuigta, capital, 879, 881, 449. 
Marienwerder, 882, 449. 
Marida. Bee Merida. 
Marignano, 654 
Mariscus, river. Bee Maroa. 
Maritima, district, 422, 618. 
Maritza (fiebrus), river, 30, 858, 682L 
Marktn (commnnes), subdivision of Gar^ 

lovingian terriUnies, 170. 
MarLow, 878. 
Marmaros (Mannaroah), frontier pnyvinoe, 

814,560. r --. 

Marocca SeeMoroooa 
Maroa (Maroah), district, 659. 

river, 88, 258, 569, 560, 66t 
Marr, county, 2. 
MarnL castle, 846. 
Marsala (LHybsenm), 68, 181. 
ManeUles, 69, 147, 244, 809, 408. 

bishopric 0^ 892. 
Marta, river, ISST 
Martesana, district, 407. 
Mary-Ie-bone, 484 
Martigny, 651. 
Mascara, 644 
Maasa, 415. 

Masailia/ See MarseHlea. 
Masyad, castle, 864 
Mate>Grifon, castle, 868. 
Matesoo (Mascon), 70. 
Matrona Mons (Mont Gendvre), 51. 
Manpertuis, battie oi; 468, 472. 
Manrfto, csAtk, 686. 

Manrienne (Maurlana), county ^ 880, 418. 
Mauritania, 62, 65^ 
Mauron-Oross 626. 
Mawar-al-Nahr (Bogdiana), 212» 276^ 826, 

Mayence (Mainz), 71. 
Mayn (Main), river, H, 162, 249, 260. 
Mayorca (Palma), 66, 59a 
Maxima OiBsariensis, provinee, 78w 
Maxima Be^anonun, provtnoe, 71. 

Maaoa (OteaaNa), in Oappudoda, 26, 68L 

Mazaoderan, on the (Taflnuui, 909, 877. 

Mazara, in Armenia, 26& 

ICazovia, doc^, 812, 449. 

Mazzara (Val di), province In Sidly, 609. 

city, 699. 
Meath, in Ireland, 100, 219. 

county of, 288, 429. 
Meanx (Meldss), 115, 484 

bishopric, 89l 
Meeheln. See MaUnesi 
Mecklenburg; bishof^ic, 401. 

duchy, 692, 584 
Medchellet (Margaiito). See Madrid, 266>. 
Medenblio, 400. 
Media (MeathX kingdom in Iielaiid, 10(L 

Media, in Asia, 8, 809, 210. 
Medidna, county, 410. 
Medina-al-Nebi, 201. 
Medinaceli, 590. 
Medina-del-Campo, 690. 
Medlna-de'la-Oerda, county. 68& 
Medina-al-BaiaoL See Bagdad. 
Medina Sidonia, 687, eSsT^O. 
Medlolanum. See Milan. 
Mednikl, bishopric in Poland, 440. 
Medaana(Le Mans), 116. 
Megalopolis, 85a 
MeSwen (Misnia), 247, 6ia 

bishopric, 401. 
Mekhlne^ kingdom ot 19a 
Mekka, 197, 901, 
Melangda, 627. 
Mebutadir, 299, 
Melds (MeauzX 11& 
Medelpad, 441. 
Meldnnum (Melun), 116, 14& 
Meleda, island in the Adxiatio, 664 
Melegnano, 40a 

Melitene, on the Euphratea See Malatim 
MeUto^ dty in Calabria, 829l 
MeUta. See Malta. 
Mello, castle, 681. 
Melloria, island, 828, 417. 
Melphia (Melfl), 821. 
Mehroee Abbey, 288. 
Melun. viscounty of; 115, 88a 
Memel, dty, 882. 

river, (NiemenX22& 
Memphis, 16, 866. 
Memleben, 249. 
Mende, bishopric 891, 6ia 
Mend.^r6. Bee Maoandroa. 
Menevia (St DavidsX bishoprio, 4Sa 
Menlnx (Gerbes), island, 6L 
Menteeche, province, 628, 629, 
Mentz (MainzX archbishopric, 401« 
Meqnines (MiknasaX 214^ 646. 
Merakash. See Morocco. 
Meran, county of; 525. 
Meroato del (Carmine, at Naples, 4M. 
Merdi (Marc), dty, 474 
Merda, kingdom, 148, 289. 
Mergentheim, 468, 64a 
Meisuei], county, 94a 
Merida (Augosta-SmeritaX 194^ 816^ V(t 



Merlndadee, proyinees of KarantL 009, 
Mernifl, visoonntj in Scotland, 28l 
V/ Menebmrg, 2i^. 
' bishoprio, 401. 


Merr-al-Bad (Alexandria Muglflxia), 81& 
Mesembria (Mlflsivri), 68a 
M«(n}, Broadway of Constantinople, 7. 
Meaochaldion, in Pontns, 874 
Mesopotamia, 18, 205, 278, 847, 081. 
Mem&-fi^ of the Normans, 298. 
Mesrin, castle, 846. 
Messenia, 196, 269, 86a 
Messina, 40a 424, 699. 

archiepiscopacy, 617. 
Mescfatscbera, principality, 46a 
Metellino (Ltrsbos), island, 871, 622. 
Metqja, voivodat, 666 
l^etz (Mettis), 117, 147, 246. 60a 

archbiahopric, 400, 40l, 629. 

kingdom, 117. 
Mdtiovo, city, 87a 
Menlan, county, 285, 88a 
Mease (Mosa), river, 68, 80,167, 161,168, 

Michelow, territory, 46a 

Midalon, 264. 

liledniki, town in Samogitia, 462, 

Mies, 616. 

Miklenbnrff (Mecklenburg^ county, 877. 

Miknasa (Mequlnes), 646. 

Milab, in Barbary, 648. 

— ,42, 61, 162, r 


marquisate, 262^ 

archiepisoopacy, 417, 617. 

republic 405, 40a 

duchy, 606, 609. 
Miletus, 268, 629. 
Millerbaoh, district, 625. 
Milo (Melos), island, 861. 
Milyios-^ons (Ponte Molle), near Borne, 66. 
Milzieni, province, 812. 
Minco, county in Sicily, 699. 
Minden, bishopric, 401. 
Minerve (Menerbe), coun^, SIS. 
Minerbinum, county, 822. 
Mines in the Hartz, 249. 
Bosnia, 869. 
Dalmatia, 869. 
Karinthla, 62a 
Mingrelian mountains, 874 
Mino (Mlnho), river, 816, 678, 68a 
Minorca (Balearis Minor), island, 66, 69a 
Minsk, province, 462. 
Mirabel, seigniory, in Palestine, 842. 
Mirabtilla, fortress in Crete, 869. 
Miranda do Douro, 670. 
Miranda, on the Mondego, 674 
Mirande, in Oascony, 242. 
Mirandola, principality, 606, 611. 
Mirebalais, lordship, 6Cf2. 
Mirthola. See Mertola. 
Misericordia Dei, monastery, 891. 
Misithras (Mstnis), in Lakonia, 868, 625, 

Mtsnla. See Meissen. 
.Mlsar (Egypt), 866. 

Missr DakhfUat (Upper EgyptX 801 

Mlstretta, county, 699. 

Miszr (Memphis), 20a 

Mittel-mark, 898, 61T. 

Mocha (Muza,) in Arabia, 8, 20a 

Moclin, border castle, 604 

M6dena (Mutina), liombard duchy, 16a 

repubUc, 408, 411. 
Modica, 699. 
Modon, in the Morea, 858, 607, 621. 

bishopric, 857. 
Modmsch, bishopric, 571. 
Moen, island, 298, 87a 
Moere, river, 467. 
M51k, convent, 624. 
Molln, baUle at, 876, 877. 
More, in Norway, 190. 
Moesia, province, 81, 84 269. 
Mogador, 64a 
M(M^lena, 264 

Mohammedia. See Bagdad. 
Mohi, 885, 666, 562. 
Mohilew, province, 4Sa 
Molina, county, 688. 
Molissio, coun^, 82a 
Moldovlachia, 571. 
Moldavia, principality, 670, 68& 
Momonia (Munster), 100, 219. 
Mona (AnffloBea), island, 221. 
Monaco, 610. 

Moni4>ia Insula (Man), 221. 
Moncada, barony, 697. 
Monchique, mountains, 676^ 
Mondego, river, 266, 674, 58a . 
Mondonedo, bishopric, 69a 
Mondovi, 611. 

Monembasla, ibriresB, 860, 868, 007, 021 
Monforte, fortress, in PortugaL 680. 
Monforte, county, in Sicily, 699. 
Mongolistan, 886, 686. ^ 

Mbnsol empire, 885, 456, 460, 686, 689L 
Moijnich, castle of Barcelona, 697. 
Monreal, fortress, 697. 
Mons, in Hainaut, 497. 
Mons-en>Puelle, 4j07. 
Monsanto, castle, 670. 
Mons Ferrandus, 84& 
Mons Pelegrinum, 846. 
Mons Petrosus, monastoy, 891. 
Mons Begali8(BchobekX castie, 942. 
Monserrat, 597. 
M<MiBpilosus, county, 822. 
Montaille, 244 
Montalegre, 690. 
Montanban, bishopric, 5ia 
Montbrison, 469, 601. 
Montdidier, 49a 
Mont d*Or, 60L 
Monteaperto, 416, 420. 
Monte Casdoli, 4ia 
Monte Casino, 822l 
Monte Catlni, 420. 
Monte Cazorta, 004 
Montefeltns county o( 48a 
bishopric, 0ia 
Monteroor, 680. 
Monte-Murlo, 420. 
Monte Negro (Czemagon), 60a 



M(fntei!«aa, 476, 484. 

Monte Snmanoi, 4SXi. 

Monte VarchU 42a 

Montferrat, mazqoisate of; 252^ 400^ 608, 

Mootflchet. tower, 484. 
Montfoit, countj in Brittany, 488. 
Montfort, lordship in Syria, 844 
Montlbrt TAmanry, coan^, 806, 501 
Montih6ry, lordafaip of, 896. 

castle of, 609. 
Montiel, 69S. 

Montmartre, abbey, 46^ 48T. 
Montmedy, 497. 
Montmorency, 806, 488, 606. 
Montpellier, seigniory of, 248, 865, 498, 694. 

bishopric, 892. 
Montponsier, county, 600. 
Montreale, archlepiscopacy, 617. 
Montrenil, visoonnty, 464, 474 
Monaments of Pisa, 417. 
Monza, 162, 411. 
Monzon, 818, 697. 
Moorflelds of liondon, 484 
Mopsvestia. See Mamistra. 
Mora Steeii, in Sweden, 106. 
Morat (Marten), 418, 476. 
Moraya (Manrns), river, 824, 666. 
(March), river, 616, 666. 
Moravia, border-province^ 250, 809, 812, 

Morbihan, 470. 
Morea, peninsula, 196, 607. 

principality oi; 886, 866, 625. 

lyalet, 686. 
Morgamog (Glamorgaiuhire), 108. 
Moi^arten, 611, 664 
Morlah, mount, 204, 885. 
Morlsena, bishopric, 671. 
Moroo^ kingdom, 214, 884^ 574» 588, 642, 

Mortagne, cily md lordship, in Saintonge, 

Mortain, county, 400, 494 

Mortimer's Gross, 484 

Morven, peninsula of, 287. 

Mosa (Mense, MaasX river, 80, 167,162, 168, 

Moscovia of the Gzara, 457. 
Mosella, river, 168. 
Moehabk, principality, 468. 
Moskopolls, 624 
Moskow (Moscow), capital, 226, 804^ 467. 

principality, 808. 

grand duchy, 428, 466, 467. 
Moskwa, river, 804 
Mosony, comitat, 667. 
Mosque Al-Aksa, at Jerusalem, 889. 
Mosque of Omar, 204, 881,' 889. 
Mossbach, 820. 
Mossui (glneveh), 278, 880, 886, 888, 847. 

Mosynopolls, 868. 

Motercha (Tmutarakan), 226. 

Mondon, 418, 651. 

Moulin, capital, 460, 60t 

Mount Cenis, 418. 

Mount Hradistic, 515. I 

Mount Tabor, in Bohemia, 615. 

Mount Td>or, castle, in QhSieo, 84& 

Mount Zisca, 616. 

Moura, castle, 677. 

Moutier en Tarantaise, archbishopric 4ft« 

Mstislaw, dty, 466. 

Mncro (Mugronel valley, 65. 

Mudaqia, guli; 628. 

Muhldorf, near Amflngen, 511. 

Miihlhausen, 689, 661. 


Miimpelgard, county, 496, 628L 

Mfinster, bishopric, 249, 40t 

Mugello, 415, 416. 

Muglah (Hylarima), 629. 

Mulda, river, 686. 

Mull, island oi; 287. 


Multan, on the Indus, 212, 275. 

Munich (Munchen), 898, 527. 

Munkacs, fortress, 562. » 

Munster, in Ireland, 100. 

Mur, river, 626. 

Muradal, defile in Sierra Morena, tM. 

MurMher. See Murviedro. 

Murcia, kingdom, 888, 688, 60a 

Murg, river, 688. 

Muro, castle, 615. 

Mwo Storto of Belisarins, 189. 

Murom, city, 226. 

principality. 46a 
Murray (Moraviensis), diocese, 287. 
MurcuMd of Yenioe, 608. 
Mursa, on the Drave, 47. 
Murviedro (Saguntum), 820. 
Musaki, district in Upper Albania, 624 
Musara, near Cordova, 215^ 

Mutllgnano, county, 416. 
Mutlna. See Modena. 
Muztag, mount, 197, 829, 687. 
Mykoni, island, 859. 
Mylassa, 267. 
Myra, 20, 629. 
Myrleia, 264 

Mysia, in Asia Minor, 870. 
Myria (Moasia, Bulgarian provinoe, 26IL 
MzcisUw,voivodat,452. BeeMstiaUw. 

Nadniuen, district 880. 
Nafels, battle of; 512, 568. 
Nagy-Eunszag, district, 660. 
Nahr-Joba, river, 845. 
Nahr-el-Eebir, river, 845l 
Nahi el-Melk, river, 846. 
liTalsus, city, 84, 824 
Ni^ara, 267, 592. 
Nalon, river, 265. 
Namnete. See Nantes. 
Namur, marqulsate, 485, 496. 

county, 642. 
Nancy, capital, 496, 608, 600. 
Nantes, (Namnete), 111, 116^ 167, 470, 474 

bishopric, 890. 



K&nzianzos, in 
Naples (Neapolisi 
895, 408, 614. 

arcbiepiscopad;^, 617. 

dnchy, 168, 821. 

kingdom, 87^ 422, 428, 428, 614, 
Napulns (Naplas), ooonty at, 84S. 
Narbo MartiaB (Narbonae), 69. 
Narboneiisis, province, 69. 
Karbonne (Narbo Martina), 69, 157» 21& 
viscounty, 480. 
archiepiscopacy; 892, 610. 
Narenta, pirates' nest, 260, 272, 814. 
Narev, river, 449. 
Nam!, bishopric, 616. 
Sarva, 877, ^2, 408. 
Naraan, dty and castle, 687. 
Matangen, district, 806, 88a 468. 
Natis (NotoX in 8icilv, 822. 
Natolia (AnadoU), 825. 
Naumbnrg, bisfaopric, 401. 
Nanmdalen, 228. 

Nanpactus (Lepanto), 269, 872, 607. 
Nanplia (Napdi di Bomania), 196, 866, 868, 

Navarra, kingdom, 218» 267, 281, 818, 601, 

Navarrete, on the Ebro, 692. 
Navas de Toloea, 826, 691. 
Naviglio Grandey of Mflao, 407. 
Nazareth, 848. 
Kaxos, duchy o^ 886, 622. 
Neapolis (N^>lna), eitr, 842. 
Neapolis (Naples), 57. 
Ncaufle, lordship of; 604. 
Neckar, river, 109, 520. 
Negroponte (Enbcea), ooontv, 869, 607, €84w 
Neai Patrai (Patrachlk), 269, 866, 878, 691 

duchy, 694, 620. 
Nehevend, 210. 
Neisse, 516. 
Neithra, comitat, 667. 

bishopric, 671. 
Nemograd (Novgorod), 226. 
Nemours, duchy oi; 608. 
NeocsBsarea, 28, 264, 266. 
Neograd, comitat, 557. 
Neokastron, in Rhodes, 628L 
Nericanns Tractus, 67. 
Nerike, 226, 440. 
Nesbin (Nisibis), 205. 
Nestved, 29a 
Neta, river in Italy, 186. 
Netad rc^eutra), river in Hungary, 109% 122. 
Netherlands under Burgundy, 497, 498. 
Nev^rs, county, 289, 467, 48^ 496. 
Neville^s Gross. batUe o^ 484. 
Netze, river, 812. 
Nenburg, in Bavaria, 627. 
Neubnrg, nearYienna, 624. 
NeuchAtel, county, 496, 606, 661. 
Neumark, district, 880, 617. 
Neu-Sohl, mininff district, 660. 
Neustria, in Lonibardy, 162. 

geustria, in France, 146, 164, 167, 180l 
entra (Netad), 109\ 

Newark, Lfnoolnshire, 484 
Newcastle, on the Tyne, 286. 
Newcastle, in Ireland, 429. 
Ne^Epirus, 270. 
New-Forest, 484. 

New-Grodek. See Nowo-Grodek. 
Nezib, castle, 847. 
Nicaria, island, 871, 610, 622. 
Nicna, 28, 264, 825, 861, 62& 
Nichapur, 212, 886. 
Nicomedia, 28, 266, 826, 62a 
Nloopolls (Prevesa), in Epims, 88, 279. 
Nicopolis, in Bulgaria, 867, 669, 626^ 685. 
NicoSa,850. » -.